Module N° 2
Basic safety management
concepts
Module
N° 2
Revision
N° 5
State
Safety Programme
(SSP)(SSP)
Implementation
Course
ICAOICAO
State
Safety
Programme
Implementation
Course
‹#›
25/02/10
SSP – A structured approach
Module 7
SSP training
programme
Module 8
SSP implementation plan
Module 4
ICAO SSP
framework
Module 5
ALoS related to an
SSP
Module 6
Prescription /
Performance
Module 1
Introduction to the
SSP implementation
course
Module 2
Basic safety
management
concepts
Module 3
ICAO SARPs related
to safety
management
Module N° 2
ICAO State Safety Programme (SSP) Implementation Course
‹#›
Objective
At the end of this module, participants will be able to explain
the strengths and weaknesses of long-established
approaches to manage safety and describe new perspectives
and methods of managing safety by the State
Module N° 2
ICAO State Safety Programme (SSP) Implementation Course
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Contents
A concept of accident causation
System performance in the real world
Safety management strategies – Levels of intervention and
tools
Hazards and safety risks
Safety risk assessment
Questions and answers
Points to remember
Module N° 2
ICAO State Safety Programme (SSP) Implementation Course
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Concept of safety
 Consider (the weaknesses in the notion of perfection)
 The elimination of accidents (and serious incidents) is
unachievable
 Failures will occur, in spite of the most accomplished
prevention efforts
 No human activity or human-made system can be
guaranteed to be absolutely free from hazard and
operational errors
 Controlled safety risk and controlled error are
acceptable in an inherently safe system
Module N° 2
ICAO State Safety Programme (SSP) Implementation Course
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Concept of safety (Doc 9859)
Safety is the state in which the possibility of harm to persons
or property damage is reduced to, and maintained at or
below, an acceptable level through a continuing process
of hazard identification and risk management
Module N° 2
ICAO State Safety Programme (SSP) Implementation Course
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Safety
WHAT?
WHY?
Module N° 2
WHEN?
WHO?
HOW?
ICAO State Safety Programme (SSP) Implementation Course
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A concept of accident causation
Latent conditions trajectory
Activities over which any organization has a reasonable degree
of direct control
Module N° 2
ICAO State Safety Programme (SSP) Implementation Course
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A concept of accident causation
Latent conditions trajectory
Factors that directly influence the efficiency of people in
aviation workplaces.
Module N° 2
ICAO State Safety Programme (SSP) Implementation Course
‹#›
A concept of accident causation
Latent conditions trajectory
Actions or inactions by people (pilots, controllers, maintenance
engineers, aerodrome staff, etc.) that have an immediate
adverse effect.
Module N° 2
ICAO State Safety Programme (SSP) Implementation Course
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A concept of accident causation
Latent conditions trajectory
Resources to protect against the risks that organizations
involved in production activities generate and must control.
