Preface to College English
This book was written in accordance with the
requirement set by The Fundamental Requirements
for the Teaching of English for Professional and Postsecondary Education published by the Ministry of
Education in 2000. In this handbook the students’
capability of being able to use English in
communication was identified as the ultimate goal of
the English teaching, and it set forth the standard for
the writing of syllabus, textbooks and the design of
the simulated tests.
Preface to College English
This textbook was written based on The Requirements. The
delivery of the knowledge and the emphasis on the
application of the language are the basic concerns of this
book; however, it pays equal attention to the expansion of
the students’ knowledge in English and their capability in
the language analysis.
Preface to College English
When deciding on the complexity of the content, language
points and the application of the language, we took into
consideration the features of long distance education and the
reality that adult learners have less time, weak English
background, and no language environment; therefore, books,
CD-ROMs and online videos were adopted to help students
with visual and audio assistance. Every text was read by the
Canadian expert in language education. The students can
use the CD-Rum or online courseware to enjoy or imitate
the reading of the texts.
Preface to College English
As the chief editor of this book, I began to get involved in the
project of long-distance education in 1997, in cooperation
with the Ministry of Education, Qinghua Tongfang and the
School of Online Education of Lanzhou University. The
courseware designed by me and my collaborators once won
the 3rd prize in the 5th national multi-media courseware design
competition. A previous book edited by me, College English
for Adults, was widely recognized by the students who once
used it.
Preface to College English
In 2002 I went to McMaster University in Canada as a
visiting scholar and in 2004 I received the degree of M.Phil.
in Second Language Education across Cultures from the
University of Cambridge in the UK and in 2010 I received
the degree of Ph.D. in Comparative Literature from the
University of Alberta in Canada.
Preface to College English
for Long-distance Education
The advisor of this book, Professor Jonathan L. Hart, was my
supervisor when I did my Ph.D. studies at the University of
Alberta. He is a distinguished scholar in the academic world.
He is the member of the Royal Society in both Canada and
the United Kingdom; he is also the chair of the Committee
of Fulbright in the United States and Canada. In 2009 he
was awarded the prestigious Fulbright Visiting Chair Award
to conduct research at Harvard and Duke universities.
Preface to College English
The recording of the text and the proofreading of the English
part of the whole textbook were done by Lorin Yochim. He
authored A Vocation of the Heart published in 2008 by
VDM Verlag. He is now an instructor in the Department of
Education at the University of Alberta. Other committee
members all have the experience of overseas studies and
have worked in the field of English teaching for many years.
Preface to College English
This textbook has four volumes. Volumes 1 and 2 are bound in
one book called College English (shang) and volumes 3 and
4 are bound in another book called College English (xia),
separately corresponding to Level B and Level A in the
complexity of languages and the scope of language points.
Preface to College English
At the back of the first book we provided several
simulated tests designed in accordance with the
requirements regulated in the unified English test
syllabus made by the committee of the national online
higher education. Answers to the questions were
supplied with detailed explanations and analysis so that
the students will learn how to answer those types of
questions and get to be familiar with all the language
points that they have to know through doing simulated
tests.
Preface to College English
This set of textbooks has ten units in each volume, with each
unit having a different topic. Each unit is composed of the
following parts:
1) Warm-up questions before each text, which is intended to
activate the thinking of the students and getting them
prepared for the coming-up texts in content and main ideas.
2) Side notes, which present the phonetics for the unknown
words and their definitions, to guarantee that there is no
necessity for the students to stop for the dictionary so that
their capability in reading and understanding academic
writings will be practiced and developed.
Preface to College English
3) Language points, which cover the most important
language phenomena in English, including words,
phrases and sentence patterns with definitions,
explanations and samples to show how to use these
language points and in which contexts.
4) Exercises, which include vocabulary, sentence patterns
and translations either from English to Chinese or vice
verse. Students are expected to master all language
phenomena included in this part to get ready for the
final exam.
Preface to College English
5) Enjoy English, which is mainly composed of humors,
proverbs and supplementary readings relevant to the topic
and content of the text. The purpose is to increase the
students’ interest in learning English and to provide
different contexts for the use of the language.
Preface to College English
6) Grammar, which details all the defining elements of the
language. In most situations the definition is given in
Chinese with the purpose that the students should
thoroughly understand the definition first and then how to
use these grammatical knowledge which distinguish
English from other languages, for example, in English we
say “He went to Beijing yesterday” which, when
translated into Chinese, should be sentenced as “ 他昨天
去北京了”; you cannot literally translate it as “他去北京
了昨天”. This translation has sufficiently demonstrated
that each language has its defining elements and
conventionalized expressions. The students should know
them and consciously apply them when use the language.
Preface to College English
7) Academic Writing, which starts from how to write correct
sentences to the composition of the academic writings.
Writing skills are introduced and exercises are required to
be done right after the introduction of the knowledge.
Preface to College English
To facilitate the students’ self-studies, we provided
answers to all the questions mentioned in the Exercises
and Academic Writings at the back of the textbook, so
that the students can timely find out their problems
with the knowledge of the language when doing those
exercises and getting the correct feedback immediately.
