ICAO
OVERVIEW
ICAO Background
• Why We Care
• ICAO Pubs
• U.S. Pubs
• Altimetry
• WGS-84
• ICAO Region-Specific
•
1944
Chicago Convention
- established ICAO
- by 52 nations

ICAO Articles ratified 1947
- by 26 Nations
Scene from the Chicago Convention
ICAO Headquarters
• Montreal,
Canada
• 190 member
nations
– as of June 2007
Does ICAO Apply To Me?
• ICAO Article 3:
– “... applicable only to civil aircraft, and shall not be
applicable to state aircraft”
– “aircraft used in the military, customs, and police
services shall be deemed to be state aircraft”.
• BUT….
Does ICAO Apply To Me?
• AFI 11-202 V3, para 1.2.1:
The PIC will comply
with:
1. National Procedures - in sovereign nation
2. ICAO SARPs - if no national procedures
3. ICAO SARPs - International / Over the High
Seas – (routine operations)
Does ICAO Apply To Me?
• AFM 11-217 V1, para 18.1.3.1
– Outside US National Airspace, apply ICAO
instrument procedures unless otherwise
published.
– Nationality of the air traffic controller or who
produced the procedure is not relevant.
– Geographic location of the aircraft is the
determining factor, unless local procedures are
in place.
 In FLIP and/or local directives
A Note On…“National Procedures”
• “National Procedures” include:
– Published procedures
– Bilateral Agreements with U.S.




Often Not Generally Available
LOA
Local AFI
Could be airfield-specific
What Rules Do I Use….?
• …. at a U.S. military airfield in foreign
country?
• 1st - Bilateral agreements
• 2nd - National procedures
• 3rd - ICAO SARPs
ICAO Rules & Regs
• “The ICAO Convention” - General Rules
– 96 Articles
• SARPs – “Standards And Recommended Practices”
– 18 Annexes
• PANS or PANS-OPS – “Procedures for Air
Navigation Services”
– Doc 4444 – Air Traffic Management
– Doc 8168 – Vols I and II
• Regional Supplemental Procedures
– Doc 7030
ICAO Rules & Regs
General Rules
- 96 Articles
SARPs
- 18 Annexes
ICAO Rules & Regs
PANS-OPS
Doc 7030,
Regional Supplement
Differences from ICAO Directives
• Doc 4444
– Differences from ICAO procedures must be
published in the country’s aeronautical information
– ICAO does not need to be notified.
• Where are differences published?
– National “Aeronautical Information Publication” (AIP)
In search of .... ICAO Pubs
• You can subscribe to them:
– http://www.icao.int/
• $2100
– Per Year
• OR……
In search of .... ICAO Pubs
• http://dcaa.slv.dk:8000/icaodocs/
In Search Of…National AIP
• FAA’s International Flight Information
Manual
– http://www.faa.gov/airports_airtraffic/air_traffic/pub
lications/ifim/country_list/
• Links to AIPs if publicly available
ICAO Information for U.S. Military
•
•
•
•
•
AFI 11-202 V3
AFM 11-217 V1 - chap 18
FLIP
Foreign Clearance Guide (FCG)
Airfield Suitability and Restrictions Report
(ASRR)
ICAO Information for U.S. Military
• FLIP
– General Planning (GP)
– Area Planning (AP) series (AP/1, AP/2….)
– Special Use Airspace (AP/1A, AP/2A)
– Flight Information Handbook (FIH)
– Enroute Supplements
– Charts and Approach plates
AFI 11-202 V3
• “This AFI is a common source of directives including
Air Force-specific guidance, the FARs, and the ICAO
Standards and Recommended Practices (SARPs)”.
- para 1.1.2
• “Specific rules of each individual nation are
published in FLIP and FCG”.
- para 1.2.1.5
• Example…..
Can I Exceed 250 kt. Below
10,000’ Outside the U.S.?
• AFI 11-202 V3, para 5.7.3:
• Outside the NAS. The PIC will not allow the aircraft to
exceed 250 KIAS below 10,000 ft. MSL unless:
–
–
–
–
Mission requirements dictate and in international airspace.
ICAO or host nation rules permit
Necessary to maintain the minimum safe airspeed (aircraft T.O.)
Required by ATC and permitted by host nation rules.
