"Kebutuhan Informasi Berdasarkan Pengamatan Terhadap CAP
di Dalam Negeri dan Luar Negeri”
The Implementation of Plan Of Actions of WSIS Focusing on The role of CAP
in Empowering Human Kind and Building Civil Society ;
Moral, Ethics, Value, Cooperation & Team Work
Workshop Community Access Point (CAP)
Jakarta, 14 September 2004
Dr. Naswil Idris
([email protected])
Universitas Prof. Dr. Moestopo Beragama (UPDMB);
Pasca Sarjana Universitas Negeri Jakarta (UNJ);
TKTI (The Indonesian ICT Coordinating Team), Ministry of Communication &
Information Republic of Indonesia
1
Background

The different between the poor and the rich countries is not in the age of the
country. This can be shown by countries like India and Egypt, that are more
than 2000 years old and are still poor. On the other hand, Singapore,
Canada, Australia and New Zealand are all countries with less than 150
years development. Today they are part of the First World and its citizens are
no longer poor.

The available natural resources doe not make it rich or poor. Japan has a
limited territory. Its lands are 80 % mountainous, inadeqaute for agriculture
and cattle raising, but has the second most powerful economy in the world.
Japan is like an immense flooting factory, importing raw material from the
whole world and exporting manufactured products.
Source : F.B. Moerwanto
2
Background … Con’t 2

Switzerland does not plant cocoa but makes the best chocolate in the world.
The country is small, with only 11 % arable land. And yet they can produce
dairy products of the best quality (Nestle is the world’s largest food
company). Switzerland also has an unequalled reputation for security,
integrity and order, and today it is the preferred bank in the world

Executives from rich countries who communicate with their counterparts in
poor countries will agree that there is no significant difference in intelligence.
Race or skin colour are also not important. Immigrants who are called lazy in
their countries of origin are a productive power in rich European countries
Source : F.B. Moerwanto
3
Background … Con’t 3

What is the difference then ?
• The difference is in the attitude of the people, formed throughout the years
by culture and education.

Upon analyzing the behaviour of the people in developed countries, it is
clear that the great majority follow the following basic principles in their daily
lives.
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Ethics as a basic principle of daily living
Honesty and integrity
Responsibility and accountability
Respect for the rules and laws of society
Respects of the rights of other citizens
Work loving
Strive for saving and investment
Will of super action
Punctuality
Source : F.B. Moerwanto
4
Background … Con’t 4

In poor countries only a minority follow these basic principles in theirdaily life.

We are not poor because we lack the natural resources, or because nature
was cruel to us. We are poor because of our poor attitude. We lack the will to
comply with and teach the fundamental principles of the daily living that will
enable our people to properly develop the society, the economy and the
country.
Source : F.B. Moerwanto
5
Introduction

Indonesia’s population of almost 200 million is spread over 17,000 islands, which if
transferred to the Northern Hemisphere would stretch from London to almost the
northwest frontier of China, from Stockholm to Rome or from Washington D.C. to
Seattle Washington.

The number of inhabitance per square kilometers is 3 in Irian Jaya and nearly 1000 in
Yogyakarta. Java and Madura, with 700 person per square kilometer, rank with the
most densely populated areas in the world [1]

Almost 400 ethnic groups and languages and more than 17,000 islands provide
numerous grounds for disunity and division in Indonesia.[2]

Literacy and education become more universal and information is disseminated by
various media sources, so that all people begin to discover what a better life could be.

