THE CHARTER OF THE
UNITED NATIONS
Unit 26
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History
Origins of the Charter
Charter of the UN
Purposes of the UN
Principles of the UN
Structure of the UN
First International Organizations
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1865 The International
Telecommunication Union
1874 International Telegraph
Union; Universal Postal Union
First International Peace
Conference
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1899 1st International Peace
Conference (The Hague):
1) the Convention for the Pacific
Settlement of International Disputes
and
2) the Permanent Court of
Arbitration (1902)
The League of Nations
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Established in 1919 under the Treaty of Versailles
“to promote international cooperation and to
achieve peace and security”
1919 The International Labour Organisation
created as an affiliated agency of the League
The League of Nations ceased its activities after
failing to prevent the Second World War
Dissolved in 1946; transferral of functions and
property to the UN
United Nations: Name
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The term UN was coined by Franklin
D. Roosevelt;
first used in the “Declaration by
United Nations” of 1 Jan. 1942 when
representatives of 26 nations
pledged their governments to
continue fighting together against
the Axis Powers
Origins of the UN Charter
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1941
1942
1943
1944
1944
The Atlantic Charter
Declaration by United Nations
The Moscow Conference
Dumbarton Oaks Proposals
Yalta conference
The Atlantic Charter
(14 Aug.1941)
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Principles laid down by President
Rosevelt and Prime Minister Churchill
The Charter did not contemplate the
establishment of an organization of
States to replace the League
The need of creating a collective
security system and establishing
strong economic and social
cooperation between the States
Declaration by United Nations
(1942)
Roosevelt, Churchill, Litvinov
(USSR),T. V. Soong (China) signed a
short document which later came to
be known as the United Nations
Declaration
representatives of 22 other nations
added their signatures.
Declaration by United Nations
(1942)
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The original 26 signatories: US, UK,
USSR, China, Australia, Belgium,
Canada, Costa Rica, Cuba,
Czechoslovakia, Dominican Republic,
El Salvador, Greece, Guatemala,
Haiti, Honduras, India, Luxembourg,
Netherlands, New Zealand,
Nicaragua, Norway, Panama, Poland,
Union of South Africa, Yugoslavia
Declaration by United Nations
(1942)
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This important document pledged the
signatory governments to the
maximum war effort and bound them
against making a separate peace.
Declaration by United Nations
(1942)
The Moscow Conference (1943)
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The Declaration of the Four Nations (U.S.,
Soviet Union, UK, China) recognized:
“the necessity of establishing ...a general
international organization, based on the
principle of the sovereign equality of all
peace-loving States and open to
membership by all such States, large and
small, for the maintenance of international
peace and security”
Dumbarton Oaks Proposals
(October 7, 1944)
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Representatives of the same 4
Governments met to lay down the
foundations of the future world
organization
Purposes of the Organization: to
maintain international peace and security,
develop friendly relations among nations,
promote cooperation in economic and
social matters
Basic organs: the Assembly, the Council,
the Secretariat, headed by the Secretary
General, and the Court of Justice
Dumbarton Oaks Proposals
(October 7, 1944)
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Another important feature:member
states were to place armed forces at
the disposal of the Security Council
in its task of preventing war and
suppressing acts of aggression.
The absence of such force -a fatal
weakness in the League of Nations
machinery for preserving peace.
Dumbarton Oaks
Yalta conference (11 Feb. 1945)
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Churchill,
Roosevelt and
Stalin
Yalta conference(11 Feb. 1945)
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“We are resolved upon the earliest
possible establishment with our Allies
of a general international
organization to maintain peace and
security…
Yalta conference(11 Feb. 1945)
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“We have agreed that a Conference
of United Nations should be called to
meet at San Francisco in the United
States on the 25th April, 1945, to
prepare the charter of such an
organization, along the lines
proposed in the formal conversations
of Dumbarton Oaks.”
