Laboratory & Research
Safety
Russell Vernon, Ph.D.
Laboratory / Research Safety & Integrated Waste Manager
University of California, Riverside
951-827-5119, [email protected]
Agenda
Research & Teaching  Synergy (Whole greater than sum of parts)
Involves chemicals, infectious agents, animals, plants,
people, radioactive hazards, machines, lasers, etc…
and People
Labs are different…
Hazard Communication & Laboratory Standard
Employees vs. volunteers & students
Field Work & Safety
Teaching
Research
ISEM – core functions
Five Steps
Synergy
RESEARCH & TEACHING
Synergy – Research & Teaching
90 % communication
Why do students go to college?
What motivates graduate students?
Why are Faculty here?
What motivates faculty & staff?
10 % information
Ah the hazards:
Health & physicals hazards
Chemical, Physical, Biological, Radioactive…
University Mission
Teaching
Research,
Research
Grants
&
Publications
Public Service
Teaching
Public Service
Lab/Research Community Safety
Involves & relies on
Teaching
Laboratories
Chemical Hygiene
Officer
10/3/2015
Laboratory
Research
Fire Prevention, Building Design &
Maintenance, Industrial Hygienists etc.
Field
Research
Radiation & Bio
Safety Officers
7
Departments Involved
(UCR Example)
Air Pollution Research Center R
Anthropology TRF
Biochemistry TR
Bioengineering TR
Biology TRF
Biomedical Sciences TR
Botany & Plant Sciences TRF
Cell Biology T
Chemical Engineering T
Chemistry TR
CE-CERT RF
Center for Conservation Biology RF
Cell Biology & Neurosciences TR
Earth & Planetary Sciences TRF
Electrical Engineering TR
Entomology TRF
10/3/2015
T = Teaching Labs
R = Research Labs
F = Field Work
Environmental Engineering T
Chemical & Environmental Engineering TRF
Environmental Science TRF
Environmental Toxicology T
Inst Geophysics Planetary Physics R
MS&E TR
Mechanical Engineering TR
Nematology TRF
Neuroscience T
Plant Pathology & Microbiology TRF
Physics and Astronomy TRF
Psychology RF
Soil and Water Science TRF
Education Abroad F
Sociology F
8
Community Metrics
Fieldwork
The normally the most hazardous activity
Throughout US and several foreign countries
Thousands of trips UC-wide
Unknown number field trips annually
(at least > 200 at UCR alone)
10/3/2015
9
Grants $/Assignable Square Foot
Statistics
$1.58
Agricultural Operations
College of Natural and Agricultural Science
Mathematics
Cell Biology and Neuroscience
Institute of Genomics
Plant Pathology & Microbiology
Botany and Plant Sciences
Environmental Sciences
Chemistry
Nematology
Earth Sciences
Entomology
Air Pollution Research Center
Physics
Biology
Biochemistry
$601.07
$4.16
$8.88
$22.34
$27.96
$38.44
$39.84
$40.83
$42.16
$52.72
$54.87
$62.33
$64.65
$71.75
$78.11
$82.43
$95.34
Water Resources Board
$0.00
10/3/2015
10
Specialization
Programs
Chemical &
Laboratory
Safety
Brenda Wong
Laboratory
Safety
Inspections
Craig Maxwell
Radiation
Safety
Laboratory & Research Safety
Laboratory
Design Safety
Biological
Safety
Agricultural,
Field, Marine
Safety
Specialized area
Chemical & Laboratory Safety
Chemical Hygiene Plan
Exposure Assessment
Standard Operating Procedures
Nanomaterial safety
High hazard materials safety
Laboratory ergonomics
Departmental Contacts
Campus Policymakers
Chemical safety & fire code segregation
10/3/2015
12
Synergy – hazards are just tools
Researchers select to use chemicals based
upon project needs, familiarization & level of
effort required
Chemical Hazard Types
Health & physical hazards (OSHA)
Laboratory Standard only applies to health hazards
Chemicals, biohazards, radioactives
Obvious overlap exists
Health Hazards - Chemicals
“statistically significant evidence” that acute or chronic
health effects may occur in exposed employees
carcinogens
toxic or highly toxic agents
reproductive toxins
irritants
corrosives
sensitizers
hepatotoxins
nephrotoxins
neurotoxins
hematopoietic damaging agents
anything that damages
lungs, skin, eyes or mucous membranes
Physical Hazards - Chemicals
“scientifically valid evidence” it is
combustible liquid
compressed gas
explosive
flammable
organic peroxide
oxidizer
pyrophoric
unstable (reactive)
water-reactive
Chemical Hazard Classes
Corrosives
Flammables
Oxidizers
Toxins
Reactive Chemicals
LABS ARE DIFFERENT…
Labs are Different
Cal/OSHA Lab Standard
OSHA & Cal/OSHA Lab Standard are essentially
identical
www.dir.ca.gov/Title8/5191.html
EPA Academic Lab Rule
Not yet adopted by California
Flexibility afforded academic laboratories:
delay in making waste determinations, longer
accumulation times, labeling simplified, encourages
lab cleanouts – useful for small quantity generators
www.epa.gov/epawaste/hazard/generation/labwaste
Cal/OSHA Laboratory Standard
Occupational regulations for labs that uses
chemicals is the “Laboratory Standard”
Requires:
Employer limit exposure
www.dir.ca.gov/Title8/5155table_ac1.html
Initial and periodic exposure monitoring
Written Chemical Hygiene Plan
Capable of protecting employees from health hazards
Capable of keeping exposures below the limits
Readily available to employees
10/3/2015
19
Lab Standard Requires
Standard operating procedures
Criteria determine & implement controls
Fume hoods shall function properly
Employees shall be trained
Circumstances requiring prior approval
Medical consultation and examinations
Chemical Hygiene officer & Committee
10/3/2015
20
Particularly Hazardous Materials
Special provisions required for:
Select carcinogens
Reproductive toxins
Highly acute toxic substances
1.
