Soccer
History
1904
The Federation International de Football Association (FIFA) was formed in Paris on May 21. Charter members
included: France, Belgium, Denmark, Netherlands, Spain, Sweden and Switzerland. The International Board, the
authority over the rules and their interpretation continued under the jurisdiction of England, Scotland, Ireland and
Wales, even though they were not affiliated with FIFA. The Olympic Games of 1904 in St. Louis included soccer
as an official Olympic sport where club teams competed under the national team banner. FIFA did not become
active in Olympic soccer until 1908.
1914
The United States Football Association (USFA) was incorporated under the laws of the state of New York, May
30, and was granted full membership in FIFA at the annual congress at Oslo, Norway, June 24.
1941
The National Soccer Coaches Association America of America (NSCAA) was organized by 10 coaches
attending the annual meeting of the intercollegiate Soccer Football Association of in New York.
1982
The United States made a formal bid to host the 1986 FIFA World Cup. The MISL season opened with 14
teams, including three teams participating for a season from the NASL (San Jose, Chicago and San
Diego). The National Soccer Hall of Fame and Museum opened in the Wilber Mansion, Oneonta, NY.
1999
In front of over 90,000 fans at the Rose Bowl in Pasadena, CA, the United States
Women's National Team won the 1999 Women's World Cup by playing China to a 0-0 tie
through regulation and overtime and then defeating them 5-4 on penalties.
2002
The United States Men's National Team advanced to the quarterfinals at the 2002
FIFA World Cup in Korea/Japan, the team's best World Cup showing since 1930. The
United States shocks the world with a stunning 3-2 opening game upset of Portugal
before eventually finishing in second place in Group D.
Rules of the game
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Basic soccer rules are pretty simple to follow, the team that scores the most goals wins!
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Each team will consist of 11 starting players of which there is one goalkeeper and 10 outfield
players. The game will be played on a soccer pitch and the field dimension will normally be just
over 100 yards long although it could be shorter if it is a youth soccer game.
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Soccer teams are normally split into formations consisting of defense, goalkeeper and forwards.
Each team will also nominate a captain although this role is not as significant as other sports such
as cricket and rugby. The captain will start the game by tossing a coin with the referee and the
winning captain has the option of selecting which way their team will shoot. This can be an
advantage if there is a strong wind which could change direction by the time the teams reach the
second half.
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Soccer games consist of two halves lasting 45 minutes each although injury time is often added
by the referee to cover any stoppages. If the game is a cup tie, a world cup final for example then
extra time will be played consisting of an extra two 15 minute periods. If the teams are still level at
this stage the game will develop into a penalty shoot with each team nominating 5 penalty kick
takers who will try and beat the goalkeeper from the penalty spot (12 yards) until one team wins.
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During the game the referee has the power to caution players and issue yellow and red cards.
Yellow cards are issued for minor or a serious of fouls by the same player which results in a
booking, however if two yellow cards are issued then this equals a red card and the offending
player is sent off the field.
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A straight red card can be also be issued for serious foul play or denying an opponent a goal
scoring opportunity. Each team has to have a minimum of 7 players on the field so if one team
have more than 5 players sent off then the game would be abandoned, this is very rare but has
happened a few times in violent games!
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One of the most important basic rules of soccer is the offside rule which basically prevents
attacking players from gaining an unfair advantage as when a pass is made there has to be 2
opposition players closer to the goal than the attacking player. If the attacking player is level with a
defender then he is still onside so play continues. The referee has two assistants (previously
known as linesman) on either side of the field to help judge the offside rule.
Field and Equipment
Free kicks
When one team is penalized, the other usually gets a "free kick". There are 2
types of free kicks (direct & indirect) and a special type of Direct Free Kick
called a Penalty Kick:
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Direct Free Kick - Where a goal may be scored by kicking the ball directly
into the opponent's goal without anyone else touching it (although it still
counts if someone else does touch it).
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Indirect Free Kick - On which a goal may be scored only if another player
touches the ball before it enters the goal. Question: "How do you know if a
free kick is indirect?" Answer: "The referee will raise his arm above his head
and leave it up until the ball is kicked". On an indirect kick you should have
one player gently tap the ball so another player standing behind the ball can
kick it; or pass it to someone who shoots it. If on an Indirect Free Kick the
ball is kicked into the goal without anyone else touching it (other than the
kicker) the goal does not count and the other team is awarded a goal kick.