The San Francisco Conference
(April 25 – June 26, 1945)
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Representatives of 50 states met to
draw up the UN Charter based on
Dumbarton Oaks proposals by the
Great Powers (China, the Soviet
Union, the UK, the US)
The Charter – unanimously approved
and signed by all the participating
States, original members of the UN
The San Francisco Conference
(April 25 – June 26, 1945)
United Nations Charter
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"The Charter of the United Nations which you
have just signed is a solid structure upon which
we can build a better world. History will honor
you for it. Between the victory in Europe and the
final victory, in this most destructive of all wars,
you have won a victory against war itself. . . .
With this Charter the world can begin to look
forward to the time when all worthy human
beings may be permitted to live decently as free
people." (President Truman)
United Nations Charter
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"If we fail to use it,we shall betray all
those who have died so that we
might meet here in freedom and
safety to create it. If we seek to use
it selfishly - for the advantage of any
one nation or any small group of
nations — we shall be equally guilty
of that betrayal. "
United Nations Charter
(www.un.org/aboutun/charter)
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Constituting instrument of the
Organization
Rights and obligations of member
states
UN organs and procedures
Preamble
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WE THE PEOPLES OF THE UNITED NATIONS
DETERMINED to save succeeding generations
from the scourge of war, which twice in our
lifetime has brought untold sorrow to mankind,
and to reaffirm faith in fundamental human
rights, in the dignity and worth of the human
person, in the equal rights of men and women
and of nations large and small, and to establish
conditions under which justice and respect for the
obligations arising from treaties and other
sources of international law can be maintained,
and to promote social progress and better
standards of life in larger freedom,
Preamble
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AND FOR THESE ENDS to practice
tolerance and live together in peace with
one another as good neighbours, and to
unite our strength to maintain
international peace and security, and to
ensure, by the acceptance of principles
and the institution of methods, that armed
force shall not be used, save in the
common interest, and to employ
international machinery for the promotion
of the economic and social advancement
of all peoples,
Preamble
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“HAVE RESOLVED TO COMBINE OUR
EFFORTS TO ACCOMPLISH THESE AIMS.
Accordingly, our respective Governments,
through representatives assembled in the
city of San Francisco, who have exhibited
their full powers found to be in good and
due form, have agreed to the present
Charter of the United Nations and do
hereby establish an international
organization to be known as the United
Nations.”
Purposes of the UN
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To maintain international peace and security
To develop friendly relations among nations
based on respect for the principle of equal rights
and self-determination of peoples
To help nations work together to improve the
lives of poor people, to conquer hunger, disease
and illiteracy, and to encourage respect for
human rights and fundamental freedoms;
To be a centre for harmonizing the actions of
nations in attaining these common ends
UN Principles
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It is based on the sovereign equality
of all members
All members are to fulfil in good faith
their Charter obligations
They are to settle their international
disputes by peaceful means and
without endangering international
peace, security and justice
UN Principles
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Members are to refrain from the threat or
use of force against any other state
They are to give the UN every assistance
in any action it takes in accordance with
the Charter
Nothing in the Charter is to authorize the
UN to intervene in matters which are
essentially within the domestic jurisdiction
of any state
Membership
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Open to all peace-loving nations which
accept the obligations of the Charter
The General Assembly admits new
member states on the recommendation of
the Security Council
The Charter provides for the suspension or
expulsion of a member for violation of the
principles of the Charter (no such action
has ever been taken)
Official languages
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Arabic
Chinese
English
French
Russian
Spanish
Structure of the Organization
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The
The
The
The
The
The
General Assembly
Security Council
Economic and Social Council
Trusteeship Council
International Court of Justice
Secretariat
General Assembly
(www.un.org/ga)
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Representatives of all member states
(193), each of which has one vote
Decisions on important issues, e.g.
