No Longer Newcomers:
Teachers, Technology,
and Language Education
Paige D. Ware, Ph.D.
Ohio State TESOL Conference
October 31, 2008
No Longer Newcomers
•Put strong pedagogy first
•Start re-seeing technology
The Three R’s
•Resources
•Reservations
•Roles
Resources
•Tutor - Is it better?
•Tool
- Is it different?
Tutor
+
• Provides repetitive
practice; immediate
feedback and assessment;
typically on focused
language skills
• Lacks authentic
communication; questions
about generalizability
Tutor - Listening and Speaking
http://www.elllo.org/english/video.htm
Tutor - Reading and Vocabulary
 Translations into the native language
 Definitions in the target language
 Audio of the pronunciation
Tutor - Grammar and Writing
Discoveries and inventions have tremendous impact<Missing
articles> on our lives. There are a lot of inventions. For<Clause
errors> example, Electricity, Airplain<Spelling errors>, lamp,
telephone and paper etc.<Punctuation errors> I will tell about a
lamp. Thomas Edison<Spelling errors> invented it. What is
it's<Misused words> impact or influrence<Spelling errors> on
mankind? The lamp<Subject-verb agreement errors> make<Subjectverb agreement errors> human being work at anytime. We can work
anywhere. Experiments use it well.
The invention<Subject-verb agreement errors> of lamp
make<Subject-verb agreement errors> human being work at anytime.
We can work anywhere.
Experiments use it well.
(Songie/P3D1)
Excerpt from Semire Dikli, TESOL 2007
Tutor - Grammar and Writing
Advice: The expression 'tremendous impact' usually requires an article. Replace with [the tremendous
impact] or [a tremendous impact], or use the plural or a possessive like 'my'.
Error Category: USAGE Error
Label: Missing articles
Suggestions: the tremendous impact~a tremendous impact
Explanation: Missing Articles
These rules flag the possible absence of an article or determiner before single count nouns, some plural
nouns, nouns that require an article, and fixed expressions and proper nouns that require an article.
Examples:
Change: She used to be school teacher before she retired.
To: She used to be a school teacher before she retired.
Change: I ate apple for lunch.
To: I ate an apple for lunch.
Explanation:
The Missing Article rule suggests adding an appropriate definite or indefinite article, such as a or an, or
replacing the noun with a plural.
(Songie/P3D1)
Excerpt from Semire Dikli, TESOL 2007
Research ?
Example – AWE
(Automated Writing Evaluation)
Proponents of AWE
Should - motivate students to revise more
 But... although students revised more, almost all
revisions were at the lexical/sentence level
Should - save grading time so that students
can write more
 But... although teachers saved time, students did
not write more
Warschauer & Grimes, 2008
Critics of AWE
Might - replace writing teachers
 But... instead gave teachers more time to hold
conferences, plan lessons, & provide other types of
feedback
Might - have a negative effect on teaching
 But... teachers were able to blend MY Access! into
their teaching routine
Might – promote stilted writing
 But... little evidence--larger impact from the
pressure of high-stakes (5-paragraph) essay tests
---Warschauer & Grimes, 2008
Resources - Tutor
+
• Frees up instructor’s
time for other
pedagogical strategies
• Provides individualized
practice and feedback
at learner’s level
• Caters to individual
learner styles and
preferences
• Requires that
instructors learn and
teach the software
• Provides feedback that
can be too difficult for
learners to use
• Limits authentic
interaction to fixed
responses or
scenarios
Tool
• Native-speaking texts and
cultural materials
• Interactive websites
• Downloaded audio,
music, and visual files
• Computer-mediated
communication (email,
chat, conferencing, etc.)
Tool
Tool
Research ?
 Build fluency and spelling accuracy
 Foster motivation
 Provide authentic audience
 Offer community role models
 Build basic computing skills
 Promote reflective teaching
Example – Online Mentoring
Fo ru m: Wr ite your messa
g es her e !
Times Read:
21
Date: Sun Fe b 1 2 200 6 1 6 :52
Auth o r: s tude n t, Ana
< pware@ s mu .edu >
S u bj e ct: R e : S o m e quie s tion s for yo u .
ell , is thi n k tha t n o t ev e ry b od y lik e s pizza b u t th e re a lo t of p e ople th a t d oe s like it. A nd it' s
w o nd e rful tha t y ou a re g oin g to se n d me th a t p ict u re . An d I'm ve r y go od in pla y ing th e pia n o
and lea r nin g th in g s fa s t, an d I' m p r ou d ab o u t it, I d o l ike sp ort s a lo t, an d ne x t ye a r whe n I g o t o
7th g ra de m y te a che r sa id tha t s he is g on na sele c t me fo r trac k or b a sk e tball or b ot h of the m ,
because I'm p re tty g oo d do ing th os e thin g s t oo . A n d I 'm hap p y beca u se sh e i s g onn a le t m e d o
the thi n g s th a t I like so muc h . M y mo m u se to pla y vo leyball when sh e w a s like i n Hig h Sc ho ol ,
and she tol d m e that sh e is g oin g to tea c h ev e ry thin g a bo u t it, a nd I'm p re tty ex ited a b o u t it t o o . I
hope yo u all rig h t, an d is n o t f or p re s u m ir b u t m y b irt h day is on 1 4 mo re da ys !! : )
I'm v e ry happy , beca u se is a lm os t th e da y !!!!!!! !!!
I , Grace
!! !
