Group 8
David Morrow
Ricardo Rodriguez
Shane Theobald
Nick Bauer
University of Central Florida
College of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science
Senior Design Fall 2011

Wanted to gain experience in many different
engineering disciplines
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C# - GUI
Optics – Laser Range Finder
Wireless Communication
Controlling Peripheral Devices via Microcontroller

Calculate the GPS coordinates of a user
specified target using the following
components.
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Wireless Camera
Laser Rangefinder
Digital Compass
GPS Module
Minimize
◦ Cost
◦ Weight
◦ Power Consumption

Target Specs
◦ 50m minimum distance
◦ 1000m maximum distance
◦ 10m x 10m minimum target size

Accuracy
◦ Rangefinder distance within ±10m
◦ Self GPS coordinates within 5m radius of true
location
◦ Compass heading within ±1° of true heading
◦ Final target GPS coordinates within 50m radius of
true location

Methods of Laser Rangefinding
◦ Triangulation
 Easiest method both conceptually and design
 Based on geometry
 Increasingly less accurate as range increases
◦ Interferometry
 Most accurate method of laser rangefinding
 Can measure small distances on order of wavelengths
◦ Time-of-flight
 Can measure very large distances with great accuracy
 This is the approach that we will implement
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Photodetector
HV Power Supply
Front End Amplifier (Transimpedance Amp)
NIR optical filter
Receiver Lens

Pros
◦ Highly Sensitive Photodetectors
◦ Make use of avalanche multiplication for increased
gain
◦ High Speed
◦ Designed for rangefinder applications
◦ Allows for larger maximum range detection

Cons
◦ Require HV reverse bias to get maximum gain
◦ Exhibit higher dark current than alternatives
◦ Small active area makes alignment difficult
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Peak Spectral Response
Cost and Availability
Minimum Dark Current
Required Bias Voltage

Enhanced for NIR detection at 900nm
Spectral Response at M = 100
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Low noise equivalent power = 10fW/√Hz
TO-52 Package allows for easy mounting
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Proportional Input/Output Voltage
250VDC when full 5V input applied
Low peak-to-peak ripple (<1%)
Maximum Output Current 4mA
Low turn on voltage of 0.7V
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Converts photocurrent into voltage
High Slew Rate at 290V/µs
Low Input Noise Voltage 7nV/√HZ
FREE—Sampled
0.9
0.8
0.7
Transmission
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2

0.1
0
860 870 880 890 900 910 920 930 940 950
Wavelenth in nm
Filter Specs
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◦
◦
◦
2 in X 2in X .1in
CWL 905.9nm
BBW 54.0nm
Peak transmission 79%
Lens Tube Assembly
Receiver
Electronics
Prec =
Ptx e(-αRtx) ρ e(- αRrx) Arx Topt
πRrx2

Prevent False Alarms
◦ Capture as much energy as possible
◦ Keep noise floor low
◦ Set threshold
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Output Power—Need high power laser diode
to meet maximum range criterion
Pulsewidth—Must have short pulsewidth to
have high axial (range) resolution (V x τp)
Wavelength—Transmitter near peak
responsivity of photodetector.
Beam Divergence—low divergence angle to
ensure maximum energy on target
HA!

SPL-PL-90_3
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TO-18 Package
Divergence 9 x 25 gradient degrees
Minimum Rise/Fall time 1ns
Threshold Current 0.75A
Peak wavelength 905nm
Power output 75W
Peak Current 40A
Typical Voltage 9V
Pulsewidth 5-100ns
5mm
5.9mm

Pros
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◦
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Very small in size at 1”x2.5”
Produces fixed pulsewidth at 15ns
Can produce up to 50A diode drive current
Diode mounts easily to CCA. (Radial or Axial
options)
Cons
◦ Also requires high voltage source
◦ 33ns propagation delay
◦ Difficult T-zero capture

Supply Current
◦ Ips = (Cpfn + Cfet + Cstray) * Vin * f
◦ Ips = (4000pF + 120pF + 430pF) *195V *1Hz
=0.9µA

Output Current
◦ Directly dependent on HV supply (195V is max)

JP1 Connection
P in 1
Gro u n d
P in 2
15V @ 1m A (su p p o rt p o w e r)
P in 3
Gro u n d
P in 4
Gate (Trigge r) 5V
P in 5
Gro u n d
P in 10
HV in (0 - 195V @ I ps )
Transmitter
Electronics

High Voltage

15V

10-13V

±5V
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5V

3.3V
◦ Diode Driver Board – 195Vmax
◦ Avalanche Photodiode – 240V
◦ Diode Driver Board
◦ Camera System
◦ Comparator
◦ Op Amps
◦ High Voltage Power Supply
◦ Microprocessor
◦ TDC

Creates a digital value for the laser pulses
time of flight from the transmitter to the
receiver.
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2 channels with 50 ps rms resolution
Measurement from 3.5ns to 1.8ms
Fire pulse generator
I/O voltage 1.8v – 5.5v
Core voltage 1.8 – 3.6v
4 wire SPI interface
QFN 32 Package
5mm
5mm

