IUB and TIS now have extra copies of Tozer and Spring books. All required course textbooks are also on reserve at the Undergraduate Library. • My advice--Don’t wait too long. Be sure to buy the Michie book soon, you will need to read it, bookstores tend to return “left over” books to publisher after midsemester. • To see one of the assigned videos (Lehrer Newshour removed its archives temporarily) John Merrow reports on the current status of “No Child Left Behind” in The Race Link on Youtube version available on our HOMEPAGE. EXAM 1 THURSDAY, February 25 7-9 PM Locations: • 1 Noyes-- EPS 201 AD1-AD8 and • 228 NH-- EPS 201 AD9- ADU, & EPS 202 AD1-5 • No lecture on Thursday, February 25. • Please note change in the Make-up Exam date and time in order to accommodate athletes. Monday, March 1, 6:30-8:30 PM, Location to be announced. Feel Deserving of a Scholarship? 50 COE $1,000 scholarships for next year GPA just one part of award formula Due 3-15 2010-2011 Scholarships Applications College of Education Undergraduate Scholarships • Deadline March 15 • 3 short essays (250 word each) are required plus other materials • Awards Based ON: Academic Record, Commitment to the Profession, and Service (Professional Development and Volunteer Work with Students), Elementary and Secondary Levels are eligible. • http://education.illinois.edu/saao/undergradawards/ A NATION AT RISK REPORTED Attitude? • Schools have “squandered the gains in student achievement in the wake of the Sputnik challenge (1957)” (my comment: many changes in 1957 targeted for talented students). A Nation at Risk blamed: – Low quality teaching – Not rigorous academic content • BUT the report did not discuss past school policies like tracking that had divided students or views about IQ that had limited students’ opportunity. A Nation at Risk (1983) • CHANGED PRIORITY Prioritizes ECONOMIC needs of the nation (See Spring, Ch. 1, 19-26) – For public benefit, schools should provide manpower [train students for the economy—human capital theory, Spring Chapter 1, 19-26] to help get America out of recession and keep jobs in America. – Help America deal with the threat of global competition – Blamed schools for contributing to economic decline What contributes to economic decline? Lecture Write #4 asked you… • 1.“A Nation at Risk” reported that there was a crisis in public education in 1983. One well known quote from the report describes the crisis as “Our society is being eroded by a rising tide of mediocrity [in schools] that threatens our very future as a nation and a people.” What major social crisis prompted this harsh criticism of schools in 1983? • ECONOMIC RECESSION, COMPETITION FROM AROUND THE WORLD Looking for this • Some students responded---crisis of low scores and low academic standards in public schools OK Economic Development See Spring Economic Purposes of Schooling Lecture Write #4 asked you… 2.“A Nation at Risk” recommended that schools should change: Graduation Requirements; Curriculum Content; Higher Standards/Expectations; More Time-day/Year; Improve Teaching; and Hold Leadership Accountable. Make a list of how states responded to this Federal call for higher standards and greater accountability between 1983 and 1999. In the 1990s the Federal Government urged states to raise standards. Outcome of call for HIGHER STANDARDS was by 1997, Illinois set 2 goals and articulated state standards of learning in all subjects. 1) Higher Student Achievement--all students to meet the Illinois Learning Standards by performance on TESTS Outcome: State developed tests to correspond with standards Illinois Standards Achievement Test (ISAT) and Prairie State Test (11 GRADE, now includes ACT) 2) Higher graduation rates Lecture Write #4 asked you… 3.What is meant by the “bottom line” when you say that you will hold schools accountable? • Test scores, states set the standard and schools have to meet the standard, had to pass the tests or were punished, meet AYP or else sanctions. Lecture Write #4 asked you… • 5. What are some of the underlying beliefs about schools that fail to meet AYP coming out of President Reagan’s neoconservative ideas in the NCLB approach? • Today’s lecture… Today NCLB a policy of accountability with strict sanctions for failing to meet standards. Why this approach to school reform? Back to 1983....... A Nation At Risk 1983 “Our society is being eroded by a rising tide of mediocrity that threatens our very future as a nation and a people.” Schools should change … • Graduation Requirements • Curriculum Content • Higher Standards/Expectations • More Time-day/Year • Improve Teaching • Hold Leadership Accountable States do respond A free market approach is sink or swim; it helps to explain the harsh sanctions in NCLB. Public schools were seen as a monopoly that lacked competition to force higher performance (Milton Friedman and free market model, Spring Chapter 6, 153-162) – Common school (public) no longer the best kind of school--vouchers options were discussed to present more private school options and spur a competitive environment. – Choice in schools was seen as similar to choosing a supermarket or a car. – Must have competition to produce the better schools. – Cannot trust localities and states. – Schools did not need more $$$$ money – New types of schools would be free from States and Federal bureaucratic requirements. FEDERAL REGULATIONS CONTAIN STRICT SANCTIONS When schools fail to meet AYP this timeline begins…. When scores are computed, and schools (subgroups) are below standard, then the School Improvement Timeline takes effect Miss AYP Miss AYP Miss AYP School Improvement Yr 1(CHOICE) Miss AYP School Improvement Yr 2 (TUTOR) (supplemental educational services) Miss AYP Corrective Action Miss AYP Restructure (planning year) Restructure (implement plan) What do you think about this goal? 100% Pass Rate by 2014? PROGRESS TO 100% IN ILLINOIS Major shift in policy: How did Federal policy in the 1980s change how we viewed the purposes and strengths of the COMMON SCHOOL? REAGAN’S NEO-CONSERVATIVE IDEAS that connect school operations to economic needs and business practices and ideas. 