Communicative Language
Teaching
(A functional approach since 1970s):
it is an approach, not a method; a
unified but broadly based theoretical
position about the nature of language
and of language learning and teaching.
Definition
• Teaching materials needed to express and understand
different kinds of functions, such as requesting,
describing, expressing likes and dislikes
• follows a Notional Syllabus or some other
communicatively organized syllabus and emphasizes
the processes of communication, such as using language
appropriately in different kinds of tasks, e.g.
• to solve puzzles, to get information, and using language
for social interaction with other people
The principles
• communication, task, meaningfulness
principles
• the communication principle: Activities that
involve communication promote lg learning.
• the task principle: Activities that involve the
completion of real-world tasks promote
learning.
• the meaningfulness principle: Learners must be
engaged in meaningful and authentic language
use for learning to take place.
• The role of the teacher:
1- facilitator of students’ learning
2- manager of classroom activities
3- advisor
4- co-communicator
• The role of the learner:
1- negotiator
2- communicator
3- contributor
4- independent learner
Main features
• Emphasis on learning to communicate in the
TL
• The introduction of authentic texts into
learning situations
• Focus on the learning process
• Making use of learner’s own personal
experiences
• Creating real communication situations in the
classroom
Influences
• The primary function of language is for interaction
and communication.
• Language is a system for the expression of meaning.
• The activities that truly communicative have features
of information gap, choice, and feedback; they must
be guided by the teacher for unrehearsed situations.
• Authentic materials should be used.
• True communication is purposeful.
• Activities are better carried out in small groups in
which interaction among students are maximized.
Criticism
• Being prejudiced in favor of native-speaker
teachers by demanding a relatively
• uncontrolled range of language use and expecting
the teacher to be able to respond to any and every
language problem which may come up.
• A basis of group and pair work and less teacher
intervention against education traditions
• Lack of the explicit teaching of grammar -> a
consequent loss among students in accuracy in the
pursuit of fluency.
Practice in the Classroom
• Grammatical structures had better be subsumed
under various functional categories.
• Authentic materials are preferred.
• There should be less attention to grammatical
rules but fluency should never be encouraged at
the expense of clear, unambiguous, direct
communication.
• Technology and increased teachers’ lg proficiency
now make achieving the goals of CLT possible.
Non-communicative activities
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No communicative desire
No communicative purpose
Form not content
One language item only
Teacher intervention
Materials control
Communicative activities
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A desire to communicate
A communicative purpose
Content not form
Variety of language
No teacher intervention
No materials control
Student participation
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1- Mohammad Al-Roumi
2-Mohammad Al-Shmaly
3-Abdulaziz Al-Roumi
4-Abdulaziz Al-Baddah
5-Ahmad Al-Farhood
6-Abdulmajed Al-Hadba
7-Abdulmohsen Al-Tayar
8-Mohammed AL-Hilfi
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Communicative Language Teaching