However, if the ball is touched by a player on either team, including the
goalkeeper, before it goes into the goal, the goal counts.
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Penalty Kick - When a player commits a foul within his own Penalty Box,
which would normally result in a Direct Free Kick, the other team is given a
Penalty Kick ("PK"). On Penalty Kicks, everyone but the kicker &
goalkeeper must stay out of the Penalty Box until the kicker moves the ball.
Fouls- Direct kicks
Direct Kick Fouls
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For which the other team receives a "direct free kick" (meaning a goal can be scored by kicking
the ball straight into the goal) or a "penalty kick" ("PK") if the foul occurs within the Penalty Box
(Note: It doesn't matter whether the ball was in the Penalty Box or not; what matters is where the
foul was committed). There are 10 direct kick fouls. The rules say that the referee should call a
foul for numbers 1 thru 6 if he believes they are committed in a manner he considers "careless,
reckless or using excessive force“. The fouls are as follows;
1. kicking or attempting to kick an opponent. Accidentally kicking an opponent while tackling the ball
is not a foul unless it was careless, reckless, or there was excessive force. If a player slide tackles
from the front, it will be considered at least "dangerous play" (which is an indirect kick foul), or
kicking, or tripping, or "unsporting behavior", even if the ball is contacted, since it would at the
least be reckless or dangerous. (See "Cards, Red Card, Serious Foul Play")
2. tripping or attempting to trip an opponent (if careless, reckless or using excessive force),
3. charging into an opponent (the goalkeeper can also be called for this if his action is careless,
reckless or uses excessive force),
4. striking or attempting to strike an opponent (if careless, reckless or using excessive force),
5. pushing an opponent, including the goalkeeper (if careless, reckless or using excessive force),
6. jumping at an opponent in a careless or reckless manner or using excessive force (this includes
jumping for a header if an opponent is carelessly or recklessly bumped, and jumping at the
goalkeeper),
7. blatant holding or pulling (including holding clothing, using any part of the body to hold an
opponent & "Sandwiching"),
8. making contact with an opponent before touching the ball when tackling an opponent to gain
possession of the ball (Note: it is always a foul if the tackler contacts the ball handler before
touching the ball. However, it can still be a direct kick foul if the ball is touched first but the tackler
was "careless, reckless, or used excessive force" and was judged to have kicked, tripped,
charged or jumped at the ball handler. Or, if the Referee believes the tackler played in a
"dangerous manner", an indirect kick can be awarded),
9. spitting at an opponent, even if it doesn't hit the opponent (this is grounds for a Red Card),
10. deliberately handling the ball (a "hand ball" should not be called if a player is instinctively trying to
protect himself from injury or if the ball hits the hand while it is in a natural position near the
players side and has not been moved toward the ball, this does not apply to the goalkeeper inside
his own penalty area.
Fouls-Indirect kicks
Indirect Kick Fouls
For which the other team receives an "indirect free kick" (meaning a goal only counts if another player touches
the ball before it enters the goal). The indirect free kick is taken from where the offense occurred.
Four that apply to all players:
1. "Dangerous Play" (or playing in a dangerous manner) is any action by a player that in the judgment of the
Referee is dangerous to himself or to another player and that isn't a "direct kick foul" such as tripping. Examples
would be a high kick when an opponent is nearby, or if a player tries to head a low ball that an opponent is trying
to kick, then the player who is putting himself in danger would be guilty of dangerous play. Another example would
be any action that might endanger the goalkeeper within the Penalty Box. If the goalkeeper and an opponent both
go for a loose ball, the Referee will tend to favor the goalkeeper if there is a collision. It isn't necessary for
someone to be hurt for dangerous play to be called. For example, slide tackling with spikes high would be
dangerous play, even if the opponent isn't contacted. However, a dangerous act (such as a high kick) isn't
"dangerous play" unless an opponent is nearby.
