Writing For Publication
Prof. Dr. Didi Sukyadi
Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia
Presented at
Siliwangi International English Conference
Tasikmalaya, 28 November 2014
Before Writing
• Decide our area of expertise
• Do a lot of reading
• Use Open Sources from the Internet: e.g.
• http://www.linguistlist.org/
• Do a critical reading in a specific area
• Discuss the topic of interest with or our
What to Write?
Conceptual paper
Review: State of the arts paper
Book review
Research-based paper
Structure of an Abstract
1. Introduction
2. Method
3. Result
4. Discussion
5. Conclusion/implication
Stage 1
• Step 1
• create a research space by stating the
importance of our study. For example:
• “Minangkabaunese is commonly known for its
ragam adat, a specific cultural-traditional style
of the language that has been regarded as having
a high value. However, over the last two decades,
the ragam adat tends to dry up” (from Adnan,
Step 2
• indicate the gaps by indicating discrepancies,
disparities, and weaknesses of previous research
using however, but, unfortunately. For example:
• “This theory (Minimalist theory) stands out for
its greater power of generalization, and yet it
lacks the capacity to explain some natural
language data, namely, language not only as a
set of grammatical sentences, but also a means
of social communication reflecting socio-cultural
values of its speakers.” (from Adnan, 2009).
Step 3
• describe the present study that we are doing. For
• The purpose of this research is ….
• This paper is to present thoroughly the
orthography of the languages in Alor regency.
(from Adnan, 2009).
Stage 2
• Step 1
• Describe the research procedures. For example:
• “Data are taken from audio-recording. Verbal
reactions from the interactions in class are
analyzed using the critical discourse analysis
theory based on the principles of systemicfunctional grammar”
Stage 3
• summarise the results by describing briefly the
main findings that we have found according to
the research objectives. For example:
• “It can be concluded that that interpersonal
relationship is still very much dominated by the
teachers who have the managerial authority as
well as the knowledge in class.”
Stage 4
• End the abstract by evaluating or comparing our
work with another. For example:
• “These results indicate that speakers of
Indonesian are only capable of using the
language in survival and social communication.”
• Stage 1: Deciding the area or research
• Step 1: Make a central claim
• - Recently, there has been considerable interest
in Islamic Syariat (law) and the state.
• - In recent years, a number of scholars have reexamined the role of Islamic law and the state.
• - In the last few years, the issue of Islamic
syariat has attracted a lot of interest.
Step2: Generalize about the study
• Many people believe that there have been renewed
efforts to establish Islamic law in Indonesia since
the fall of Suharto. (from Adnan, 2009).
• This view has received a considerable support
recently. For example, ….
• There have been many critics toward the view that
• Some Islamic parties in Indonesia have attempted
to revive Islamic syariah in Indonesia.
• Recently, Indonesia and several other countries in
Asia were hit by tsunami disaster.
• Currently, Indonesia is having multi-facet crises.
(from Adnan, 2009).
Step 3: Review the previous studies
• Although learners have authored multimodally
(i.e., written essays, book reports, science fair
posters) for decades, the degree and kind of
meaning making at learners’ disposal have
arguably expanded, especially with regard to the
potential audience and interactivity surrounding
the texts they author (for discussions of these
changes and their effects, see Bezemer & Kress,
2008; Carrington & Robinson, 2009; Rowsell &
Walsh, 2011).
Stage 2: Decide the specific area of
• Step 1: Contradict or argue about the claims of
other researchers.
• However, this approach suffers from a number
of weaknesses
• However, the claim has several limitations
• Unfortunately, this view is rather weak. (from
Adanan, 2009).
Step 2: Find the gap or a lack of
• The idea of multimodality has been studied since
the 4th century BC, when classical rhetoricians
alluded to it with their emphasis on voice,
gesture, and expressions in public speaking
(Wysocki, 2002). But the term did not gain
much attention until the 20th century. (Liu &
Qu, 2014)
Step 3: Propose a new question
• This study is quite informative, but there are
still questions to be answered.
• From these studies, one important question
remains unanswered.
Step 4: Continue the tradition
• Studies about the impacts of tsunami have
covered only the areas around Banda Aceh.
These studies should also cover other areas in
order to gain a more complete picture of the
impacts of the disaster. (from Adnan, 2009).
Stage 3: Describe our own study
• Step 1: Mention the main objectives
• The purposes of this study are …
• This study was designed in order to …
• Step 2: Explain the structure of the paper
• This article follows the following structure.
• This article is structured in the following way.
Step 3
• Step 3: Report the present study
• This study examined the implementation of
liberal democracy in Indonesia since
Indonesian independence.
• In this research, rhetorical patterns of research
articles were studied.
• describes, compares, contrasts and evaluates the
major theories, arguments, themes,
methodologies, approaches and controversies in
the scholarly literature on a subject.
• connects, compares and contrasts these
arguments, themes and methodologies etc., with
the concerns of a proposed piece of research
• not an annotated bibliography, not a summary
listed one by one like a collage, and not a
descriptive summary of the historical
background to a topic.
Sources for Literary Review
• Primary source: Original research from
journals, articles or conferences, original
materials such as historical documents, or
creative works such as art or literature.
• Secondary source: Evaluations, reviews or
syntheses of original work
• Tertiary source: Broadly scoped material put
together usually from secondary sources to
provide an overview, e.g. a textbook.