Module N° 2
ICAO State Safety Programme (SSP) Implementation Course
‹#›
A concept of accident causation
Latent conditions trajectory
Conditions present in the system before the accident, made
evident by triggering factors
Module N° 2
ICAO State Safety Programme (SSP) Implementation Course
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System performance in the real world
System
design
Baseline performance
Practical drift
Operational
deployment
Module N° 2
ICAO State Safety Programme (SSP) Implementation Course
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Managing safety – “Navigating the drift”
Baseline performance
Practical drift
Organization
Navigational aids
Reactive
Module N° 2
Proactive
Predictive
ICAO State Safety Programme (SSP) Implementation Course
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Navigational aids
Reactive method
The reactive method
responds to the
events that already
happened, such as
incidents and
accidents
Module N° 2
Proactive method
The proactive
method
looks actively for the
identification of
safety risks
through the analysis
of the organization’s
activities
ICAO State Safety Programme (SSP) Implementation Course
Predictive method
The predictive
method captures
system performance
as it happens in
real-time normal
operations to
identify potential
future problems
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Strategies – Levels of intervention and tools
HAZARDS
Safety management levels
Predictive
FDA
Direct
observation
system
Highly efficient
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Proactive
ASR
Surveys
Audits
Very efficient
Reactive
Reactive
ASR
MOR
Accident
and incident
reports
Efficient
Insufficient
ICAO State Safety Programme (SSP) Implementation Course
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Three key definitions
Hazard – Condition or object with the potential of causing
injuries to personnel, damage to equipment or structures,
loss of material, or reduction of ability to perform a prescribed
function
Consequence – Potential outcome(s) of the hazard
Safety Risk – The assessment, expressed in terms of
predicted probability and severity, of the consequence(s) of
a hazard taking as reference the worst foreseeable situation
Module N° 2
ICAO State Safety Programme (SSP) Implementation Course
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Three key definitions
Example
Unclear aerodrome signage is a hazard
A runway incursion is one of the consequences of the
hazard
The assessment (quantification) of the consequences of
the potential runway incursion expressed in terms of
probability and severity is the safety risk
Module N° 2
ICAO State Safety Programme (SSP) Implementation Course
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Understanding hazards
There is a natural tendency to describe hazards as their
consequence(s)
“Unclear aerodrome signage” vs. “runway incursion”
Stating a hazard as consequence(s)
disguises the nature of the hazard
interferes with identifying other important consequences
Well-named hazards
allow to infer the sources or mechanisms of the hazard
allow to evaluate the loss outcome(s)
Module N° 2
ICAO State Safety Programme (SSP) Implementation Course
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Types of Hazards
Natural
Technical
Economic
Module N° 2
ICAO State Safety Programme (SSP) Implementation Course
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Examples of natural hazards
Severe weather or climatic
events:
E.g.: hurricanes, major
winter storms, drought,
tornadoes, thunderstorms
lightning, and wind shear
Adverse weather conditions:
E.g.: Icing, freezing
precipitation, heavy rain,
snow, winds, and
restrictions to visibility
Module N° 2
ICAO State Safety Programme (SSP) Implementation Course
‹#›
Examples of natural hazards
Geophysical events
E.g.: earthquakes, volcanic
eruptions, tsunamis, floods
and landslides
Geographical conditions
E.g.: adverse terrain or large
bodies of water
Environmental events
E.g.: wildfires, wildlife activity,
and insect or pest infestation
Public health events
E.g.: epidemics of influenza
or other diseases
Module N° 2
ICAO State Safety Programme (SSP) Implementation Course
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Examples of technical hazards
Deficiencies regarding
E.g.: aircraft and its
components, systems,
subsystems and related
equipment
E.g.: an organization’s
facilities, tools, and
related equipment
E.g.: facilities, systems,
sub-systems and related
equipment that are
external to the
organization
Module N° 2
ICAO State Safety Programme (SSP) Implementation Course
‹#›
Examples of economic hazards
Major trends related to
 Growth
 Recession
 Cost of material or
equipment
 Etc.
Module N° 2
ICAO State Safety Programme (SSP) Implementation Course
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Hazard analysis
ABC of hazard analysis
State the generic
hazard
(Hazard statement)
Identify specific
components of
the hazard
 Airport construction  Construction
equipment
 Closed taxiways
 …
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Naturally leading
to specific
consequence(s)
 Aircraft colliding
with construction
equipment
 Aircraft taking wrong
taxiway
 …
ICAO State Safety Programme (SSP) Implementation Course
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Safety risk management
What is it?
The analysis and elimination, and/or mitigation to an
acceptable level of the safety risks of the consequences of
identified hazards
What is the objective?
A balanced allocation of resources to address all safety
risks and viable safety risks control and mitigation
Why is it important?