Microcontroller
◦ Programming Language: C
◦ Development Environment: Arduino Uno IDE
◦ Handles data collection and peripheral control

GUI
◦ Programming Language: C#
◦ Development Environment: MS Visual Studio
◦ Receives user input and displays relevant
information
GPS
Compass
MCU
XBee
TDC
Pan & Tilt
Clock Speed
Core Size
I/O Pins
Package Size
Memory
UART/I2C/SPI/PMW
Operating Voltage
Price
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•
16 MHz
8 bit
14
DIP 28
32 kB
2/1/2/6
1.8 – 5.5V
$6.27
Mounted on Arduino development board
Arduino Uno development environment compatibility
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C Programming language
Allows for flexible troubleshooting
Large support community
SPI, I2C, & Serial libraries
Input Voltage
Input Current
Baud Rate
C/A code
Comm. Protocol
Accuracy
Price
4.5 – 6.5V
44 mA
4800
1.023 MHz
UART; RS-232
5m WAAS
$59.95
5cm
5cm
Input Voltage
Input Current
Field Range
Resolution
Comm. Protocol
Weight
Price
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•
2.7 – 3V
2 – 10mA
0.1 gauss
0.5 degrees
I2C
0.14 grams
$34.95
Two axis digital compass
Provides heading in degrees from
magnetic north
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100ft radial distance
Omni-directional link
Low Power Consumption
Input Voltage
RX/TX Current
Transmit Power
TX Sensitivity
RF Data Rate
Baud Rate
Frequency Band
Indoor Range
Outdoor Range
Protocol
Antenna
Price
2.8 – 3.6V
40 mA
2 mW (+3 dBm)
-98 dBm
250 Kbps
1200 – 1 Mbps
2.4 GHz
133ft
400ft
Zigbee (802.15.4)
Whip (dipole)
$25.95 (X2)
3cm
3cm
Operating Voltage
Operating Speed (6V)
Stall Torque
Operating Angle
Current Drain (6V)
Motor Type
Weight
Price
4.8 – 6V
.18 sec/600
83.3 oz/in
450
8.8 mA / 180 mA
3 Pole Ferrite
1.59 oz
$16.99
Weight (w/o servos)
Tilt Swing
Max. Payload
Price
5.5 oz
135o
2 lbs
$45.99

1/3” Sony CCD microboard camera
◦ NTSC format
◦ 510x492 pixels

900MHz Tx/Rx combo
Connect
to XBee
and
Video
Open
GUI
no
Poll
GPS
User
Input
yes
Fire
Laser
Poll
Compass
Display
Info
Move
Camera
PositionalData
Target
RangeFinder
- double CompassHeading
+ PositionalData targetData
+ PositionalData Info
- double latitude
+ RangeFinder rangefinderData
+ int distance
- CalculateGPS()
- PollGPS()
- DisplayData()
- PollCompass()
- string LatitudeHeading
- double longitude
- string LongitudeHeading
- PollLaser()
- DisplayData()

Given:
◦ Self GPS Coordinates
 Latitude (N/S ddmm.mmmm)
 Longitude (E/W ddmm.mmmm)
◦ Distance to target (m)
◦ Heading clockwise from magnetic north (deg)

Calculate:
◦ Target GPS Coordinates
 Latitude (N/S ddmm.mmmm)
 Longitude (E/W ddmm.mmmm)