Criteria of Source Selection
• relevance –contribute to the development of your
topic, clarify your position, provide an alternative
point of view you wish to argue against or provide
useful primary source material.
• authority –published in a reputable journal, have
been critically evaluated, been used extensively as a
source material, been peer reviewed or be a
recognised authority in the area.
• currency – it should be recent research or still be
influential in the area.
When Writing a Literature Review
• 1. Cite: keep the primary focus on the literature.
• 2. Compare the various arguments, theories,
methodologies, approaches and findings expressed in
the literature
• 3. Contrast the various arguments, themes,
methodologies, approaches and controversies expressed
in the literature
• 4. Critique the literature: which arguments are more
persuasive, and why? Which approaches, findings,
methodologies seem most reliable, valid, or appropriate,
and why?
• 5. Connect the literature to your own area of research
and investigation: how does your own work draw
on/depart from/synthesise what has been said in the
• Introduction: Introduce the topic/problem and
the context within which it is found.
• Body: Examine past research in the area
highlighting methodological and/or theoretical
developments, areas of agreement, contentious
areas, important studies and so forth. State clearly
how your work builds on or responds to earlier
• Conclusion: Summarise what has emerged from
the review of literature and reiterate conclusions
• Qualitative
• Quantitative
• Mixed Method
• When the method is general, describe it
“This study utilizes a true experimental design
with a random sampling assignment involving
30 respondents for control groups and the same
number of respondents for control group.”
• When the method is specific, describe it more
Pre-experimental design ( X T, T1 X T2, G1 X T
G2 T
True-experimental design
G1 (random) X T
G2 (random) T
• G1 (random) T1 X T2
• G2 (random) T1
Time Series
• T1 T2 T3 X T4 T5 T6
• T1 X T2 __ T3 0 T4___T5 X T6__T7)T8
Ex post facto Design
Factorial design
Nominal, interval, ordinal data,
Dependent, independent, moderator,
intervening variable
• Questionnaire,
• Test
• Validit, reliability, practicality
• Types of data: texts-oral or written; words,
phrases, or sentences
• Instrument: open ended questions, interview,
corpus, images, artifacts
• Field notes from observation
• Interview transcript: follow standard convention
• Video recording
• Ethnongraphy
Findings and Discussions
• Results & Discussion are separated
• Results and Discussion Integrated
• We can use structure: a-b a-b: Findings are
followed by comments or discussions; then
findings followed by discussions.
• We can also use structure: a-a-a-b. In this case
we write down several findings, the follow them
with our comments about them. The findings are
commented at the same time.
TENSES: Abst, Intr. and Lit review
• Use simple past for abstract
• Use simple present for introduction
• use simple present to indicate that we believe that the
findings cited are still true and relevant even though the
original studies were carried out in the past.
• Use simple present to state theories or discuss our
opinions concerning other research or literature.
• Use present perfect to refer to previous research to
show currency or recency of the materials.
• Use simple past to refer to other scholars’ opinions
that was true in the past but may have changed.
• Use present perfect or simple present to refer to
views or past research findings that are still relevant to
the current time.
• Use mainly used with reporting verbs (e.g. find, explain,
TENSES: Method
Use simple past in METHOD SECTION, to
refer to what we did in our study.
Passive voice is often used.
Use simple present to refer to figures or
diagrams which helps explain what we did,
Use simple past to refer to other scholars’
research methods and results at the time of
the research.
TENSES: Findings and Discussions
• Use simple past to detail the findings we
• Use present tense to refer to figures, tables
and graphs.
• Use present tense to explain the significance of
the results.
• Use past tense to summarize the findings,
• Use present tense to explain or interpret what
the results mean
• Use a combination of tense to summarize the
main findings and the major implications of the
• to point out any limitations, and
• to offer suggestions for future research
• Follow the style of the targeted journal
• Be consistent when using a style: APA, MLA,
Harvard, Turabian, Chicago, etc.
• Use software: Zotero, Mendeley, etc.
Avoid Plagiarism
• An act acquiring credit for a certain academic
work by imitating parts or whole works of others
without stating the sources accurately and
sufficiently (Permendiknas No 17 tahun 2010,
Pasal 1 Ayat 1).
• What we cite in the texts should appear in the
reference list and what we put in the reference
list should be cited in the texts.
• When we cite verbatim, year and page number
should appear
Avoid Plagiarism
Avoid double publication
Avoid self-plagiarism
Avoid errors when citing or quoting sources
Do more summarizing and paraphrasing
When we translate, we have to put the sources
When we read a book written in English, then we
closed it and write the main ideas in Indonesian,
we have to write the sources.
• When we write with our students, make the
faculty as second author, but functioning as a
corresponding author
• Non accredited national journal: Parole,
• Accredited National journal: TEFLIN Journal, CELT
Journal, Jurnal Ilmu Pendidikan, Cakrawala
Pendidikan, Jurnal Pendidikan dan Pembelajaran,
Sekolah Dasar, Jurnal Penelitian dan Evaluasi
Pendidikan, Makara, TEFLIN, K@ta, Bahasa dan
Seni, Lingua, Jurnal MLI, Litera)
• Accredited International national journal (a journal
indexed by Scopus or Thomson Reuters) For
example: Indonesian Journal of Applied Linguistics
International Journal
RELC Journal
Asia-TEFL Journal
3L: Language, Linguistics, Literature®
Asian EFL Journal
Gema Online Journal of Language Studies
Asia Pasific Education researcher

Writing For Publication