2. "Impeding the Progress of an Opponent". Generally, a player cannot use his body to impede another players
movements, even if it is not deliberate. This can be called if a player is not within "playing distance" of the ball (i.e.,
3 feet) and block's an opponent's movement or screens an opponent from the ball. However, if a player is within
playing distance & able to play the ball (meaning not laying on the ground), the player can legally screen an
opponent from the ball. (You usually see this when a ball is going out of bounds & the player whose team will get
the throw-in screens the opponent so the opponent can't save the ball). Impeding the progress of an opponent
used to be called "obstruction". The rule also applies to "innocently" impeding the goalkeeper by standing in front
of him when he has the ball.
3. Preventing the goalkeeper from releasing the ball from his hands. A player who attempts to prevent the
Goalkeeper from putting the ball into play by standing directly in front of the Goalkeeper can be called for breaking
this rule or for "unsporting behavior", in which case both a Yellow Card & an indirect kick would be awarded.
4. Any time a yellow or red card is shown & a direct kick isn't awarded (e.g., for "unsporting behavior",
"dissent", persistently breaking the rules, and offensive or threatening language; see "Cards" for a list of the many
types of unsporting behavior).
Four indirect kick fouls that only apply to the goalkeeper & only if committed inside the Penalty Box (the
goalkeeper is treated like a regular field player when he is outside the Penalty Box):
1. Taking more than six seconds while controlling the ball with his hands before releasing it (releasing it can
include throwing it, kicking it or dropping it to the ground and then kicking or dribbling it. Once released, it is
"live").
2. Touching the ball with hands after it is deliberately kicked to the Goalkeeper by a teammate. (Note: It is okay
to pick up an accidentally kicked ball or a pass from a teammate that isn't "kicked" but is made using the
head, chest, knee, etc.).
3. Touching the ball with hands on a throw-in from a teammate (i.e., the goalkeeper can't pick up a throw-in
from a teammate).
4. Intentionally handling the ball again after he has released it and it has not touched any other player (e.g.,
dropping the ball, dribbling it and then picking it back up). Read b.2 and b.3 above. The Goalkeeper can only
handle it again after an opponent touches or if it is accidentally kicked back or if it is headed or chested back
by a teammate. He can't pick it up if a teammate has intentionally kicked or thrown it to him.
Player positions
Advanced Soccer Positions Terms
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Attacking Midfielder – The midfielder that plays
right behind the forwards; they support the offense
by providing passes to forwards to set up goals.
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Central Defender – A player who guards the area
directly in front of their own goal, often considered
the strongest defender.
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Central Forward – A team's best-scoring forward
who plays towards the center of the field.
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Central Midfielder – The midfielder most
responsible for organizing play in the midfield area,
creating scoring opportunities for the attackers, and
often a team's leader.
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Defensive Midfielder – The player positioned just
in front of their team's defense and often assigned
to mark the opposition's best offensive player; tends
to play more defense as a midfielder.
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Finisher – A forward or striker who has the ability to
"put away" or score when opportunities are given to
them.
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Halfback – Same as a midfielder.
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Stopper – The player that defends or guards the
best scorer on the attacking team, often the
opposition's striker.
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Wingers – The outside forwards and midfielders
(often the fastest players and best dribblers) who
play on the sides of the field. Their primary task is to
provide them with accurate crossing passes so they
can shoot at the goal.
Basic Soccer Position Terms
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Backs – Refers to defenders.
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Defender – A player who works mainly in the
defensive third of the field. They are primarily
focused on stopping the opposition’s attackers from
scoring.
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Forward – A player who is responsible for most of a
team's scoring. They play in front of the rest of their
team (or in the attaching third of the field) where
they can take most of the shots.
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Fullback – a rear defender.
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Goalie – Abbreviation for Goalkeeper.
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Goalkeeper – I bet you know this one. The player
positioned directly in front of the goal who tries to
prevent shots from crossing the goal line; the only
player allowed to use their hands and arms, though
only within the 18-yard penalty area.
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Keeper – Abbreviation for Goalkeeper.
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Midfielder – A player generally positioned in the
middle third of the field between the forwards and
defenders. Their job is to link the defense and the
offense through ball control and passing. They play
both an attacking role and a defensive role.
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Striker – Generally the same as a forward, though
it sometimes refers to a forward that is his team’s
primary scoring threat.