peace and security, admission of new
members, budgetary matters require
a two thirds majority
Security Council
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Maintenance of international peace of
security
15 members: 5 permanent (China,
France, the Russian Federation, the
UK, the US); 10 members elected by
the General Assembly for two-year
terms
Security Council
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Decisions on procedural and
substantive matters require 9 votes
Permanent members: power of veto
All members of the UN have are
obliged to accept the decisions of the
Security Council
Economic and Social Council
(www.un.org/esa/coordination/ecosoc)
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Coordinates the economic, social and
related work of the UN and the
specialized agencies and institutions
54 members, who serve for threeyear terms
International Court of Justice
(www.icj-cij.org)
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The principal judicial organ of the UN
Settles legal disputes between states
Gives advisory opinions to the UN
Open to all member states; not open
to private persons and entities or
international organizations
Jurisdiction of the ICJ
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Decides disputes by applying:
International conventions establishing
rules recognized by the contesting states;
International custom as evidence of a
general practice accepted as law;
The general principles of law recognized
by nations
Judicial decisions and the teachings of the
most qualified scholars of the various
nations
Membership of ICJ
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15 judges elected by the General
Assembly and the Security Council,
voting independently
Chosen on the basis of their
qualifications; care is taken that
principal legal systems of the world
are represented
Membership of ICJ
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No two judges can be from the same
country
Serve 9-year term and may be reelected
They cannot engage in any other
occupation during their term of office
Secretariat
(www.un.org/documents/st)
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Secretary General – appointed by the
General Assembly on the recommendation
of the Security Council for a five-year,
renewable term
Administering peacekeeping operations,
mediating international disputes,
surveying economic and social trends,
preparing studies on human rights and
sustainable development
Secretariat
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Informs the world’s media about the work
of the UN, organizes international
conferences, translates documents into
the official languages
Staff of 7,500 drawn from 170 countries
Headquarters: New York; main centres of
activities: Geneva (disarmament, human
rights), Vienna (crime prevention,
international trade law, peaceful uses of
outer space), Nairobi (environment,
human settlements)
Secretary-General
(www.un.org/News/ossg/sg)
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Symbol of UN ideals and a
spokesman for the interests of the
world’s peoples
Chief administrative officer of the UN
Brings to the attention of the
Security Council any matter which
may threaten the maintenance of
international peace and security
Secretary General
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Consultations with world leaders,
government officials, representatives
of civil society groups, the private
sector and others
Annual report on the work of the
Organization
The UN family of organizations
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UN secretariat
UN funds and programmes (e.g.
UNICEF)
Specialized agencies (e.g. UNESCO,
WHO)
Related organizations (e.g. WTO)
International tribunals
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International Criminal Tribunal for
the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY)
International Criminal Tribunal for
Rwanda (ICTR)
International Criminal Tribunal for the Former
Yugoslavia (ICTY)
(www.un.org/icty)
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Created by the Security Council in
1994
Mandate to prosecute persons
responsible for serious violations of
international humanitarian law
committed since 1991
16 permanent judges, 27 ad litem
judges, staff of 1,238 from 84
countries
Fill in the missing words:
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Observance, rule, development,
recognition, conscience, foundation,
realization, freedom, standards,
promotion
Observance, rule, development, recognition, conscience,
foundation, realization, freedom, standards, promotion
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Whereas _____of the inherent
dignity and of the equal and
inalienable rights of all members of
the human family is the _____ of
freedom, justice and peace in the
world,
Observance, rule, development, recognition, conscience,
foundation, realization, freedom, standards, promotion
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Whereas disregard and contempt of
human rights have resulted in
barbarous acts which have outraged
the ___ of mankind, and the advent
of a world in which human beings
shall enjoy ___ of speech and belief
and freedom from fear and want has
been proclaimed as the highest
aspiration of the common people,
Observance, rule, development, recognition, conscience,
foundation, realization, freedom, standards, promotion
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Whereas it is essential, if man is not
to be compelled to have recourse, as
a last resort, to rebellion against
tyranny and oppression, that human
rights should be protected by the __
of law,
Whereas it is essential to promote
the ____ of friendly relations
between nations,
Observance, rule, development, recognition, conscience,
foundation, realization, freedom, standards, promotion