2.
3.
4.
10/3/2015
Establishment of a designated area
Use of containment devices such as fume hoods or
glove boxes
Procedures for safe removal of contaminated waste
Decontamination procedures
21
Issues with Compliance
Who is responsible?
Who is the ‘Employer?’
Who is doing the work?
Who is the supervisor? Is there a “supervisor”?
Who’s going to pay?
Fines
Controls & protection (engineering through PPE)
Exposure monitoring (initial & periodic)
Written documents
Signs
Equipment
Hazard Controls
OSHA hierarchy of controls
Engineering controls
Work practices
Administrative controls
Personal protective equipment (PPE)
Laboratory Safety Orientation, 2009
23
Engineering Controls
Local Exhaust Ventilation
Fume hoods
Snorkels
Down-draft
tables
Glove boxes
Biosafety cabinets
Laboratory Safety Orientation, 2009
26
Fume Hoods
Sash ….
…..Exhaust
Bypass Grill….
Fresh Air…..
…..Baffles
Airfoil…..
Laboratory Safety Orientation, 2009
27
Fume Hood Function & Failure
Function
Draw air contaminants away from
operator
Sweep breathing zone with clean air
Impediments to proper operation
Do not use front 6 inches
Do not block air flow - slots
Laboratory Safety Orientation, 2009
28
On-line Training from UCB
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=A4AHxLnByts
Laboratory Safety Orientation, 2009
29
Biological Safety Cabinets
BSCs are designed to provide both a clean work
environment and protection for the user
BSCs use airflow to create a barrier to airborne
particles, such as microorganisms
BSCs use High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA)
filters to clean air going into the work area and
out to the environment
Laboratory Safety Orientation, 2009
30
http://oregonstate.edu/ehs/LVSG-BSC-type
BioSafety Cabinet (Class IIB2)
Clean Benches
(a.k.a. Tissue culture hoods)
Laminar Flow toward
Contamination Source
(operator)
NO operator protection
Protects sample & work
DO NOT USE for
hazardous material
Laboratory Safety Orientation, 2009
33
Work Practices
Education
Hazard recognition and control methods.
Training
Proper techniques; emergency response &
drills
Supervision - good safety performance
Housekeeping
Personal hygiene
Laboratory Safety Orientation, 2009
34
Administrative Controls
Worker exposure
Initial placement, worker rotation
for some hazards.
Medical
Surveillance and immunization.
Hazard Identification
Signs - notifications, etc.
Laboratory Safety Orientation, 2009
35
Personal Protective Equipment
The Strategy of Last Resort
Respiratory Protection
Eye, Face, Hand, Foot
Protective Clothing
Hearing
Head Protection
Barrier creams
Laboratory Safety Orientation, 2009
36
The Failure of a Glove
Karen Wetterhan at Dartmouth
www.dartmouth.edu/~toxmetal/home/tribute/karen.html
www.dartmouth.edu/~ehs/hazard_wetterhahn.html
Laboratory Safety Orientation, 2009
37
Glove Selection
Chemical Compatibility
http://www.ehs.okstate.edu/hazmat/gloves.htm
www.northsafety.com
http://www.showabestglove.com/site/chemrest/
www.ansell-edmont.com/download/Ansell_7thEditionChemicalResistanceGuide.pdf
Laboratory Safety Orientation, 2009
38
Example
Safety Audits& Inspections
Regulatory Scope
Labs inspected for compliance with
California Fire Code
Cal/OSHA Lab Standard
Chemical Hygiene Plan
Hazardous, Medical and Radioactive Waste
Labeling, Storage & Segregation
Radioactive isotope use
Biohazardous materials use
Electrical Code
Audit Process Options
Contact department and/or lab representative
Schedule audits for that dept/lab
Occupants present
Yes – can ask more – takes longer – better result
No – limited to physical conditions only
Paper or paperless process
Time to inspect, time to create reports
Consistency between auditors & inspections
Automating report creations, summary reports
$, FTE, expertise, priorities, accountability
10/3/2015
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Specialized area
Biological Safety
Human pathogens
BSC Certification Oversight
Biosafety Risk Assessments
Biosafety Audits
Bloodborne Pathogen
Exposure Control Plan
IBC (BUAs, Select Agents, rDNA)
Biosafety Level 3 Facilities
Public Health
Biological Spill Response
Communicable diseases
Plant & animal
pathogens
10/3/2015
Medical Research
Medical Waste Management Plan
Medical Waste Treatment Permit
Autoclave validation
Containment & labeling
Animal (vertebrates)
IACUC
Animal Use Authorizations
Vivarium (Consultation, Inspection,
AAALAC)
Insects, arthropod
Invertebrate research
Nematodes, Insects, arthropods
42
Specialized area
Radiation Safety
Radioactive Use
Authorizations
Inspection
Delivery
Radiation exposure
monitoring
Surveys
Dosimetry
Radiation Producing
Machines
Irradiator Security
Equipment Clearance
10/3/2015
Non-ionizing
Laser Safety
Registration 3b & 4
Microwaves
UV
Strong Magnetic Fields
Training
Initial
Refresher
Radiation Safety Committee
Broad scope license
Enforcement
43
Laser use
Class 3B & 4 Lasers are hazardous
Pulsed beam concentrates greater amounts
of energy than continuous wave of the same
average wattage.
