IUB and TIS now have extra copies of Tozer and
Spring books. All required course textbooks are
also on reserve at the Undergraduate Library.
• My advice--Don’t wait too long. Be sure to buy the
Michie book soon, you will need to read it, bookstores
tend to return “left over” books to publisher after midsemester.
• To see one of the assigned videos (Lehrer Newshour
removed its archives temporarily) John Merrow reports
on the current status of “No Child Left Behind” in The
Race Link on Youtube version available on our
HOMEPAGE.
EXAM 1 THURSDAY, February 25 7-9 PM
Locations:
• 1 Noyes-- EPS 201 AD1-AD8 and
• 228 NH-- EPS 201 AD9- ADU, & EPS 202 AD1-5
• No lecture on Thursday, February 25.
• Please note change in the Make-up Exam date
and time in order to accommodate athletes.
Monday, March 1, 6:30-8:30 PM, Location to be
announced.
Feel Deserving of a Scholarship?
50 COE $1,000 scholarships for next year
GPA just one part of award formula Due 3-15
2010-2011 Scholarships Applications
College of Education Undergraduate Scholarships
• Deadline March 15
• 3 short essays (250 word each) are required plus other materials
• Awards Based ON: Academic Record, Commitment to the
Profession, and Service (Professional Development and
Volunteer Work with Students), Elementary and Secondary
Levels are eligible.
• http://education.illinois.edu/saao/undergradawards/
A NATION AT RISK REPORTED
Attitude?
• Schools have “squandered the gains in student achievement
in the wake of the Sputnik challenge (1957)” (my comment:
many changes in 1957 targeted for talented students). A
Nation at Risk blamed:
– Low quality teaching
– Not rigorous academic content
• BUT the report did not discuss past school policies like
tracking that had divided students or views about IQ that
had limited students’ opportunity.
A Nation at Risk (1983)
• CHANGED PRIORITY Prioritizes
ECONOMIC needs of the nation (See
Spring, Ch. 1, 19-26)
– For public benefit, schools should
provide manpower [train students for
the economy—human capital theory,
Spring Chapter 1, 19-26] to help get
America out of recession and keep
jobs in America.
– Help America deal with the threat of
global competition
– Blamed schools for contributing to
economic decline
What contributes to economic decline?
Lecture Write #4 asked you…
• 1.“A Nation at Risk” reported that there was a crisis in
public education in 1983. One well known quote from
the report describes the crisis as “Our society is being
eroded by a rising tide of mediocrity [in schools] that
threatens our very future as a nation and a people.”
What major social crisis prompted this harsh
criticism of schools in 1983?
• ECONOMIC RECESSION, COMPETITION FROM
AROUND THE WORLD
Looking for this
• Some students responded---crisis of low scores and
low academic standards in public schools OK
Economic Development
See Spring Economic
Purposes of Schooling
Lecture Write #4 asked you…
2.“A Nation at Risk” recommended that schools should change: Graduation
Requirements; Curriculum Content; Higher Standards/Expectations;
More Time-day/Year; Improve Teaching; and Hold Leadership
Accountable. Make a list of how states responded to this Federal call for
higher standards and greater accountability between 1983 and 1999.
In the 1990s the Federal Government urged states to raise standards.
Outcome of call for HIGHER STANDARDS was by 1997, Illinois set 2 goals
and articulated state standards of learning in all subjects.
1) Higher Student Achievement--all students to meet the Illinois
Learning Standards by performance on TESTS Outcome: State
developed tests to correspond with standards Illinois Standards
Achievement Test (ISAT) and Prairie State Test (11 GRADE, now
includes ACT)
2) Higher graduation rates
Lecture Write #4 asked you…
3.What is meant by the “bottom line” when you
say that you will hold schools accountable?
• Test scores, states set the standard and
schools have to meet the standard, had to
pass the tests or were punished, meet
AYP or else sanctions.
Lecture Write #4 asked you…
• 5. What are some of the underlying beliefs
about schools that fail to meet AYP coming
out of President Reagan’s neoconservative ideas in the NCLB approach?