There is a variety of divisive forces working in geographic, economic and socio
cultural process and history that make nation building in Indonesia very difficult.
6
Education Can Speed Up Indonesian Development


Development is “a widely participatory process of social change in a society,
intended to bring about both social and material advancement, including
greater equality, freedom, and other valued qualities, for the majority of
people through their gaining greater control over environment”
Information and communication technologies of the Internet become a
different kind of development tool in that the design, manufacturing, and sale
of computer software and hardware for Internet-related e-commerce and
other applications represents an important type of economic growth within
Indonesia
7
Information
Information and communication determine the very characteristics of the
societies
 The importance of information technology to society is even more obvious,
when we examine how to support the various elements of a society. Society
is a collection of people who share a common culture (which they transmit to
succeeding generations), a common territory, and a common identity, and
who interact in a socially structured relationship.
 All of these can be developed only by human interaction, by communication
and the exchange of information as we see in the Community Access
Points/Centers.
 These Centers, the lowest locus of information reception and transmission,
also serve as the points of basic interaction among members of the
community. They contribute much to community development and quality of
life for the group.
 Community Access Points pilot projects will reach the objective of our
national desire to improve village living standards, to promote individual equal
opportunities for access to information, and to enhance work opportunities in
areas remote from large cities.

8
Information

In Education the Centers pilot projects accommodate student access to the
schools, universities and learning centers. They are the information sources
and place to interact for students, among themselves and with instructors;
they also serve as entertainment sources to attract them to visit the Centers
as many times as possible, for both personal and online contacts.

In matters of Health Community Access Points pilot Projects will enable new
users, especially in remote areas, to learn about nutrition, general health
matters, diagnosis of disease and issues of sanitation and to carry out
preventive, curative and rehabilitative activities of a wide variety of health
programs in local areas not easily reached by regular services.

In Telecommunications the Centers pilot projects will expand electronic
information transfer and create new business in telephones, facsimile
transfer, computers, modem, Radio set, TV set, and photocopy machine.
9
Broadening Access

The Decision of the Indonesian Parliament Extraordinary Meeting of 13
November, 1998 No. 17/MPR/1998 in Jakarta regarding the High Level
Policies on Communication reads as follows:
• Everyone has the right to communicate and to provide the information for his / her
personal and social environmental development.
• Everyone has the right to search, to get, to have, to store, to process and to convey
information by using all means of available channels.
• The right of each citizen to communicate and to provide information will be
guaranteed and protected by the State.
• Every one has right to express his/her thoughts and opinions in accordance with
his/her heart of hearts.
• Every one has the freedom to choose education and learning.
• Every one has the freedom to choose to seek a professional job.
• Every one has the freedom to choose citizenship.
• Every one has the freedom to stay anywhere in the country, to leave the country and
retain the right to return back to his/her respective country, Indonesia.
• Every one have the right to freedom to joint organization, to gather and to express
(convey) his/her opinion / point of view
10
Broadening Access

Universal Service Obligation (USO) in Indonesia includes basic services :
telephone in rural and remote areas, enhanced services, remote health care
and education information, with access of public entities, welfare services for
the disabled, the bereaved, and low-income families, emergency services,
security and safety networks and public services of access to an operator,
directory services, public phone and telegraph.

Because the national teledensity (fixed phone) quotient is very low in
Indonesia (around 4 telephone lines for 100 population) we must find
the
solution
to
providing
accessibility
through
“sharing
telecommunication facilities” and places for public services for people
in rural and remote areas, the ‘grass roots’ level.
11
Development of the Community Access Points

Informatization often results in greater socioeconomic inequality in society
because of the differential in access to computers and other information
technologies. This digital divide may be moderated, in the long run by public
access computers provided by Community Access Point and/or cyber cafes.

A Community Access Point offers public access to computers and other
telecommunication technologies, provides training, and may supply certain
business services. A Community Access Point may be commercial or nonprofit. It may be a private business or be provided by local or national
government as a public service, or be some combination of private and public
initiatives. Community Access Point may or may not be networked. Several
national governments are actively promoting Community Access Points, as
are international organizations.
12
Development of the Community Access Points