1. Promotes the free market system, where competition would pressure schools to improve. 2. Schools called monopolies, with no incentives to perform well. 3. Assumes that private schools are better 4. Seeks to give parents CHOICE (NCLB choice out of failiing schools) 5. To return “school” tax dollars to parents (vouchers) . 6. Seeks to expand alternative approaches—like allowing for-profit companies take over schools or districts. 7. Get away from the bureaucracy (idea of charter schools). (Spring, Chapter 6, Local Control, Choice) Overarching Idea Competition Improves learning Right now, SCHOOLS HAVE A LONG LIST OF REGULATIONS RED TAPE BUREAUCRACY Red tape seen as a problem CHARTER SCHOOLS TODAY AVOID MOST OF THE RED TAPE Charter School: High Tech High School Spring Chapter 6, 161 Opened in 2000 to address shortage of workers in high tech industries in San Diego. High tech competitiveness for the global economy. Charter School: High Tech High School Spring Chapter 6, 161 http://www.edutopia.org/collaboration-age-technology-larry-rosenstock-video A Liberal Arts Charter High School “Discovery, “make and do”, “present publically”, “not sink or swim”, learn from failure, “students are psyched about science”, “not just read about it.” • Qualcomm donated $3 million • Students selected by lottery • Stresses independent and group work. Not available right now. • http://www.pbs.org/newshour/video/module.html?mod=0&pkg=22082008&seg=2 • http://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/education/july-dec08/techschool_08-22.html Will Charter Schools Solve Our School Problems? 2009 4,000 Charter Schools in the nation, serving 1 million students US National School Population: 49 million • US Department of Education is encouraging more charter schools. • AFT supports charters if run as public schools, if they do not contribute to racial, ethnic, and class isolation, and are open to all students, including students with disabilities. See Spring Chapter 6 • Evaluation of Charter Schools shows mixed results—See Spring, Chapter 6. • Obama administration will only support states with extra funding if the state’s charter school program is expanded. Charter Schools • High Tech High (Spring, Chapter 6) is a partnership with Qualcomm to create high tech workers • Expensive • Selective since students must apply before being chosen through a lottery system. • Doesn’t solve the public school challenge • Has a well rounded curriculum (calls itself a liberal arts high school) • Project based, individual and group projects • Collaboration encouraged A Nation at Risk supports an essentialist view– Essentialism is: An ESSENTIALIST VIEW: To protest decline of intellectual rigor and moral standards, aims to transmit culture (conservative element), to prepare students to participate in a democratic and technological society, but through a very traditional curriculum and pedagogy. Essentialists believe that there are some essential or basic skills that support human well-being. Just a matter of academics: • Reading, writing, arithmetic, social behavior • History, science, languages, literature • Ability to learn more complex material AND Conservative view of teaching approaches • Respect of authority • Diligence on the part of the learner • Knowledgeable teachers • Transmit information to students What is missing? What were the conditions at Harper High School that caused low performance? EXCELLENCE (Academic) BECAME THE GOAL Caution about an essentialist view that goes to an extreme, where knowledge is reduced to test scores. High Stakes Testing Elements of NCLB “The Race” John Merrow 2007 Youtube (9 minutes) Taken from PBS Lehrer Newshour 8-14-07 See our website for Youtube Link – 50 States with 50 Different Systems of Assessment – All schools in a state are held to the same standards with the same tests. – High-Stake Testing leads to “gaming” Some states set the bar lower than others. States set size of subgroups & confidence intervals for the tests. High Stakes If one subgroup fails, the whole school fails. Composite (Group) scores don’t tell the whole story either. Standard Score 65 2008 • • • • • Laura James Felipe Kisha Raul 100 90 80 70 20 2009 90 80 70 65 transfers out In NCLB Value Added is not rewarded If a 5th grade student, reads at 2nd grade level at the beginning of the year, and at the end of the year reads at a 3th grade level would you judge this student to have made progress? DIVERSITY PENALTY AYP is determined by making it over all 18 hurdles (9 hurdles for reading and 9 for math) by disaggregation of data. Reading Composite American Indian Asian Black White Hispanic Students with Low Disabilities Income LEP Composite American Indian Asian Black White Hispanic Students with Low Disabilities Income LEP Math Many urban schools are hurt by the Diversity Penalty The more subgroups, the more ways to fail. Based on history and current results, a test based system assures a high failure rate. 40% of the nations’ schools have been labeled as failing AYP over the past five years Will high-stakes testing encourage lower standards? Professor Linda Darling-Hammond, Stanford University School of Education notes… • Some of the