• Today’s lecture…
Today NCLB a policy of accountability with strict
sanctions for failing to meet standards.
Why this approach
to school reform?
Back to 1983.......
A Nation At Risk 1983
“Our society is being
eroded by a rising tide of
mediocrity that threatens
our very future as a nation
and a people.”
Schools should change …
• Graduation Requirements
• Curriculum Content
• Higher
Standards/Expectations
• More Time-day/Year
• Improve Teaching
• Hold Leadership
Accountable
States do respond
A free market approach is sink or swim; it helps to
explain the harsh sanctions in NCLB.
Public schools were seen as a monopoly that lacked
competition to force higher performance (Milton Friedman
and free market model, Spring Chapter 6, 153-162)
– Common school (public) no longer the best kind of school--vouchers options were discussed to present more private
school options and spur a competitive environment.
– Choice in schools was seen as similar to choosing a
supermarket or a car.
– Must have competition to produce the better schools.
– Cannot trust localities and states.
– Schools did not need more $$$$ money
– New types of schools would be free from States and
Federal bureaucratic requirements.
FEDERAL REGULATIONS CONTAIN STRICT SANCTIONS
When schools fail to meet AYP this timeline begins….
When scores are computed, and schools
(subgroups) are below standard, then the
School Improvement Timeline takes effect
Miss AYP
Miss AYP
Miss AYP
School Improvement Yr 1(CHOICE)
Miss AYP
School Improvement Yr 2 (TUTOR)
(supplemental educational services)
Miss AYP
Corrective Action
Miss AYP
Restructure (planning year)
Restructure (implement plan)
What do you think about this goal? 100% Pass Rate by 2014?
PROGRESS
TO 100% IN
ILLINOIS
Major shift in policy: How did Federal policy in the
1980s change how we viewed the purposes and
strengths of the COMMON SCHOOL?
REAGAN’S NEO-CONSERVATIVE IDEAS that connect
school operations to economic needs and business
practices and ideas.
1. Promotes the free market system, where competition
would pressure schools to improve.
2. Schools called monopolies, with no incentives to
perform well.
3. Assumes that private schools are better
4. Seeks to give parents CHOICE (NCLB choice out of
failiing schools)
5. To return “school” tax dollars to parents (vouchers) .
6. Seeks to expand alternative approaches—like
allowing for-profit companies take over schools or
districts.
7. Get away from the bureaucracy (idea of charter
schools). (Spring, Chapter 6, Local Control, Choice)
Overarching Idea
Competition
Improves learning
Right now, SCHOOLS HAVE A
LONG LIST OF
REGULATIONS
RED TAPE
BUREAUCRACY
Red tape seen as a problem
CHARTER SCHOOLS TODAY
AVOID MOST OF THE
RED TAPE
Charter School: High Tech High School
Spring Chapter 6, 161
Opened in 2000 to address shortage of workers in
high tech industries in San Diego. High tech
competitiveness for the global economy.
Charter School: High Tech High School
Spring Chapter 6, 161
http://www.edutopia.org/collaboration-age-technology-larry-rosenstock-video
A Liberal Arts Charter High School
“Discovery, “make and do”, “present publically”, “not sink or
swim”, learn from failure, “students are psyched about
science”, “not just read about it.”
• Qualcomm donated $3 million
• Students selected by lottery
• Stresses independent
and group work.
Not available right now.
•
http://www.pbs.org/newshour/video/module.html?mod=0&pkg=22082008&seg=2
•
http://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/education/july-dec08/techschool_08-22.html
Will Charter Schools Solve Our School Problems?
2009 4,000 Charter Schools in the nation, serving
1 million students
US National School Population: 49 million
• US Department of Education is encouraging more charter
schools.
• AFT supports charters if run as public schools, if they do
not contribute to racial, ethnic, and class isolation, and are
open to all students, including students with disabilities.
See Spring Chapter 6
• Evaluation of Charter Schools shows mixed results—See
Spring, Chapter 6.