Spherical Law of Cosines
lat2 = sin-1[ sin(lat1)*cos(d/R) + cos(lat1)*sin(d/R)*cos(Θ) ]
lon2 = lon1 + tan-12 cos(lat1)*sin(d/R)*sin(Θ)
cos(d/R) - sin(lat1)*sin(lat2)
[
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◦
◦
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◦
Self GPS coordinates (lat1, lon1)
Distance to target (d)
Heading (Θ)
Radius of the earth (R)
Target GPS coordinates (lat2, lon2)
]
S u b s y s te m
C o s t A n a ly s is B u d g e t
L a se r S yste m
$ 7 7 0 .2 9
$ 8 5 0 .0 0
Tim e to D ig ita l C o nve rsio n
C a m e ra S yste m
C o m p a ss M o d ule
$ 3 5 .0 0
$ 0 .0 0
$ 3 5 .0 0
$ 5 0 .0 0
$ 1 0 0 .0 0
$ 5 0 .0 0
G P S M o d ule
W ire le ss S yste m
M icro co ntro lle r
P o we r S yste m
M o unting F ixture a nd S e rvo M o to rs
P C B C o nstructio n
$ 7 9 .9 9
$ 5 0 .0 0
$ 3 1 .2 7
$ 0 .0 0
$ 0 .0 0
$ 0 .0 0
$ 1 0 0 .0 0
$ 1 0 0 .0 0
$ 5 0 .0 0
$ 2 5 .0 0
$ 1 0 0 .0 0
$ 7 5 .0 0
$ 1 ,0 0 1 .5 5
$ 1 ,5 0 0 .0 0
T O T AL S :
R a n g e fin d e r C o m p o n e n ts
Q u a n tity P a rt N a m e
C ost
T o ta l
2
1
1
L a se r D io d e O S RA M S P L P L 9 0 _ 3
D io d e D rive r IX YS P C O 7 1 1 0 -5 0 -1 5
A P D P a cific S ilico n A D 2 3 0 -9 TO 5 2 -S 1
$ 5 5 .0 0 $ 1 1 0 .0 0
$ 2 0 7 .2 0 $ 2 0 7 .2 0
$ 9 2 .5 3
$ 9 2 .5 3
1
1
1
1
2
1
O p tica l B a nd P a ss F ilte r
L a se r D io d e C o llim a tio n Tub e
Re ce ive r E xte nsio n Tub e
Re ce ive r L e ns
HV P o we r S up p ly E M C O A 0 2 5
O p -A m p TI O P A 6 5 6
$ 3 0 .0 0
$ 3 0 .0 0
$ 1 5 .0 0
$ 1 5 .0 0
$ 1 4 0 .0 0 $ 1 4 0 .0 0
$ 3 4 .0 0
$ 3 4 .0 0
$ 6 5 .7 8 $ 1 3 1 .5 6
$ 0 .0 0
$ 0 .0 0
1
A sso rte d Re sisto rs/C a p a cito rs
$ 1 0 .0 0
$ 1 0 .0 0
P H A S E 1 - C o m p o n e n ts
21%
GPS
38%
M ic roc ontroller C om m unic ation
4-S ep
D ata M anipulation in G U I
4-S ep
X
25%
X
50%
C om pass
38%
M ic roc ontroller C om m unic ation
11-S ep
D ata M anipulation in G U I
11-S ep
X
25%
X
50%
C a m e ra
17%
W ireles s C om m unic ation
18-S ep
V ideo in G U I
18-S ep
X
X
O ptic s
18-S ep
X
0%
50%
0%
S e rv o s
5%
M ic roc ontroller C om m unic ation
25-S ep
H ardw are S etup
25-S ep
X
10%
X
0%
W ire le s s S y s te m
25%
M ic roc ontroller Interfac e
30-S ep
G U I Interfac e
30-S ep
X
50%
X
0%
P o w e r S y s te m
H ardw are S etup
0%
30-S ep
X
X
X
X
0%
Laser Tx
28%
H ardw are S etup
11-S ep
X
X
25%
O ptic s
11-S ep
X
X
60%
C alibration
11-S ep
X
X
0%
Laser R x
42%
H ardw are S etup
25-S ep
X
X
25%
O ptic s
25-S ep
X
X
100%
C alibration
25-S ep
X
X
0%
T im e to D ig ita l
0%
M ic roc ontroller C om m unic ation
2-O c t
C alibration
2-O c t
X
0%
X
X
0%
D a v id
N ic k
R ic a rd o
S hane
P H A S E 2 - S y s te m In te g ra tio n
4%
GU I
13%
Target G P S A lgorithm
9-O c t
X
Live V ideo
16-O c t
X
X
50%
S ervo C ontrol
23-O c t
X
X
Las er C ontrol
30-O c t
X
0%
0%
X
X
0%
H o u s in g
0%
C am era, Las er Tx /R x A lignm ent
16-O c t
X
X
X
0%
P roperly m ounted c om ponents
23-O c t
X
X
X
X
0%
C om pac t D es ign
30-O c t
X
X
X
X
0%
PCB
0%
D es igned
16-O c t
X
X
X
X
0%
M anufac tured
30-O c t
X
X
X
X
0%
P H A S E 3 - T e s tin g
0%
T e s tin g
R angefinder
0%
13-N ov
X
X
0%
GPS
6-N ov
X
X
0%
C om pas s
6-N ov
X
X
0%
S ervo C ontrol
6-N ov
X
X
0%
A lgorithm
6-N ov
X
0%
13-N ov
X
0%
G UI
D a v id
N ic k
R ic a rd o
S hane
D a te
Ph ase 1 Ph ase 2 Ph ase 3
2 9 -A u g
5%
0%
0%
5 -S e p
10%
0%
0%
1 2 -S e p
16%
0%
0%
1 9 -S e p
21%
4%
0%
2 6 -S e p
0%
0%
0%
3 -O c t
100%
0%
0%
1 0 -O c t
100%
0%
0%
1 7 -O c t
100%
0%
0%
2 4 -O c t
100%
0%
0%
3 1 -O c t
100%
0%
0%
7 -N o v
100%
100%
0%
1 4 -N o v
100%
100%
0%
2 1 -N o v
100%
100%
0%
2 8 -N o v
100%
100%
0%
5 -D e c
100%
100%
100%
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Environmental conditions
Laser transmitter and receiver alignment
Divergence
t0 Timing
Cost
◦ Replacing broken parts
QUESTIONS?
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Project “RedEye” - UCF Department of EECS