A Community Access Point often consists of a several rooms, equipped with
one or more computers, and a long-distance or wireless telephone. A single
individual may staff the Community Access Point, and charge a modest fee
per hour for use of the computer, around one dollar US for Internet Access,
fax, photocopying, or long-distance telephone. The national Ministry of
Telecommunication may provide this equipment and its use at a discounted
rate to the operator, who often earns enough income from managing the
facility and helping users to support his/her family.
A Community Access Point’s telecommunications equipment may be privately
owned and operated. These micro-businesses are commonly called “Cyber
Cafes” and may also sell coffee, tea, and snacks, along with Internet access
and other telecommunications services. Such cyber cafes are everywhere in
India and Telephone Lady in Bangladesh, and moving telecenter in Mali and
telecenter in Pacific island today, for examples, having diffused widely in the
past several years.
13
The Layout of an ITU Community Access Point (CAP)
Equipment & Storage
room
Business Office
or Telemedicine
Applications
Room
Shared
business
Office
Room
Toilet
Toilet
Training / Meeting Room
Shower
Recreation Room
Other service
and Support
Computers for
public, email, fax,
internet, printers
Manager’s Office
Room
Billing
Administration
Telephone Booths
Source ITU
14
Some Alternative Models

International development goals in the Millenium Declaration are premised on
international co-operation and set out targets as global references for improving
connectivity and access in the use of ICTs to be achieved by 2015 (WSIS) Geneva
December 2003. These goals will be taken into account in the establishment of
Indonesian targets, considering our national circumstances:
• to connect villages with ICTs and establish CAP (Community Access Points);
• to connect universities, colleges, secondary schools and primary schools with ICTs;
• to connect scientific and research centers with ICTs;
• to connect public libraries, cultural centers, museums, post offices and archives with
ICTs;
• to connect health centers and hospitals with ICTs;
• to connect all local and central government departments and establish a plan for
consistent, searchable websites and email addresses;
• to adapt all primary and secondary school curricula to meet the challenges of the
information society, taking into account national circumstances;
• to ensure that all of the world’s population have access to television and radio
services
• to encourage the development of content and to put in place technical conditions in
order to facilitate the presence and use of all world languages on the internet;
• to ensure that more than half of the world’s inhabitants have access to ICTs within
their reach.
Source ITU 15
Some Alternative Models

Later developments of CAP services in Indonesia include :
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
KIM (Kelompencapir + Internet),
Wartel (Telephone Kiosks),
Warnet (Internet Café),
SIBM (Sentra Informasi Bisnis Masyarakat – Information Center for
Business Society),
WARINTEK from the Research & Technology Office,
JEIMI from National Information Agency,
BIM (Balai Informasi Masyarakat – ICT) from the Indonesian ICT
society/MASTEL,
Learning (Schools, Universities, Non Formal education) Centers,
Health Centers and Information Centers (Puspenmas)
16
Digital Divide

Asymmetric access to infocom results in the digital divide (within and among
nations)

Asymmetric access to information (which is empowering / enabling tool)

Disparity in (individual and communities’) capacities and competencies

Disparity in (sector) growth

Disparity in growth disturbs resources allocations, but favoring the high
growth

Results in enforcing the divide within and among nations
17
Digital Divide

Polarization and Stratification of the Community:
• With the divide, the community becomes polarized and stratified into two
poles of the rich and the poor, the educated and the uneducated,
government and private, elite and commons.
• Alienation by the higher strata in stratified communities results in the
enforcement of the divide, leaving no way to catch up
• Universal access to ICT is not only social or political strategy, but also a
moral obligation

Imperatives:
• Universal access to information, including education
• Easier access to technologies and research findings in all sectors (see
Maitland Commission’s recommendation in the Missing Link (1984)
• Telecenters is one example to reach all people
18
1. Empowering Human Kind
E (electronic) after F (face to face = human touch); High touch  High Tech
E - Learning

E-learning is a process of the transfer of information as learning, culture, science, and ethical
and moral values. Infocom (ICT) allows such transfers at long distances, worldwide, at any time,
instantly. Experience in other countries indicates that this will be a mighty tool for education,
supporting almost all activities, for study, work and play, but especially for learning.
Interconnectivity among individuals and communities, even where they are geographically
distributed, with worldwide coverage, across many disciplines, is a huge advantage. Our various
education groups will explore Infocom (ICT) capabilities to create "distributed but coordinated
activities" for educational purposes.