• Obama administration will only support states with extra
funding if the state’s charter school program is expanded.
Charter Schools
• High Tech High (Spring, Chapter 6) is a partnership
with Qualcomm to create high tech workers
• Expensive
• Selective since students must apply before being
chosen through a lottery system.
• Doesn’t solve the public school challenge
• Has a well rounded curriculum (calls itself a liberal arts
high school)
• Project based, individual and group projects
• Collaboration encouraged
A Nation at Risk supports an essentialist
view– Essentialism is:
An ESSENTIALIST VIEW: To protest decline of intellectual rigor and
moral standards, aims to transmit culture (conservative element), to
prepare students to participate in a democratic and technological
society, but through a very traditional curriculum and pedagogy.
Essentialists believe that there are some essential or basic skills that
support human well-being. Just a matter of academics:
• Reading, writing, arithmetic, social behavior
• History, science, languages, literature
• Ability to learn more complex material
AND Conservative view of teaching approaches
• Respect of authority
• Diligence on the part of the learner
• Knowledgeable teachers
• Transmit information to students
What is missing? What were the conditions at
Harper High School that caused low performance?
EXCELLENCE (Academic)
BECAME THE GOAL
Caution about an essentialist
view that goes to an
extreme, where knowledge is
reduced to test scores.
High Stakes Testing Elements of NCLB
“The Race” John Merrow 2007 Youtube (9 minutes)
Taken from PBS Lehrer Newshour 8-14-07
See our website for Youtube Link
– 50 States with 50 Different Systems of Assessment
– All schools in a state are held to the same
standards with the same tests.
– High-Stake Testing leads to “gaming”
Some states set the
bar lower than others.
States set size of
subgroups & confidence
intervals for the tests.
High Stakes
If one
subgroup
fails, the
whole school
fails.
Composite (Group) scores don’t
tell the whole story either.
Standard Score 65
2008
•
•
•
•
•
Laura
James
Felipe
Kisha
Raul
100
90
80
70
20
2009
90
80
70
65
transfers out
In NCLB Value Added is not rewarded
If a 5th grade student, reads at
2nd grade level at the
beginning of the year,
and at the end of the year
reads at a 3th grade level
would you judge this student
to have made progress?
DIVERSITY PENALTY
AYP is determined by making
it over all 18 hurdles (9 hurdles
for reading and 9 for math) by
disaggregation of data.
Reading
Composite American
Indian
Asian
Black
White
Hispanic Students with Low
Disabilities Income
LEP
Composite American
Indian
Asian
Black
White
Hispanic Students with Low
Disabilities Income
LEP
Math
Many urban
schools are hurt
by the
Diversity Penalty
The more
subgroups, the
more ways to fail.
Based on history and current results, a test
based system assures a high failure rate.
40% of the nations’ schools have been
labeled as failing AYP over the past five
years
Will high-stakes testing
encourage lower standards?
Professor Linda Darling-Hammond, Stanford
University School of Education notes…
• Some of the unintended consequences
– Limited English Proficiency (LEP) groups will
never reach 100% (proficient students move out of
the group)
– Students with disabilities are not on grade level but
have IEP that reflect “instructional” level
– Teachers leave “needs improvement” and “failing”
schools
– Loss of funds to struggling schools $$$
– CHOICE Transfer programs need non-failing
schools with open slots
– States will consider lowering standards
– Pressures on students will increase the dropout
rate
Study of Outcomes of NCLB 2007
(Bailey Elementary, Virginia)
http://learningmatters.tv/blog/on-the-newshour/no-child-left-behind-part-3-teachers-take-on-nclb/1349/
John Merrow reports on how the best teachers are reacting
“Teachers Say NCLB Has Changed Classroom
Practice” Education Week, June 15, 2007.
Since 2002:
Students scores on state tests have improved.
Greater focus on testing taking.
More multiple choice tests.
Lower teacher morale.
Teachers complain that state tests don’t align
with standards.
Say something nice about information gained from
testing students.
– There is value in separating out subgroup scores and
using these scores to change curriculum and target
resources.
