The Resurgence of
Catholicism
Looking at the Development of the
Roman Catholic Church 1815-1963
Modern Church History
1
The Impact of the French
Revolution
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Pius VII (18001823)
Napoleon
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Chateaubriand
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Genie du Christianisme
1802
Modern Church History
2
Ultramontanism
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Pius IX (1846-1878)
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A political reformer (at first)
1854 Immaculate
Conception of Mary
1864 Syllabus of Errors
1869 Vatican Council:
absolute papal authority
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Modern Church History
3
Garibaldi
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Italian nationalism (Garibaldi)
led to loss of papal states
Effect of de-secularising
papal authority
Leo XIII (1878-1903)
statesman
“Catholic Action”
1891 Rerum novarum
Modern Church History
4
Catholicism in the USA
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The effect of immigration
The “Catholic Irish”
A period of naturalization
and Americanization
First Plenary Council Baltimore
1852
Modern Church History
5
Pius X (1903-1914)
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1905 France formal
separation of church and
state. Church only legalised
by 1920s.
Rise of modernism/ biblical
criticism
1907 Pascendi encyclical
against modernism
Modern Church History
6
th
20
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Century Catholicism
October 2, 1928: Opus Dei, a worldwide organization
of lay members .
February 11, 1929: The Lateran treaties are signed by
Benito Mussolini and Cardinal Gasparri establishing the
independent State of the Vatican City and resolving the
Roman Question.
July 20, 1933: Concordat Between the Holy See and the
German Reich.
September 1, 1939: Germany invades Poland. Start of
the Second World War. The Vatican declares neutrality.
Modern Church History
7
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1944: The German Army occupies Rome. Adolf Hitler
proclaims he will respect Vatican neutrality. Rome is liberated by
the Allies after only a few weeks of occupation.
1950: The Assumption of Mary is defined as dogma.
January 20, 1961: John F. Kennedy is sworn in as the 35th
president of the United States. He becomes the first Roman
Catholic and youngest president to be elected.
October 11, 1962: Pope John XXIII opens the Second
Ecumenical Vatican Council. The 21st ecumenical council of the
Catholic church emphasized the universal call to
Modern Church History
8
Towards Vatican II
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Throughout the 1950s, Roman Catholic theological and
biblical studies had begun to sway away from the neoscholasticism and biblical literalism.
This shift could be seen in theologians such as Karl Rahner,
and John Courtney Murray who looked to integrate modern
human experience with Christian dogma, as well as others
such as Yves Congar and Joseph Ratzinger (now Pope
Benedict XVI) looked to what they saw as a more accurate
understanding of scripture and the early Church Fathers as a
source of renewal ("resourcement").
Modern Church History
9
Pope John XXIII

Pope John XXIII, when asked why the Council
was needed, reportedly opening a window and
saying, "I want to throw open the windows of
the Church so that we can see out and the
people can see in." He invited other Christian
Churches to send observers to the Council. in
nature.
Modern Church History
10
Vatican II: The Main Points
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The Church
Liturgy
Scripture and divine revelation
The bishops
Modern Church History
11
John Paul II
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1970: Revision of the Roman Missal, following on gradual introduction of
vernacular languages in celebration of Mass.
October 16, 1978: Pope John Paul II becomes the first non-Italian pope in
450 years; influential in overthrowing communism in Europe.
December 31, 1991: The Soviet Union is officially dissolved. Persecuted
Church re-emerges out of hiding.
1992: A Catechism of the Catholic Church is first printed in French.
1994: Ordinatio Sacerdotalis, an Apostolic Letter upholding a prohibition against
ordination of women to the priesthood, is promulgated by Pope John Paul II.
Modern Church History
12
21st century Catholic Church
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Criticism for its traditional teaching on such issues as birth
control, abortion, and women in the priesthood.
Scandals of child abuse.
2005: The death of Pope John Paul II.
September 11, 2001: Muslim suicide bombers of al-Qaeda
crash two hijacked Boeing 767s on the World Trade Center.
Catalyst of invasion of Afghanistan and Iraq. Simmering
tensions between Christians and Muslims surface
worldwide.
April 19, 2005: German-born Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger is
elected by the College of Cardinals as Pope Benedict XVI,
thus becoming the first Pope elected during the 21st
century and the 3rd millennium.
Modern Church History
13
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The Resurgence of Catholicism