It is a data-driven approach to safety resources
allocation, thus defensible and easier to explain
Module N° 2
ICAO State Safety Programme (SSP) Implementation Course
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Definitions
Probability
The likelihood that an
unsafe event or condition
might occur
Severity
The possible effects of
an unsafe event or
condition, taking as
reference the worst
foreseeable situation
Module N° 2
ICAO State Safety Programme (SSP) Implementation Course
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Safety risk probability
Probability of occurrence
Qualitative
definition
Frequent
Meaning
Value
Likely to occur many times (has occurred frequently)
5
Likely to occur some times (has occurred infrequently)
4
Remote
Unlikely, but possible to occur (has occurred rarely)
3
Improbable
Very unlikely to occur (not known to have occurred)
2
Extremely
improbable
Almost inconceivable that the event will occur
1
Occasional
Module N° 2
ICAO State Safety Programme (SSP) Implementation Course
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Safety risk severity
Severity of occurrences
Aviation definition
Catastrophic
Hazardous
Major
Minor
Negligible
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Meaning
Equipment destroyed
Multiple deaths
A large reduction in safety margins, physical distress or a
workload such that the operators cannot be relied upon to
perform their tasks accurately or completely
Serious injury
Major equipment damage
Value
A
B
A significant reduction in safety margins, a reduction in the
ability of the operators to cope with adverse operating
conditions as a result of increase in workload, or as a result
of conditions impairing their efficiency
Serious incident
Injury to persons
C
Nuisance
Operating limitations
Use of emergency procedures
Minor incident
D
Little consequences
E
ICAO State Safety Programme (SSP) Implementation Course
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Safety risk assessment matrix (example)
Module N° 2
ICAO State Safety Programme (SSP) Implementation Course
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Safety risk tolerability
Module N° 2
ICAO State Safety Programme (SSP) Implementation Course
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Warm-up exercise N° 02/01
Scenario
Fuel spill on the apron area surface of approximately 25 m
(75 ft) length and 5 m (15 ft) width, produced by an A310
ready to pushback and taxi for departure
Module N° 2
ICAO State Safety Programme (SSP) Implementation Course
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Warm-up exercise N° 02/01 – results
1. Identify the hazard(s)
3. Assess the
probability of the
consequence:
4. Assess the severity
of the consequence
2. Determine the
hazard(s)
consequence(s)
5. Determine the
resulting safety risk
index
6. Establish the
safety risk
tolerability
Module N° 2
ICAO State Safety Programme (SSP) Implementation Course
‹#›
Warm-up exercise N° 02/02
Scenario
It was observed that airline baggage handling personnel
generates FO(D) on the aerodrome apron area
Module N° 2
ICAO State Safety Programme (SSP) Implementation Course
‹#›
Warm-up exercise N° 02/02 – results
1. Identify the hazard(s)
3. Assess the
probability of the
consequence:
4. Assess the severity
of the consequence
2. Determine the
hazard(s)
consequence(s)
5. Determine the
resulting safety risk
index
6. Establish the
safety risk
tolerability
Module N° 2
ICAO State Safety Programme (SSP) Implementation Course
‹#›
Basic safety management concepts
Questions and answers
Module N° 2
ICAO State Safety Programme (SSP) Implementation Course
‹#›
Questions and answers
Q: What is the ICAO definition for safety in Doc 9859?
A: ?
Slide number:
Module N° 2
ICAO State Safety Programme (SSP) Implementation Course
‹#›
Questions and answers
Q: Explain the three different methods for “navigating the
drift”
A:
Slide number:
Module N° 2
ICAO State Safety Programme (SSP) Implementation Course
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Questions and answers
Q: Define safety risk management
A: ?
Slide number:
Module N° 2
ICAO State Safety Programme (SSP) Implementation Course
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Points to remember
1. The concept of safety
2. Systems and operational performance in the real world
3. Levels of intervention and tools for managing safety
4. Hazard identification
5. Safety risk management
Module N° 2
ICAO State Safety Programme (SSP) Implementation Course
‹#›
Module N° 2
Basic safety management concepts
Revision N° 5
ICAO State Safety Programme (SSP) Implementation Course
25/02/10
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ICAO SSP Module 02 - SSP basic safety concepts