“Nothing Leaves the Table”
Curtain that burned
Laser
Synergy – hazards are just tools
Check out the BioBrick Contest
MIT & UCSF
Using BioBrick™ standard biological parts, a
synthetic biologist or biological engineer can, to
some extent, program living organisms like a
computer scientist can program a computer
http://bbf.openwetware.org
Registry of Standard Biological Parts
Biosynthesis: Parts involved in the production or degradation of
chemicals and metabolites are listed here
Cell-cell signaling and quorum sensing: Parts involved in intercellular
signaling and quorum sensing between bacteria
Cell death: Parts involved in killing cells
Coliroid: Parts involved in taking a bacterial photograph
Conjugation: Parts involved in DNA conjugation between bacteria
Motility and chemotaxis: Parts involved in motility or chemotaxis of
cells
Odor production and sensing: Parts the produce or sense odorants
DNA recombination: Parts involved in DNA recombination
FIELD WORK & SAFETY
Travel Safety Plus…
https://www.uctrips-insurance.org
Field Safety Plans
Transportation
People; Samples, Materials, Supplies, Equipment; and
Hazardous Materials
Medical Considerations
Security
Communications
Activities:
Before, while there, when you get back
Pierce's Disease
Bacterial infection (Xylella fastidiosa)
spread by bugs that feed on grapevines
glassy winged sharpshooter
Infected grapevines die
http://www.ehs.ucr.edu/forms/laboratorysafetydesign.pdf
SAFE LABORATORY DESIGN
UC Laboratory Safety Design Guide
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
General Requirements for Laboratories
Electrical Safety
Laboratory Ventilation and Fume Hoods
Emergency Eyewash and Safety Shower Equipment
Pressure Vessel Components and Systems and Compressed
Gas Cylinders
Hazardous Materials Storage Cabinets
Biosafety Laboratories
Additional Requirements for Radioactive Material
Laboratories
Additional Requirements for Laboratories with Irradiators
and/or Radiation-Producing Machines
Additional Requirements for Laboratories Using Non-Ionizing
Radiation Sources, Including Lasers
Ergonomics Design and Laboratory Spaces
Timely Issues
U.S. Green Building Council
www.usgbc.org
Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design
Green Building Rating System™ (LEED)
Labs 21
www.labs21century.gov
International Institute for Sustainable
Laboratories
www.i2sl.org
Sustainable design…
Heated and cooled air flowing takes energy
Laboratories have ‘single pass’, non-recirculated
air to minimize
personnel exposure and
concentration of flammable vapors
Standard Practice a decade ago was 6 to 12
air changes per hour
American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and
Air-Conditioning Engineers changed guidelines
International Building Codes are being adopted
The Challenge
Safe Labs
What is ‘safe’?
Who decides?
How to inform occupants?
How to manage change?
Save Energy
Important but not primary function
Fair comparison of alternatives
Who pays the energy bill?
Integrated Safety & Environmental Management
ISEM
Management of Health, Safety
and the Environment
achieving excellence in providing a healthy and
safe working environment
supporting environmentally sound practices in
the conduct of University activities
comply with all applicable health, safety, and
environmental protection laws, regulations and
requirements
www.ucop.edu/riskmgt/bsas/presidentialpol.pdf
Guiding Principles
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Management Commitments and Involvement
of Faculty, Staff, and Students
Management Responsibility for Safety and
the Environment
Establishing Clear Roles and Responsibilities
Ensuring Competence Commensurate with
Responsibilities
Balanced Priorities
Guiding Principles (continued)
6.
7.
8.
9.
Identification of Safety and Environmental
Standards and Requirements
Encouraging Stakeholder Participation
Adapting Hazard and Operational Controls
to Specific University Activities
Obtaining Authorization Prior to Conducting
an Activity
5 Steps of ISEM (Core Functions)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Define scope of activity
Identify & analyze
hazards
Develop & implement
controls
Perform activity within
controls
Provide feedback &
make improvements
Laboratory Safety Orientation, 2009
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