unintended consequences – Limited English Proficiency (LEP) groups will never reach 100% (proficient students move out of the group) – Students with disabilities are not on grade level but have IEP that reflect “instructional” level – Teachers leave “needs improvement” and “failing” schools – Loss of funds to struggling schools $$$ – CHOICE Transfer programs need non-failing schools with open slots – States will consider lowering standards – Pressures on students will increase the dropout rate Study of Outcomes of NCLB 2007 (Bailey Elementary, Virginia) http://learningmatters.tv/blog/on-the-newshour/no-child-left-behind-part-3-teachers-take-on-nclb/1349/ John Merrow reports on how the best teachers are reacting “Teachers Say NCLB Has Changed Classroom Practice” Education Week, June 15, 2007. Since 2002: Students scores on state tests have improved. Greater focus on testing taking. More multiple choice tests. Lower teacher morale. Teachers complain that state tests don’t align with standards. Say something nice about information gained from testing students. – There is value in separating out subgroup scores and using these scores to change curriculum and target resources. – Tests should be aligned with the curriculum – Places concern for failing students and schools – Focused attention on college readiness for all students – Some schools may need to be closed in order to have a fresh start. How should we assess schools? Why are multiple data points viewed as a sound way to achieve a successful school? • “Using a single test score as the basis for assessing our kids is unfair, it puts them at a disadvantage” (Amy Rome, Principal of NTA in “Another Path is Possible” by Greg Michie) • “It is the reality of how are students are being evaluated right now, so we have to be responsive to it.” (Amy Rome) • But NTA does not teach to the tests, does not overlook other needs, other changes that our school needs to work on like-- a more rigorous curriculum, creative approaches to teaching reading, connecting with parents, dealing with tardiness (clocks). How should we assess schools? Why are multiple data points viewed as a sound way to achieve a successful school? • • • • • • • • • • • • Attendance Rates Graduation Rates College Attendance Rates AP participation Special Education Rates Grades Test scores Teacher Mobility Parent satisfaction Student satisfaction Quality of the learning community -climate Discipline Rates • Freire on learning • Freire on knowledge • Freire on democratic principles that operate in learning relationships • How should schools prepare students to take charge of learning? • Should school teach students how to construct knowledge that addresses their needs? Education Is Politics Critical Teaching Across Differences, K-12 Examines the influence of the work of Paulo Freire SUNY Press, 1999 Fundamental Questions in LIFE: What is my place in the social order? How do I learn my place? What is my position in the world? What is my world view? How does the world view me? Paulo Freire began teaching peasants in Brazil who were illiterate, and had no rights and no voice in governing. “Every person, regardless of education is capable of looking critically at the world.” Education – to understand the world. IF THESE WALLS COULD TALK, WHAT WOULD THEY SAY? “The information is up here. Follow along.” http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dGCJ46vyR9o How do these students view their education? Is text-based knowledge valuable in your life? Do the political and economic circumstances in the world matter regarding what you need to learn to flourish in life? Video made by a Cultural Anthropology class at Kansas State University Spring 2007 In your own words, explain what Freire means. The poor, through schools and other social experiences in their lives, are: • • • • • Objects rather than subjects Alienated Silenced Taught to internalize failure Not educated to understand their position in the world Banking Education What do you think is meant by banking education? Freire on “Banking” • • • • • • • Teacher teaches, students are taught Teacher knows everything, students know nothing Teacher talks students listen Teacher chooses, students comply Teacher acts, students follow passively Teacher holds authority, students are alienated The lives of the students don’t matter • Receive, memorize, repeat For FREIRE Knowledge emerges through invention and reinvention, restless, hopeful inquiry, Key elements of Freire’s approach to learning: View of knowledge • Teachers and students learn together. INQUIRY & DIALOGUE, ACTION & REFLECTION • Non-authoritarian. • Values all kinds of knowledge. • Seeks to connect knowledge with the reality of students’ lives. GROWTH AND What is your view about Freire’s talk about “liberation” and “empowerment”? Is this democratic in principle? Is talk about education for social justice and equality of opportunity based on democratic principles? Liberal Political Philosopher C.B. McPherson summarizes: FREIRE’S CHALLENGE: ARE WE REALLY DEMOCRATIC? Equality before the law Basic civil liberties for all Equal rights to self development Equal political voice for each citizen (the interests of each member of the community matter equally) In an open society, education benefits the STATE or the “society”. So a vision of the good state is needed. Its aim is TO CREATE AND SUSTAIN THE GOOD SOCIETY. Who decides the meaning of a good society? In turn– schooling benefits individuals (with skills and talents, opportunity, The state provides stability, and protection of the rights of all on an equal basis. A democracy rests on institutions providing equal opportunity.