I thin k you lik e peo p le to cal l you Grace r igh t? , b u t a no ther thin g I wa n t to te ll you is tha t
thankyo u fo r answe r m y que s tion s , and I do n t car e if pi ctures th a t yo u hav e ar e ol d , o r
some thin g . I thin k th a t is grea t to as k you ques tions be cause I ca n know y o u mor e an d a ll th a t
kind o f s ta ff , yo u kno w , like th ings th a t yo u like to do o r some thin g lik e tha t.
An d I f org e t to t e ll y o u a b ou t that e ver y fr iday aft e r sc h o ol , w e s tay in a r oom w ith M rs .W a re
and A u n d rey or I thi n k that 's ho w it spel l he r n a me , a n d they a re te a chi n g u s a b ou t ho w to make
m ovi e s, an d it 's ver y in ter e sti n g a n d fu n .
We ll, fo r n o w I ju st w o nd e r yo u r an s w e r o f t hi s e - m ai l, a n d t alk a b ou t s o m e o t he r th ing s ,
w h ateve r y ou w an t t o tal k a bou t, I d o nt c ar e , it ca n b e s om e int e rst ing t hin g s o r no t ,
for rig ht n o w I hav e t o go ok , se e y o u lat e r, a n d a n swe r b ack ok.
Bye and Take
B Y E. .....
B YE
care!!
( When is your birthday?)
Example – Online Mentoring
Pre-writing
Post-writing
Total Impact
Writing
fluency
141.6 words/
30 minutes
Spelling
errors
10.6% spelled
incorrectly
225.8 words/
30 minutes
84.2 word
increase in
fluency
5.3% spelled
incorrectly
5.3%
reduction of
errors
Resources - Tool
+
• Provides varied
opportunities for authentic
written and verbal
communication
• Pushes students into
authentic communication at
all levels
• Supports development of
students’ metacognitive and
metalinguistic skills
• Requires pedagogical &
technological knowledge
from teacher to exploit fully
the tool’s advantages
• Makes use of English (and
technology) used in
academic, social, and
workforce settings
• Requires both initiative and
independent work from
students
The Three R’s
•Resources
•Reservations
•Roles
http://english.unitecnology.ac.nz/resources/units/cartoons/
faces.gif
•The LCD projector is not
mapping to your laptop.
• You must use a new software
program not necessarily
backed by research, and you
receive no training.
6% of the budget
80% of teachers
• You must explain the difference
between CALL, NBLLT, and CMC.
CALL: Computer-Assisted Language
Learning
NBLLT: Network-based Language
Learning and Teaching
CMC: Computer-mediated
Communication
• You must present a talk on
how to use wikis.
• You must present a talk about
how to use wikis.
• You must present a talk about
how to use wikis.
Computers In The Closet
OVERLOADED &
=
UNDERSUPPORTED
Reservations
1. Hard to trust
2. Hard to decipher
3. Hard to understand
4. Hard to keep up with
The Three R’s
•Resources
•Reservations
•Roles
New role = innovative role?
I'm pretty sure that I will be a good teacher when I
grow up. And I think I'm pretty but I'm not sure
about that. When I get mad is thanks to a boy. I like
to play video games too. . . --Silvia, 12 years old
“hy my sprin brek wos borin cos i diren bon naten des
ste sterin the wall cos i wos panish cos i hit my breter
cos hi wos roin in the hausi end thas hoan i hit may
broter.”
--Gabriel, 11 years old
I'm pretty sure that I will be a good teacher when I grow up. And I
think I'm pretty but I'm not sure about that. When I get mad is
thanks to a boy. I like to play video games too. . . --Silvia, 12
years old
The book was about a girl named Anastacia and the girl
hade a green note book and in the notebook she writ
all the staff that she likes and the staff that she geits.
Like her teacher and the man front the front of the
streat. That was what the book was about. --Silvia, 12
years old
Tutor: Automated writing evaluation software
to practice academic writing skills
Tool/medium: Wiki to provide for authentic,
project-based learning in a social medium
“hy my sprin brek wos borin cos i diren bon naten des
ste sterin the wall cos i wos panish cos i hit my breter
cos hi wos roin in the hausi end thas hoan i hit may
broter.”
--Gabriel, 11 years old
Tutor: Reading tutor to work on phonemic and
graphophonemic awareness and highfrequency words
Tool/medium: Movie-making software to
provide oral interaction in a context-rich
visual environment
TESOL Technology Standards
 Prompt teachers to learn to use technology in their
teaching
 Articulate a clear set of stages for the development
of teacher IT competence
 Provide direction and motivation for integrating
technology into teacher education
 Guide administrators and policy makers
 Help minimize the digital divide - between countries
and within countries
Teacher Standards
 Goal 1 - Language teachers acquire and maintain
foundational skills and knowledge in technology for
professional purposes
 Goal 2 - Language teachers integrate pedagogical
knowledge and skills with technology to enhance
language teaching and learning
 Goal 3 - Language teachers apply technology in recordkeeping, feedback, and assessment
 Goal 4 - Language teachers use technology to improve
communication, collaboration, and efficiency
Digital Immigrants,
Digital Natives
1. There is no “critical age hypothesis”
for learning technology.
2. There is no “idealized native
speaker.”
3. There is no homogenous “digital
culture.”
The Bottom Line
There is no good use of
technology without solid
pedagogy-- and in that,
teachers are certainly
no longer newcomers.
Final thoughts on the
Three
R’s
• Opens up the classroom to a wider
range of resources
• Asks us to examine--and navigate
through--our reservations
• Challenges us to consider our everchanging roles
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Images - Ohio University