Preface to College English
In the end, we beg your pardon if there are any mistakes
in spelling, typing or editing. Due to the fact that while
the book was printed I was still in Canada, mistakes
caused by time pressure and the long-distance
cooperation are unavoidable. We sincerely thank you
for your understanding and support, based on which the
quality of this set of textbook will be greatly improved
in the future.
Foreword to College English
by Jonathan Hart
I have introduced Professor Hart in the “Preface to College
English”. In his “Foreword”, he sufficiently emphasized the
value of this textbook in helping the Chinese students with
their English learning. As a distinguished scholar in the
English speaking world, his following comments are
worthwhile to listen:
Foreword to College English
by Jonathan Hart
“Learning English or any other language is no easy task, but
the rewards in intellectual and cultural growth are many.
There can also be other practical benefits at work and for
your social benefit because English, like Mandarin, is
spoken by a large number of people. English is the second
language of people in the European Union outside of the
United Kingdom, and is spoken as a first or second
language in many places in the former British Empire (now
the Commonwealth) like India, South Africa, Nigeria,
Australia, New Zealand, Jamaica and Canada…”
Foreword to College English
by Jonathan Hart
“…The fact that India has English as one of its official
languages and that many universities in the European
Union teach courses in English means that you will have
many opportunities. Being from such an important culture
and state as China, whose language is ancient and
prominent in the world, you bring a great deal to other
cultures and to the learning of English. Just think of your
opportunities to meet people, to be wise and cultured, and
to have interesting jobs if you know Mandarin and
English. ..”
Foreword to College English
by Jonathan Hart
“…And there is the United States, which has extended the
use of English as Britain did, because of its economic,
social and cultural power. Hollywood is just one way the
United States has further spread the use of English. Until
recently, the United States, like China, was often
isolationist. Both these countries are big and apparently
self-sufficient in so many ways. But people have been
migrating since we all moved out of Africa long before
more complex human societies started emerging about
fifteen thousand years ago…”
Foreword to College English
by Jonathan Hart
“…The world has had global movements of
peoples, and we are all cousins, however we
look on the outside, and whatever languages
we speak. Much more joins us than divides
us...”
Foreword to College English
by Jonathan Hart
“…The story of the Tower of Babel is about the fall into many
languages from one language that humans understood. The
diversity of languages is a great blessing but also taxes us
because our lives are short and the world is changing ever
more rapidly. Who knows what languages will be important
to study? We can only project from present circumstances.
Part of this choice rests with the individual and can be
personal, aesthetic, historical and practical…”
Foreword to College English
by Jonathan Hart
“… For anyone in China wanting to study other
languages for pragmatic reasons, it looks as though
Hindi, Arabic, Japanese, German, Spanish, Portuguese
and English, by sheer numbers and economic and
geographical reach, would join Mandarin and
Cantonese as good languages to study. Probably if a
Martian had to pick two practical human languages to
learn in the twenty-first century he or she would select
Mandarin and English. So you have Mandarin and are
learning English, so you are one step ahead of the
Martian or any other extraterrestrial...”
Foreword to College English
by Jonathan Hart
“…There are social and practical reasons to learn English,
but it is also a language with a vast vocabulary and a rich
history and literature and expresses the thoughts and
feelings of people of many different backgrounds and
beliefs across the globe. This has been true for centuries.
You can meet a huge variety of people in your travels,
virtual and actual, if you study English and it should open
many doors to you and give you a great deal of pleasure
and satisfaction…”
Foreword to College English
by Jonathan Hart
“… There are social and practical reasons to learn English,
but it is also a language with a vast vocabulary and a
rich history and literature and expresses the thoughts and
feelings of people of many different backgrounds and
beliefs across the globe. This has been true for centuries.
You can meet a huge variety of people in your travels,
virtual and actual, if you study English and it should
open many doors to you and give you a great deal of
pleasure and satisfaction…”
Foreword to College English
by Jonathan Hart
But learning English is, like learning any language, hard
work. It takes patience and understanding, and while you
should study hard, you should realize that all you can do is
your best and that each person learns differently and at his
or her own pace. Sometimes something will come easily,
sometimes it will not, but if you are patient and keep
trying, success will be yours.
Unit One: The Olympic Games
Guidance
Text: The Olympic Games
Language Points
Exercises: 1) Vocabulary 2) Structure 3) Translation
Enjoy English
Grammar
 Tense & Voice (时态及语态 )
Academic Writing
 Sentence Variety (句子的多样性)
Unit One: The Olympic Games
Warm-up Questions
1) Do you like sports?
2) What do you know about Olympics?
Unit One: The Olympic Games
Text (1)
The Olympic Games are 1held every four years in a different
city in the world. Athletes from many countries 2compete in
3a variety of sports which are 4divided into winter and
summer games.
Language Points in the 1st paragraph
1. The Olympic Games are held every four years …
 奥林匹克运动会每四年举行一次…
 hold [həuld]vt.&vi.