The learner will be able to choose:
• when he or she wants to learn,
• where he or she wants to learn,
• which sources of learning material around the world suites him or her,
• how he or she wants to learn.
• These choices imply that the future learner will become increasingly active leaner in the
learning process.

Old media, such as books and printed matter, radio and television are still used in E-Learning
activities. Gradually, High Level ICT, or New Media, as a result of convergence among
Telecommunication modes, computer and Broadcasting, like internet, mobile technology and
satellite technology, will merge and combine techniques to allow for easy, inexpensive exhanges
of knowledge and instruction. Old media require direct contacts for their effectiveness. Face to
face interactions usually occur in class room meetings in real time. These are expensive and
have a small audience, the class. They can be almost impossible to obtain for remote and
isolated areas.
19
1. Empowering Human Kind
E (electronic) after F (face to face = human touch) ; High touch  High Tech
E - Learning

New media have several immediate advantages:
• Interactivity of instructors and students all helping each other
• Availability to all users with internet access
• Asynchronous so they can be used as needed by many learners
• Unlimited information sources (globalization)

Therefore by using new media, face to face meetings in real time can be reduced
substantially and the cost can also be applied to more ICT services.

Students who do not have telecommunication equipment at their home can go to
Access Point Telecenters, or Internet Cafes for both face to face meetings and for
interactivity with other students and tutors. They also use new media or High
Tech ICT to communicate to the rest of the world to get educational information.

Our efforts should be directed to serve rural and remote areas so that they can
also get access to educational information. Government policies on USO
(Universal Service Obligation) to eliminate the Digital Divide have been created
via Ministerial Decrees. Telecommunication, Internet, mobile technology and
other ICT operations have been regulated by the Indonesia government to give
more opportunities for rural and remote users to get better access to educational
information.
20
2. Building Civil Society

Basic principles in building Civil Society
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Ethics as a basic principle of daily living
Honesty and integrity
Responsibility and accountability
Respect for the rules and laws of society
Respects of the rights of other citizens
Work loving
Strive for saving and investment
Will of super action
Punctuality
21
Experiences ; Embryos of The Role of Community Access Point (CAP) or Multipurpose
Community Center

Single Side Band Radio (SSB): Riau Island (Tanjung Pinang) and Luwuk (South
Sulawesi) 1988 - 1990

Point to Point Links (Audio Conferencing): Tarakan (Close to Sabah, Malaysia) and
Luwuk (Close to The Philliphines)

Distance Education Satellite System (SISDIKSAT) with PT Telkom. USAID Rural
Satellite Project, 1982 - 1992 .12 Locations (Universities) in Eastern Islands of
Indonesia

Project share (Project Satellite for Health and Rural Education) with CIDA (COSY)
with PT Indosat (SIKO), 1988-1991. 7 Other Public Universities in Indonesia and
Canadian Universities in Toronto, Van Couver and Guelph University.

Tourism, Posts and Telecommunication Kiosks (Warparpostel) 1,000 Locations

Virtual Campus in Internet Café (Post Offices) using Wasantara.Net in Jakarta,
Padang, Bandung and Purwokerto

Experiences In India, Bangladesh, Mali and Pacific Islands
22
Experiences ; Embryos of The Role of Community Access Point (CAP) or
Multipurpose Community Center

Initial findings from the first Project Site service points that might contribute to
the Telecenters development are :
• Indonesian people need their own peer groups to discuss many topics
including very personal ones.
• They learned a lot from this discussion in the Project Site;
• Very effective feedback systems appeared not in the formal meeting but in
the informal meeting in the project Site;
• Communication interactivity took place very effectively in informal meetings
on the Project Site;
• Indonesian people are not frank to express their point of views in public
meetings or official ceremonies. They will be more frank in Project Site
discussions;
• Indonesian learners need support and company and feel lonely when they
must work as individuals. Users need neighbors to talk to.