– Tests should be aligned with the curriculum
– Places concern for failing students and schools
– Focused attention on college readiness for all
students
– Some schools may need to be closed in order to have
a fresh start.
How should we assess schools?
Why are multiple data points viewed as a sound
way to achieve a successful school?
• “Using a single test score as the basis for assessing
our kids is unfair, it puts them at a disadvantage”
(Amy Rome, Principal of NTA in “Another Path is
Possible” by Greg Michie)
• “It is the reality of how are students are being
evaluated right now, so we have to be responsive to
it.” (Amy Rome)
• But NTA does not teach to the tests, does not
overlook other needs, other changes that our school
needs to work on like-- a more rigorous curriculum,
creative approaches to teaching reading, connecting
with parents, dealing with tardiness (clocks).
How should we assess schools?
Why are multiple data points viewed as a sound
way to achieve a successful school?
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Attendance Rates
Graduation Rates
College Attendance Rates
AP participation
Special Education Rates
Grades
Test scores
Teacher Mobility
Parent satisfaction
Student satisfaction
Quality of the learning community -climate
Discipline Rates
• Freire on learning
• Freire on knowledge
• Freire on democratic principles that
operate in learning relationships
• How should schools prepare students to
take charge of learning?
• Should school teach students how to
construct knowledge that addresses their
needs?
Education Is
Politics
Critical Teaching
Across Differences,
K-12
Examines the
influence of the work
of Paulo Freire
SUNY Press, 1999
Fundamental Questions in LIFE:
What is my place in the social order?
How do I learn my place?
What is my position in the world?
What is my world view?
How does the world view me?
Paulo Freire began teaching peasants
in Brazil who were illiterate, and had
no rights and no voice in governing.
“Every person,
regardless of
education is
capable of looking
critically at the
world.”
Education – to understand
the world.
IF THESE WALLS COULD TALK,
WHAT WOULD THEY SAY?
“The information is up here.
Follow along.”
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dGCJ46vyR9o
How do these students view their education?
Is text-based knowledge valuable in your life?
Do the political and economic circumstances in the world
matter regarding what you need to learn to flourish in
life?
Video made by a Cultural Anthropology class at
Kansas State University Spring 2007
In your own words, explain what Freire means.
The poor, through schools and other social
experiences in their lives, are:
•
•
•
•
•
Objects rather than subjects
Alienated
Silenced
Taught to internalize failure
Not educated to understand
their position in the world
Banking Education
What do you think is meant by banking education?
Freire on “Banking”
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Teacher teaches, students are taught
Teacher knows everything, students know nothing
Teacher talks students listen
Teacher chooses, students comply
Teacher acts, students follow passively
Teacher holds authority, students are alienated
The lives of the students don’t matter
• Receive, memorize, repeat
For FREIRE Knowledge emerges through invention and
reinvention, restless, hopeful inquiry,
Key elements of Freire’s
approach to learning:
View of knowledge
• Teachers and students learn together. INQUIRY
& DIALOGUE, ACTION & REFLECTION
• Non-authoritarian.
• Values all kinds of knowledge.
• Seeks to connect knowledge with the reality of
students’ lives.
GROWTH
AND
What is your view about Freire’s talk
about “liberation” and “empowerment”?
Is this democratic in principle?
Is talk about education for social justice and equality of
opportunity based on democratic principles?
Liberal Political Philosopher C.B. McPherson
summarizes:
FREIRE’S CHALLENGE:
ARE WE REALLY
DEMOCRATIC?
Equality before the law
Basic civil liberties for all
Equal rights to self development
Equal political voice for each citizen (the interests of
each member of the community matter equally)
In an open society, education benefits the STATE or the
“society”. So a vision of the good state is needed.
Its aim is TO CREATE AND SUSTAIN THE GOOD SOCIETY.
Who decides the meaning of a good society?
In turn– schooling benefits individuals (with skills and
talents, opportunity,
The state provides stability, and protection of the rights of
all on an equal basis.
A democracy rests on institutions providing equal
opportunity.
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