Theme Two: Types of Language Syllabus Shen Chen School of Education The University of Newcastle Characteristics of A Syllabus Consists of a comprehensive list of Content items (words, structure, topics). Process items (tasks, methods). Is ordered (easier, more essential items first). Has explicit objectives (usually expressed in the introduction). Is a public document. May indicate a time schedule. May indicate a preferred methodology or approach. May recommend materials. Cambridge University Press 1995 Types of Syllabuses Grammatical Lexical (Willis, 1990) Grammatical-lexical Situational Topic-based Notional (Wilkins, 1976) Functional-notional (Van Ek, 1990) Mixed or “multi-strand” Procedural (Prabhu, 1987) Process (Candlin, 1984; Clarke, 1991) Ur, 1996:178-179 Clarifying the definitions Syllabus is often used to refer to the subjectmatter content of a given course or a series of courses (first, second, third semesters or years). The term curriculum also refers to course content, but it incorporates goal statements for different language skills areas (listening, reading, speaking and writing) and learning outcomes for a prescribed sequence of instruction. Ramirez, 1995:85 Structural Syllabi Grammar-based views of language have resulted in structural syllabi organized principally around sentence patterns and grammatical features. Ramirez, 1995:85 Communicative-based Syllabi Communicative-based syllabi have organized and sequenced instructional content around such language functions as identifying, reporting, requesting and apologizing. Ramirez, 1995:85 Proficiency-based Curriculum A Proficiency-based curriculum presents language content in relation to linguistic levels (novice, intermediate, advanced and superior levels) according to language functions, content and accuracy. Ramirez, 1995:85 Task-based Curriculum A task-based curriculum organized language content on the basis of learner activities such as using the telephone, reading for information, answering inquiries and following instructions. Ramirez, 1995:85 Situational-based Syllabi Situational-based frameworks sequence language content around social settings and the activities associated with these settings, such as shopping at a supermarket, eating at a restaurant or friend’s home and visiting a hospital due to an emergency. Ramirez, 1995:85 Tutorial questions: What are the advantages and disadvantages of these different types of syllabi? In designing your own syllabus, what kind of elements you should take into consideration?