Autonomous Surface Vehicle
MyAsia Reid1, Linda Kpormone Buame2, Amadi Sefah-Twerefour2, Prosper
Yaw Adiku2, George Owusu Fordah2, Center for Remote Sensing of Ice
Sheets (CReSIS), University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS 66045
1Elizabeth City State University, Elizabeth City, N C 27909
2Department of Oceanography & Fisheries, University of Ghana, Legon
Mentors: Dr. Eric Akers, Ben Panzer, Kyle Byers and Jerome Mitchell
OUTLINE
•Introduction
•Methodology
•Results
•Conclusion
•References
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Introduction
The response of organisms to changes in water
quality parameters enhances our understanding
of aquatic environment (Abowei, 2009).
MODIS) and SeaWIFs, are limited by
assumption of uniformity in pixels (Yuan et al,
2005). Designs limited to open oceans
http://www.alticore.eu/
•Insufficient sampling,
•Inaccuracy of geophysical corrections.
Sampling can be augmented by using more
than one mission (Bouffard et al, 2008)
Dunbabin et al, 2009
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Design considerations
Weight
Drag
Thrust
Buoyant force and Lift
•
•
•
Drag depends on size, shape &
speed: force due to drag
(F)= 0.5rhoV²CdA, lowest Cd is
the best
F is proportional to speed, >speed
needs more thrust and a greater
drain on power.
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Methodology
Design components
• Microcontroller (Atmega 328)
• Motor controllers (10A brushed)
• Breadboard
• SD Card Reader
• GPS
-shield (09487)
-module (EM 406)
• Temperature Sensors (LM335a)
• Batteries(12V/8Ah , 12V/18Ah)
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Design
ASV flowchart….
Primary Navigation systems
uMMC
data
storage
Module
Microcontroller
Motor controllers
GPS and Gyro
M2
M1
Sensor payload
Temperature sensor
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Final design of ASV
In the workshop
On land
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Arduino
• What is an Arduino?
– is a single-board
microcontroller and a software
suite for programming it. The
software consists of a
standard programming
language and the boot loader
that runs on the board.
– Microcontroller: The hardware
consists of a simple open
hardware design for the
controller with an Atmel AVR
processor and on-board I/O
support.
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Temperature sensor
LM335A
• Analog temperature
sensor
• Works like a Zener
diode
• Calibrated at 25°C at
and 5V input voltage
and a 2.982V output
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Navigation and Control (GPS)
GPS & Bearing….
• Satellite based navigation
system.
• Based on the network of 24
satellites.
• GPS intended for military
use, but available for
civilian use in the 1980’s.
• Works off satellite, tracking
positions of locations.
• For direction, tracking and
navigation.
www.diytrade.com
www.vialite.co.uk
www.rei.com
www.navigadget.com
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Credit: http://forums.garmin.com
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GPS-09487
GPS Shield
Connector Vertical SMD
for EM408
Coin Cell
Holder - 12mm
20 Channel EM-406A SiRF
EMwith
406Antenna
III Receiver
Credit: http://www.sparkfun.com/
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Bearing calculations..
• Bearing calculations done in radians
Bearing (x)
=atan2(sin(lon2-lon1)*cos(lat2),cos(lat1)*sin(lat2))sin(lat1)*cos(lat2)*cos(lon2lon1));degrees=x* 180/M_PI; (M_PI is the constant from math.h set for value of PI)
To ensure that it remains in proper range
Degrees=degrees + 360°; if degrees is less than 0
http://drifters.doe.gov/track-a-yoto/track-a-drifter.html
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Distance calculations
• Haversine distance calculations
dlat= lat2-lat1
dlon=lon2-lon1
a=pow(sin(dlat/2),2)+cos(lat1)*pow(sin(dlon/2),2);
c=2*atan2(sqrt(a),sqrt(1-a));
Distance= r*c;// radius of the earth in meters
r = 6378140m
Credit: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haversine_formula
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38.93,-95.35,
38.93,-95.35,
38.93,-95.35
38.93,-95.35
38.93,-95.35
38.93,-95.35,
38.93,-95.35
38.93,-95.35
,38.94,-95.35,
38.94,-95.35,
38.94,-95.35
38.94,-95.35,
38.94,-95.35,
38.94,-95.35,
38.94,-95.35,
38.94,-95.35,
38.94,-95.35,
38.94,-95.35,
38.94,-95.35,
38.94,-95.35
38.94,-95.35
38.93,-95.35
38.93,-95.35
38.93,-95.35
38.93,-95.35
38.93,-95.35
38.93,-95.35
38.93,-95.35
38.93,-95.35
38.93,-95.35
TEMPERATURE
Results
TEMPERATURE DATACOLLECTED DURING TEST , AT VARIOUS COORDINATES AT
CLINTON LAKE
20
18
16
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
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ASV navigating on Clinton Lake
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Conclusion
• An ASV that can navigate specific way point has
been built.
• Future work would focus on increasing sensor
capacity by putting on board more sensors as
well as buoy mode and possibly obstacle
avoidance.
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Acknowledgements
Thanks to:
• Dr. Eric Akers
• Dr. Claude Laird
• Dennis Sundermeyer
• Leon Searl
• Ben Panzer
• Kyle Byers
• Jerome Mitchell
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References
Abowei, J.F.N (2010) Salinity, Dissolved Oxygen, pH and Surface Water Temperature Conditions in Nkoro River, Niger Delta, Nigeria,
Advance Journal of Food Science and Technology 2(1): 36-40, 2010
Dunbabin, M., Alistair G. and J. Udy (2009) An Autonomous Surface Vehicle for Water Quality Monitoring Autonomous Systems
Laboratory, CSIRO ICT Centre, P.O. Box 883, Kenmore, QLD 4069, Australia.
Get
a
bearing.
Accessed
from
the
world
wide
web
on
14th
June,2010
at
http://geaology.isu.edu/geostac/Fieldexercie/topomaps/bearing.html
Great circle.Accessed from the world wide web on 18th July 2010 at www.answers.com/topic/great_circle
Haversine formula. Accessed from the world wide web on 8th July,2010 at www.absoluteastronomy.com/topics/Haversine_formula
Haversine formula.Accessed from the world wide web on 14th June 2010 at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haversine_formula
J. Bouffard,1 S. Vignudelli,2 P. Cipollini,3 and Y. Menard (2008) Exploiting the potential of an improved multimission altimetric data set
over the coastal ocean. Geophysical research letters, vol. 35, l10601, 2008
Latitude and Longitude general
www.csgnetwork.com/latloninfo.html
Mathematics<math.h>.Accessed
manual/group_avr_math.html
from
information.
the
world
Accessed
wide
web
from
the
on
25th
world
wide
June,2010
at
web
on
11th
June
2010
at
http://www.nongnu.org/avr-libc/user-
Rogue robotic [online] www.roguerobotics.com
What is latitude and longitude. Accessed from the world wide web on 18th July 2010 at www.rain.org/camp.internet/gis_latlong
What is programming? Accessed from the world wide web on 18th July 2010 at http://mysite.du.edu/~jcalert/math/program.html
Yuan, J., Dagg, M. J., Del Castillo C. E (2005) In-pixel variations of chl a fluorescence in the Northern Gulf of Mexico and their
implications for calibrating remotely sensed chl a and other products. Department of Marine Science, University of Southern Mississippi,
USA
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