• Answer: Yes
AFM 11-217 V1
• Chapter 18 - ICAO Procedures
– Summarizes many ICAO rules:
– Bank Angle - 25 vs. 30 degrees
– Established on Course
– Aircraft Categories
 Applied to procedures other than final approach
ICAO Aircraft Categories
ICAO Doc 8168, Vol I, Part III, Chap. 1
ICAO Aircraft Categories
- ICAO Doc 8168, Vol I, Part II, Chap. 2
- also in AFM 11-217 V1, Table 18.1
AFM 11-217 V1
• Screen Height
– Standard 16 ft above DER (but how do you know?)
• Departures
– 3.3 % climb gradient instead of U.S. 24% ROC
• Approach Names
– LLZ
– Many variations
• Altimetry
– More on this later
AFM 11-217 V1
• Low Altitude Approaches
– 45/180 and 80/260
– Base Turn
– Racetrack
• Entry Rules
– 30 degree Entry Sector
– Exception: Arrival Routing
 STAR, feeder routing, or arrival airway
 Blended into the reversal procedure
 Protected airspace is provided to allow the turn onto the outbound
reversal track.
- AFM 11-217 V1, para 18.4.2.2.3.1
FLIP
•
•
•
•
•
•
General Planning (GP)
Area Planning (AP series)
Special Use Airspace (AP/A series)
Flight Information Handbook (FIH)
Enroute Supps
Charts & Approach Plates
FLIP Theaters
General Planning
Eastern Europe
and Asia
(AP 4/4A)
Europe
Africa
Middle East
(AP 2/2A)
North
and
South
Pacific- America
Australia (AP 1/1A/1B)
Antarctica
(AP 3/3A)
PacificAustralia
Antarctica
(AP 3/3A)
GP - General Planning
• Chapter 4 – Flight Plans (1801)
• Chapter 6 – Pilot Procedures
– Has some ICAO-specific stuff
• Chapter 7 - ICAO procedures
– Companion to AFM 11-217 V1, Chap 18
• Chapter 8 – Operations & Firings Over the High
Seas
GP - General Planning
• FIR / UIR – (Flight / Upper) Information Region
– Information service, and Air Traffic Control ??
– UIR - similar to FIR – just bigger and higher
 May overlay several FIRs
• CTA / UTA – (Control / Upper Control) Area
– Air Traffic Control
– Often combined with FIRs
– UTA – similar to CTA
 May overlay several CTAs
GP - General Planning, Chap 8
• Oceanic Procedures
– Generally – follow ICAO procedures
– When not – Due Regard
– Territorial Airspace
 U.S. recognizes 12 miles
– Foreign ADIZ
 With / Without entering Territorial Airspace
– International Straights / Archepelagic Lanes
AP – Area Planning series
• Includes:
–
–
–
–
AP/1
AP/2
AP/3
AP/4
-
North & South America
Europe, Africa, & Middle East
Pacific, Australia, & Antarctica
Eastern Europe & Asia
Example – AP/4
AP – Area Planning series
• Standard Layout:
• Chap 1 - Theater
• Chap 2 - Regional
• Chap 3 - National
Example – AP/4
AP – Area Planning series
• Arrangement of Info
– (1) Regional/National
Procedures
– (2) Visual Flight Rules
– (3) Instrument Flight Rules
– (4) Operational Air Traffic
– (5) Flight Planning
– (6) Flight Hazards
(7) Enroute
(8) Terminal
(9) Aerial Refueling
(10) Bird Hazard Data
(11) Additional Information
Example - AP/2 - Regions
• Chapter 2
– Section A – Africa / Indian Ocean
– Section B – European
– Section C – Middle East / Asia
– Section D – North Atlantic
AP / “A” Series
• Special Use Airspace
• Includes:
–
–
–
–
AP/1A
AP/2A
AP/3A
AP/4A
• MOAs, Restricted Areas
Special
Use
Airspace
See AP/2A
Flight Information Handbook
•
•
•
•
•
•
Lost Comm procedures
ICAO Distress and Urgency signals
Oceanic VHF frequencies
USAF Global HF program
RVSM contingency procedures
Conversion Tables
•
•
•
Emergency Procedures
Visual Signals
Comm Failure
– FAA
– ICAO Europe
– Bahrain
– Denmark
– France
– Germany
– Hong Kong
– Ireland
– Israel
– Italy
– Japan
– Norway
– Oman
– Philippines
– Syria
– UK
Distress Signals
Meteorology Sources
Meteorology Services
METAR/TAF Codes
PIREP Format
Conversions
FLIP/NOTAM Abbreviations
•Interception Signals
•Algeria
•Cuba
•Lebanon and Malta
•South Africa
•Russia
•Sweden
•Taiwan
•Serbia
•Position Reports
•FAA
•ICAO
•Oceanic
•Africa
•Central & South America
Flight Information Handbook
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•FSS Phone Numbers
•RCR equivalents
•USN/USMC Wave Off Lighting
•Pilot Controlled Lighting
•Airfield Lighting (31 systems)
•HF Global Comm System
•RVSM Contingencies
•Frequency Pairings
•Time Zones
•Time Hacks
•Temperature Corrections
Enroute Supplement
• Section B
– Airport/Facility Directory
• Section C
– Theater Data / Procedures
• Some Supps are combined with Approach
Books
– Example – Eastern Europe & Asia
Example – Eastern Europe & Asia
FIR / UIR / CTA
• Enroute Charts
• Area Planning series (AP/1, AP/2….)