The Project Site provides an alternative answer; Culturally Indonesian people
are a very open society, willing to share and to offer their help to other people
in informal meetings and in talks with each other.
23
Conclusion

Electricity, telephone lines, ICT infrastructures, ICT facilities and ICT equipment are needed to
serve CAP and E-learning programs in rural area as part of USO (Universal Service Obligation)
activities to close the digital divide.

Telecenters in each village, operated by public ownership, sponsored perhaps by NGOs, in
collaboration with local government and current CAP and Elearning institutions, will be
sustainable from public participation; These efforts will give a healthy environment to the small
and medium enterprises to become the start for self-help among the rural poor. We must
encourage government officials at all levels to coordinate and to plan the ICT component as an
engine of developmental change for the country, to build civil sociery and to close the digital
divide.

Lesson Learned from Others :
• “Easy” access to education in advanced countries are “bridged” by the “compulsory education
policy, resulting in competent human resources.
• Access to technologies – including ICT’s – is in many cases restricted intentionally.
• IPR implications will be an agenda in WSIS 2005 in Tunisia
• Can diffusion of ICTs use the lesson of compulsory education?
• Using “New Media” / high tech and high touch media (with special characteristics: interactivity,
de-massified, a-synchronous, and unlimited information sources) like Internet and coupling
with “old media” can contribute to E learning effective and effisienlly
24
Appendix
National Optical Fiber Ring (CSO-N)
Isolation Breaktrhough, Business Opportunity
National Telecommunication Network
PT.Tiara Titian Telekomunikasi (TT-Tel)
12-9-2004
25
TARGET of CSO-N

Very Strategic:
• Enhance National Resilience
• Improve Community Living Standards, nationally
and particularly in Regions

Backbone for ICT
• Circling Indonesia with Fiber Optic Submarine
Cable of High-Capicity (300-1,000 Gbps)
• Connecting all Regencies (Kabupaten) with
Broadband Access

Central-Regional Government cooperate with Private
Investors for operation in 2009
26
RENCANA JARINGAN CSO-N
33 Propinsi, 400-an Kabupaten, 6 Cincin
Kalimantan
Sabang
Banda Aceh
о
Meulaboh
Tapaktuanо
Medan
Sibolga
Natal
Bengkulu
о
Batam
о
Padang
SulawesiTobelo
Tarakan
Singkawang
о
о
Toli-toli
Manado
о
о
о
Gorontalo
о
о
о
о
Pontianak
о
Balikpapan
Palembang
о
о
Belitung
о
о
o
Sampit
Banjarmasin
Jakarta
о
Kalianda
Sumatera
Samarinda
о
о
о
Paluо
о
o
Luwuk
Palopo
o
Kendari
о
Cirebon
Ujungpandang
Semarang
о
Surabaya
о
о
Gilimanuk
о
о
o
Manokwari
Biak
Salaw o
ati
Ambon
o
o
o
Nabire
o
o
Tual
o o Dobo
Reo
Maumere
Larantuka
o
o
o
оо о
о
о
о
о
о
Saumlaki
о
Ketapang
Kalabahi
Merauke
Karangasem o
о
Mataram
Kupang
Sumbawa Waingapu
Jawa
Maluku - Irian
Nusa Tenggara
27
CSO-N Breakthrough

Broadband Ring accessing Regencies (30,000 km,
capacity 300 – 1,000 Gbps)
• Regencies become New Powerful Nodes
• Access Guarantee to Small-Medium Service
Providers, ISPs, Internet and Telephone Kiosks,
Private Networks for Government + Companies

All Applications are IP-based:
• Voice Over IP (VoIP), Internet;
• Tele-Education, Tele-Medicine);
• Remote Monitoring;
• Others.
28
THANK YOU
Naswil Idris
[email protected]
29
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Overview of Key Activities