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Whereas the peoples of the United
Nations have in the Charter
reaffirmed their faith in fundamental
human rights, in the dignity and
worth of the human person and in
the equal rights of men and women
and have determined to promote
social progress and better ___of life
in larger freedom,
Observance, rule, development, recognition, conscience,
foundation, realization, freedom, standards, promotion
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Whereas Member States have pledged
themselves to achieve, in co-operation
with the United Nations, the ___ of
universal respect for and ___ of human
rights and fundamental freedoms,
Whereas a common understanding of
these rights and freedoms is of the
greatest importance for the full ___ of this
pledge,
Universal Declaration of Human
Rights: Preamble
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Whereas recognition of the inherent
dignity and of the equal and
inalienable rights of all members of
the human family is the foundation
of freedom, justice and peace in the
world,
Preamble
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Whereas disregard and contempt of
human rights have resulted in
barbarous acts which have outraged
the conscience of mankind, and the
advent of a world in which human
beings shall enjoy freedom of
speech and belief and freedom from
fear and want has been proclaimed
as the highest aspiration of the
common people,
Preamble
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Whereas it is essential, if man is not
to be compelled to have recourse, as
a last resort, to rebellion against
tyranny and oppression, that human
rights should be protected by the
rule of law,
Whereas it is essential to promote
the development of friendly
relations between nations,
Preamble
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Whereas the peoples of the United
Nations have in the Charter
reaffirmed their faith in fundamental
human rights, in the dignity and
worth of the human person and in
the equal rights of men and women
and have determined to promote
social progress and better
standards of life in larger freedom,
Preamble
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Whereas Member States have pledged
themselves to achieve, in co-operation
with the United Nations, the promotion of
universal respect for and observance of
human rights and fundamental freedoms,
Whereas a common understanding of
these rights and freedoms is of the
greatest importance for the full
realization of this pledge,
Preamble
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Now, therefore,
The General Assembly
Proclaims this Universal Declaration
of Human Rights as a common
standard of achievement for all
peoples and all nations…..
The International Court of Justice
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ICJ is the principal judicial body of
the UN. Its seat is in The Hague. It
began work in 1946, when it
replaced the Permanent Court of
International Justice which had
functioned in The Hague since 1922.
The International Court of Justice
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Below is some information about the
court and its activities. Match the
information to the following
headings. You will need to use some
headings more than once:
Exercise
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Functions of the Court
Composition
The Parties in Cases between States
Jurisdiction in Cases between States
Procedure in Cases between Sttes
Sources of Applicable law
Advisory Opinions
Exercise
ICJ
One of the roles of the
Court is to settle in
accordance with
international law the
legal disputes submitted
by States
The advisory procedure
of the Court is open
solely to international
organizations
Headings
Exercise
ICJ
The Court decides in
accordance with
international treaties
and conventions in
force, international
custom, the general
principles of law and,
as subsidiary means,
judicial decisions and
the teachings of
jurists
Headings
Exercise
ICJ
The Members of the
Court do not represent
their governments but
are independent
magistrates
The court is competent
to entertain a dispute
only if the States
concerned have accepted
its jurisdiction
Headings
Exercise
ICJ
The other role is to
give advisory
opinions on legal
questions referred to
it by duly authorized
international organs
and agencies
Only States may
apply to and appear
before the Court
Headings
Exercise
ECJ
The Court is composed of
15 judges elected to
nine-year terms of office
by the UN General
Assembly and Security
Concil
After the oral
proceedings, the Court
deliberates in camera
and then delivers its
judgement at a public
sitting
Headings
Exercise
ECJ
If one of the States
involved fails to
comply with it, the
other party may have
recourse to the
Security Council of
the UN
Headings
At which of the
following conferences
was the United
Nations Charter
adopted?
Quiz
a) The Yalta Conference
b) The San Francisco
Conference
c) The Dumbarton Oaks
Conference
Quiz
Which Secretary General
died during his mandate?
a)Trygve Lie
b) U Thant
c) Dag Hammarskjöld
Quiz
What was the first United Nations
Peacekeeping Force?
1) United Nations Truce Supervision
Organization (UNTSO)
2) United Nations Emergency Force
(UNEF)
3) United Nations Interim Force in
Lebanon (UNIFIL)
Quiz
In 1980 the World Health Organization (WHO) announced the
eradication of which of the following diseases?
a) Smallpox
b) Tuberculosis
c) Malaria
Quiz
Which of these three UN agencies was awarded the Nobel
Peace Prize twice?
a) United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)
b) United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR)
c) United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF)
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THE CHARTER OF THE UNITED NATIONS