– Chapter 3 – National Procedures
FCG - Foreign Clearance Guide
www.fcg.pentagon.mil
1. General Information Booklet
2. Geographic Area Books
3. Classified Supplement
– SIPRnet only
FCG - Foreign Clearance Guide
FCG – General Info Book
FCG - Foreign Clearance Guide
• General Information Booklet
– General Procedural information
– Obtaining Clearances: Aircraft, Blanket, and Personnel
– International Airspace, International Straits, and Archipelagic
Sea Lanes
– Airports of Entry
FCG - Foreign Clearance Guide
• Geographic Area Books
– FCG “Areas” - different than FLIP and ICAO
– Each book starts with general information for that entire
“area”.
• Divided into Five Sections:
–
–
–
–
–
General Entry Requirements
Aircraft Entrance Requirements
Personnel Entrance Requirements
Travel Information
Miscellaneous
“Due Regard”
• GP, chap 8
• FCG
• Operational situations that do not lend
themselves to ICAO procedures:
– Military contingencies, classified, politically
sensitive
• Prerogative of military aircraft
• PICs operate with “Due Regard for the safety
of navigation of civil air traffic”
• Translation: You are responsible to avoid a
midair.
“Due Regard”
• Proper terms - “Due Regard” or “Operational”
(Ref. 7110.65, para 1-2-1)
– “Tactical” is not the same - although “Tactical” is
often used over land and when “required” by ATC.
• Can only be accomplished in international
airspace !!!
– Reference GP, Chapter 8 (Operations and Firings
Over the High Seas) and the Foreign Clearance
Guide (Definitions).
“Due Regard”
•
To declare “Due Regard” or “Operational”:
– Must operate under one or more of the following:
1. VMC; or
2. Within radar and radio coverage of a surface
radar facility; or
3. Have airborne radar sufficient to provide
separation between the aircraft and others; or
4. Outside controlled airspace.
- International airspace only.
“Due Regard”
• FAA adds:
– The appropriate military authority assumes
responsibility for Search and Rescue.
ICAO Mission Plan Checklist
Publication
Section
Title
1 AFI 11-202 V3
2 AFM 11-217 V1
Chap 18
3 General Planning
Chap
Chap
Chap
Chap
4 Flight Info Handbook
Various
5 Enroute Supplement
Sec B
Sec C
6 Foreign Clearance Guide
General Info book
Geographic Area book
Classified supplement
7 AP/series
Chap 1
Chap 2
Chap 3
8 Enroute Charts
9 Approach Procedures
4
6
7
8
Flight Plans
Pilot Procedures
ICAO
Oceanic
Airfield Directory
Theater Data
Theater Procedures
Regional Data
National Procedures
Altimetry
TRANSITION LAYER
Transition Level
FL 40
Not normally used as a cruise altitude
by ATC
3000
Transition Altitude
Transition Layer
FL 40
• Can ATC assign you an altitude here?
• Can aircraft cruise or level off here?
– No ICAO document directly addresses these
questions.
– No USAF or FLIP document does, either.
• AFI 11-217 V1:
– Aircraft are not normally assigned altitudes within the
Transition Layer
3000
Transition Layer
FL 40
• ICAO Doc 4444:
– Transition Level shall be the lowest flight level
available for use above the Transition Altitude.
– Except when authorized, cruising levels below the
minimum flight altitudes shall not be assigned.