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Sweeper – Not always used. In some formations, a
single defender that plays closest to their own goal
behind the rest of the defenders; a team's last line
of defense in front of the goalkeeper.
Formations (systems of play)
The 4-4-2
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England used the 4-4-2 formation en route
to securing its first and only World Cup title
in 1966. A forward is moved into the
midfield, putting a lot more pressure on the
two players up front to score goals. Saying
that, the 4-4-2 is one of the preferred
formations of today's modern game. The
theory in using another player in the midfield
is that it bottles up the opposition in the
midfield before they can get to the attacking
third.
The 4-3-3
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Many North American Soccer League teams
used the 4-3-3 formation in the 1970s,
moving one midfielder up to the forward
position. Everything is relative. This
formation, which utilized a sweeper (free
safety), was considered more defensive
than the 4-2-4. But compared to today's
more cautious approach, the 4-3-3 would be
considered an attacking formation in some
quarters.
Formations (systems of play) continued
The 4-2-4
The 4-2-4 formation is the most offensive-minded in
modern times. The 1958 world champions of Brazil,
with 17-year-old Pelé, made this strategy famous and
made it work. To take advantage of this formation, you
must have talented and skillful midfielders and forwards
to strike early and hold the ball for long periods of time
because the pressure is on the midfield and defense
big time when the opposition possesses the ball.
The 3-5-2
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Today's game is won or lost in the midfield,
which is why the 3-5-2 formation is popular.
A team that doesn't have its midfield
operating at peak efficiency suffers in ball
possession and scoring chances. So, many
coaches like to use as many as five
midfielders, although two outside midfielders
may have more defensive responsibilities
than their mates.
Passing and Receiving
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The Inside-of- the- foot pass
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Have the player face the target & "square up" so he, ball & the
target are in a straight line.
Place the "plant" foot about 4" from the side of the ball,
pointing toward the target. (The direction the plant foot points
is important because that is the direction the hips will face; try
it). The plant foot can be toward the middle or back of the ball,
whichever the player prefers.
Head over ball, looking down; both knees slightly bent.
Teach the proper motion by first having the player place his
striking foot flat against the back of the ball (about 5" above the
ground) and pushing the ball toward the target and following
through toward the target. (A push & follow-through; not a jab.
Think of a tennis serve. However, jabbing a 1-touch pass is
okay).
Be sure he contacts the ball with his toes pulled up (i.e., with
the foot parallel to the ground) & the ankle locked. Make
contact with the arch, below the anklebone & follow through
toward the target so the ball has top spin.
Then, have him do the same, except start one step back from
the ball, so the player, the ball & the target are in a straight
line. This step provides power to the pass. If the pass goes
into the air it means it was struck too low.
Receiving A Pass Using Inside-of-Foot:
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Receive the ball even with the toes of the plant foot
(or a little in front).
Stiffen or relax the receiving foot so the ball stops
about one step away (so you can quickly take one
step & strike it; it is this step that gives power to the
pass).
Be sure the receiving foot is 4" - 5" off the ground (if
too low the ball will pop up) & contact the ball on the
back part of foot (under the anklebone), not near
the toes. Pull the toes up so the foot is parallel with
the ground (not pointing downward). (If a player
can't remember to raise his foot, have him practice
by raising his foot higher than the ball & then
bringing the foot down in front of the ball to stop it.
This will help him to remember).
If you want the ball to go to the left or right (instead
of straight in front) you must angle your foot &
contact the ball more in front or behind, depending
on whether you want it to go left or right.
Throw-ins
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Secure the ball with both hands, ensure that the index fingers and thumbs
are as close as possible (almost forming a "W" or "U" shape with fingers on
the ball). Fingers should be spread to maintain control of the ball.
Bring the ball over the head behind the ears with your arms loose and
elbows bent and flared out.
Stand with your feet a little more than shoulder-width apart with one foot in
front of the other (start at a standstill first, then add 1 step, then 2, and so
on). If you prefer, place your feet parallel, shoulder-width apart.
Face the field.
Bring your head, neck, shoulders and trunk back, bending at the knees.
Thrust the ball forward resulting in your entire body going forward. Parts of
both feet must remain on the ground at all times, behind or on the
touchline.
Release the ball as it just goes past the head.
