2nd lecture
• 2-7
• 7-16
• Concrete operational:7-11
• Formal operational: 11-16
1) Ausubel (1964) pointed at the connection
stating the question:
Dose the capacity of formal, abstract thought have
a facilitating or inhabiting effect on language
acquisition in adults?
Adults contrary to children, would profit from
grammatical explanations and deductive
That children are highly centred. The lack of
flexibility and of decentration is necessary for
LA. They acquire language easily as they are
not aware of the social values or attitudes.
However, we cannot state that adults could not
be successful language learners.
So, variables may lie outside the cognitive
domain entirely, but centrally in the emotional
The superiority of children in implicit learning
(acquisition of linguistic patterns without
explicit attention or instruction).
Although studies have shown hat adults could
use explicit mechanisms to master implicit
rules, still mental ability to induce abstract
patterns starts at early stages.
Dekeyser’s belief indifferently. He argues that
a strong case for critical period must show a
discontinuity in learning outcomes . Changes
could be related to changes of age.
The growth of the dominance of the left
hemisphere contributes to tendency to be
intellectually centred on the task of SLL.
Equilibration is: progressive organization of
knowledge in a stepwise fashion.
This is moving from states of doubts and
uncertainty (dequilibrium) to stages of
resolution and certainty (equilibrium) and then
back to further doubt, that is in time also
resolved at (14-15). Children become aware of
contradictions and ambiguities as they grow
and become intellectual to reach resolutions.
There is no room for rote learning. Both
children and adults learn language in natural
meaningful contexts.
We should not depend on rote activities in
1) Egocentricity: children are self-focused
2) Inhibitions: children develop and
experience physical, cognitive, and emotional
changes. They learn how to relate to others
socially and communicate to reach effective
3) Language ego: the identity a person
develops in reference to a language. It is the
interaction of native language and ego
4) Second identity:
5) Attitudes:
6: Peer pressure:
1)Bilingualism: learning two languages
(inserting one
language into
Errors made by effects of 1st and 2nd language
interference. E.g:
Possessions – gender – word order- verb forms
questions, and negations
Adults use 1st language to fill the gap that he
cannot fill by generalization.
In child learning, interference rarely happens.
Children use creative construction instead.
 There are 5 determinants of acquisition order:
1- Perceptual silence (hear or see a structure)
2- Semantic complexity (how to express
3- Morpho-phonological regularity (the effect of
phonological environment on morphology)
4- Syntactic category (grammatical forms)
5- Frequency in the input
1- competence and performance
2- comprehension and production
3- nature or nurture
5- systematicity and variability
6- language and thought
7- imitation
8- practice and frequency
9- input
1)Asher (1977) total physical response (TPR)
(commands- interrogatives)
2) (Krashen & Terrell , 1983) natural approach:
Communication skills
Silent period vs. Comprehensible input

Age and acquisition