3000
Transition Altitude
Transition Altitude and Level
Altimetry
• 3 Altimeter Units:
– Inches of Mercury (in)
– Millibars (mb) or Hectopascals (hPa)
– Millimeters (mm)
Altimetry
• 3 Altimeter Settings:
– QNH – altitude above MSL
– QFE – height above airport or TH elevation
– QNE – flight level
 Standard datum: 29.92 in
1013 mb
760 mm
Altimetry
• 2 Altitude Units:
– Feet
– Meters
Weird Altimetry
• Altitudes in meters:
– China
– Russia and FSU
• Altimeter Units in millimeters:
– Russia and FSU
• Altimeter Setting in QFE:
– Russia and FSU
– United Kingdom
Weird Altimetry
• How do you deal with it?
– Convert!
– FIH tables – Section D
Israel
• “Altitudes” when flying over land
• “Flight Levels” when over the water
• North is Even
• South is Odd
Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia
• Altitudes below the TLV will be given in
meters
More Vertical Separation
• Havana -- North is Even, South is Odd
• New Zealand -- North is Odd, South is Even
• Chile -- 030 to 209: Odd
210 to 029: Even
Brunei, India, UK
Altitudes by Quadrant:
000 to 089: Odd
090 to 179: Odd + 500’
180 to 269: Even
270 to 359: Even + 500’
United Kingdom
The Transition Altitude is 3000’ except in:
Aberdeen CTR
6000
Belfast CTR
6000
Birmingham CTR
4000
Cardiff CTR
4000
East Midlands CTR
4000
Edinburgh CTR
6000
Glasgow CTR
6000
Leeds Bradford CTR
5000
London TMA
6000
Manchester TMA
5000
Scottish TMA
6000
Solent CTA
4000*
Sumburgh CTR
6000*
Teesside CTR
6000*
* outside normal operating hours, the TA is 3000’
The World Beyond
Mogadishu airfield
• Closed to all operations due to
potential armed conflict. Safety of
aircraft, cargo, and personnel cannot
be assured.
– AP/2, chap 3
Madagascar
– Madagascar Gov’t has issued a threat
to shoot down any aircraft that enters
Madagascar airspace without
authorization.
– AP/2, chap 3
Austria
• Within some agricultural districts
(May to October) in thunderstorms,
anti-hail rockets might be fired up to
7000’ MSL. Details by NOTAM.
– AP/2, chap 3
North/South Korea - DMZ
• Extreme caution must be exercised
to prevent overflight of this area. The
majority of aircraft which have
penetrated the DMZ area in the past
have been fired upon.
Europe
• Exercise extreme caution when using
ADF navaids in the European /
Mediterranean Region. May get
positive station ID and have the ADF
needles point to an entirely different
station, due to similar frequencies and
differing output strengths.
Japan
• At all Japanese military bases you can
expect to have quiet hour lunch time delay
from 1100-1200L daily. During that period
you will not be allowed to takeoff, land,
nor run your engines.
ICAO DIFFERENCES
ICAO Differences
ICAO Holding Speeds
Doc 8168, Vol 1, Part IV, Chap 1
The Procedure Turn
in 22 Different Languages
Reversal Entry Procedures
• Must be entered from a track within +/- 30 degrees of
the outbound track.
• Exception:
– Arrival routing: STAR, terminal routing, airway
45/180 vs. 80/260
• PANS-OPS states that the 80/260 procedure turn is
an alternative to the 45/180 unless specifically
excluded.
ICAO 45/180 vs. 80/260
• PANS-OPS 8168, Vol 1, Part III, Chap 3, para
3.3.2.1:
– (a) …. the 45/180 procedure turn is an alternative
to the 80/260 procedure turn, unless specifically
excluded.
– (b) …. the 80/260 procedure turn is an alternative
to the 45/180 procedure turn, unless specifically
excluded.
ICAO 45/180 vs. 80/260
AFM 11-217 V1, para 18.1.5:
• Approaches may be designed using U.S. criteria,
PANS-OPS criteria, or host nation criteria that are
different from PANS-OPS.
• Aircraft executing maneuvers other than those
intended by the host nation approach design could
exceed the boundaries of the protected airspace or
may cause overflight of unauthorized areas.
• All ICAO procedures must be flown as they are
depicted.
What’s Out There
Approach Names
Note
the SUA
Same approach –
note visual
lead-in lights
from MAP
Descend in
holding, then
visual to
runway
Same thing –
except….
Glideslope brings
you in short of the
runway
That’s All, Folks
Descargar

ICAO - Graveworks.com