Soccer Terms
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Attacker- the player with possession of the ball
Advantage-law permitting a referee to recognize a fouls but not call it and allow the game to continue if he feel it
is in the best interest of the player who was fouled.
Center Line-the halfway line drawn across the center of the field
Chop or cut-a deliberate change of direction with the ball.
Challenge-when a defender tries to steal the ball from the attacker.
Chip-when a ball is kicked using a stabbing motion which lofts the ball over the opponents head..
Collecting- the technique of receiving a ball from the air or the ground and then bring it under control to put the
ball back into play.
Corner Kick- A direct free kick taken from the corner. It happen when the ball goes across the goal line and was
last touched by a defender.
Cover- A defensive concept to help back up a fellow defender putting pressure on the ball.
Cross-when a ball comes across the field from a sideline towards the goal.
Direct Free Kick- A free kick that can be shot on goal without the ball being touched by another player.
Dribbling- using touches with your feet to control the ball.
Far Post- the goal post furthest from the ball.
Feinting- AKA fake. A deceptive move to fool an opponent
Goal Kick- A goal kick is taken by the defending team when the ball goes over the goal line and was last touched
by an offensive player.
Goal Line/End Line- The boundary line at each end of the field where the goals are.
Hand Ball- The INTENTIONAL use of the hands by a field player. The result is a direct free kick.
Indirect Free Kick- A free kick that cannot score with out first being touched by another player.
Juggling- the skill of keeping the ball in the air your feet and other various parts of the body.
Marking- the defensive concept of guarding another player
Offside-when a receiver of a pass is positioned on his opponents half of the field with less than two defenders
between him and the end at the moment the ball is passed.
One Touch Passing or Shooting- To pass or shoot on the first touch of the ball.
Over lap- when a player runs around and ahead of the ball for a pass.
Pitch- a soccer field.
Pressure- refers to a defender putting pressure on his opponent with the ball
Push Pass- a pass using the side of your foot keeping the ball close to the ground.
Shielding-a technique where the player with the ball positions his body between the ball and the defender.
Striker- a player whose primary duties is to work the attacking half of the field
Sweeper-a player positioned behind the fullback and in front of the goalie. He has the freedom to play on either
side of the field..
Tackling- Using your feet to steal the ball from an opponent
Touchline- The lines at the side of the field
Soccer Worksheet
1. What happened to the game of Soccer in 1999?
2. What does F.I.F.A. stand for?
3. What happened to the game of Soccer in 1914?
4. When was the U.S.Y.S.A. formed and what does it stand for?
5. What are the dimensions of a Soccer field?
6. What happens when the ball travels out over the end line?
7. What happens when the ball travels out over the sideline?
8. The penalty area has five rules you must follow, what are they?
9. When is a kickoff used in the game of soccer?
10. What is the difference between a direct kick and an indirect kick?
11. What are the six fouls that result in a direct kick?
12. What are the five fouls that result in an indirect kick?
13. What are the two systems of play for a strong offensive set up?
14. List the basic player positions used in the game of soccer.
Draw and label a field with the systems of play, important lines and correct player positions:
15. 2-3-5
16. 5-3-2
17. 3-3-4
18. 4-4-2
Questions 19-30
Define the following terms:
Advantage, Challenge, Far post, Hand ball, Juggling, Offside, Over Lap, One-touch Pass,
Pressure, Shielding , Tackling, Touchline
Work cited
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http://www.soccerhall.org/history/us_soccer_history.htm
http://www.soccerhelp.com/Overview.shtml
http://www.soccersaurus.com/index.asp?PageAction=VIEWCATS&Category=35
http://www.soccerhelp.com/Soccer_Field_Diagram.shtml
http://www.soccerhelp.com/Soccer_Tips_Dictionary_Terms_F.shtml#fouls
http://www.dummies.com/WileyCDA/DummiesArticle/id-644.html
http://www.soccerhelp.com/Soccer_Positions_Basics.shtml
http://www.soccer-for-parents.com/soccer-positions.html
http://ezinearticles.com/?Basic-Soccer-Rules&id=256493
http://www.coachingsoccer101.com/glossary.htm
http://www.sportsknowhow.com/soccer/dimensions/soccer-dimensions.html
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