1) vt. arrange and take part in 举行;主持;进行
 A meeting was held at the church.
有一个会议在教堂召开。
 The headmaster decided to hold a talk between the teachers and
the students.
校长决定在老师和学生之间进行一次谈话。
2) vt. 拿着;抓住
 We held each other’s hands.
我们手拉着手。
 The girl is holding the baby in her arms.
那姑娘抱着婴儿。
Language Points in the 1st paragraph
3) vt. contain or be capable of containing容纳;装的下
 The theater holds 1800 people.
 这个剧院能容纳1800人。
 This suitcase will hold all my clothes.
 这只衣箱能盛下我所有的衣服。
4) vt. have in one’s possession 拥有;怀有
 He holds a captain’s certificate.
 他持有船长证书。
 I hold the view that he is an honest man.
 我认为他是一个诚实的人。
Language Points in the 1st paragraph
2. compete [kəm'pi:t]vi. (usually followed by “for
something”) 为了什么竞争;对抗
 Universities are competing for applicants.
各大学都在为生源竞争。
 He has to compete with many other candidates for this
position.
为了这个职位他必须和许多其他候选人竞争。
 The big and broad fellow will compete against the whole
Northwest University squad.
这个又高又膀的小伙子将和整个西北大学田径队比赛。
Language Points in the 1st paragraph
3. variety [və'raiəti]n.
1) n. 变化;多样性
 I don’t like to always eat the same food – I like variety.
我不喜欢总是吃同样的食物 – 我喜欢变个花样。
 Everyone enjoys a life full of variety.
每个人都喜欢充满变化的生活。
2) n. 种种 (通常以词组 “a variety of” 的形式出现)
 The college library has a wide variety of books.
这个大学图书馆有各种各样的书。
 A variety of fruits are displayed on the table.
桌子上摆放着各种各样的水果。
Language Points in the 1st paragraph
4. divide [di'vaid]vt.&vi.
1) vt. to separate or to be separated into parts 分;划分
 The cake was divided into six pieces.
这个蛋糕被分成了六块。
 Magazines can be divided into several catalogues.
杂志可分成几大类。
2) vt. (mathematics) (数学) 除
 The program helps the children to multiply and divide quickly and accurately.
这个节目是帮助孩子们既快又准地乘和除。
 30 divided by 6 is 5.
6 除30等于5。
3) vi. 分叉;分开
 The road divides into two at the other side of the town.
这条道在城的另一边被分开成两条道。
 The grass divides as the car drives through it.
当车碾过,草分向两边。
Unit One: The Olympic Games
Text (2)
The Olympics began in Greece more than 2700
years ago. The games were 5originally part of a
religious festival 6in honor of the Greek Gods.
7Eventually, the games became the most
important festival in all of Greece.
Language Points in the 2nd paragraph
5. originally [ə'ridʒənəli]adv.
1) from or in the beginning 起初,原来
 The dress was originally $60.
这件衣服原价60美元。
 Potatoes originally came from South America.
土豆最初产自南美。
2) in an inventive way 独创地;新颖地
 The room was decorated very originally.
这个房间布置的很新颖。
 The suggestions are so originally and persuasively outlined.
这些建议概述的既新颖又具说服力。
Language Points in the 2nd paragraph
6.in honor of: 为…而庆祝;为纪念…;为…表示敬意
 They gave a banquet in honor of the delegation.
他们举办了宴会向代表团表示敬意。
 The citizens decided to put up a monument in honor of those
killed in battles.
市民们建造纪念碑向阵亡的战士表示敬意。
honor ['ɔnə]n.&vt.
1) n. 荣誉;光荣
 All the soldiers want to win honor on the field of battle.
所有的战士都想在战场上获得荣誉。
 You are an honor to our profession.
你是我们这个行业的光荣。
Language Points in the 2nd paragraph
2) vt. 尊敬;尊重
 We Chinese people honor the principle of coexistence.
中国人民尊重和平共处的原则。
 Jane now has to learn to honor her father’s memory.
简现在学得不得不尊重她父亲的记忆力。
3) vt. 给… 以荣誉;给… 授勋
 The talented writers were honored at a special ceremony.
这些有才华的作家在仪式上受到了表彰。
 The Premier honored us with his presence.
总理莅场是我们的荣幸。
Language Points in the 2nd paragraph
7. eventually [i'ventjuəli]adv. 终于;最终
 He eventually retired from business.
他终于从商界退休了。
 He eventually saw that he was mistaken.
他终于认识到他错了。
 eventual adj. 最终发生的;结果的
 Jim’s mistake led to his eventual dismissal.
吉姆的错误导致他最终被解雇。
 My mother’s persistence brought her eventual success.
我母亲的坚持不懈终于给她带来了成功。
Unit One: The Olympic Games
Text (3)
The first 8recorded Olympic competition was held in 776 B.C.
It was held in an outdoor stadium which was about 200
meters long and 30 meters wide. The stadium was in a
valley, and about forty thousand people watched the 9event.
The first thirteen Olympics 10consisted of only one race running.
Language Points in the 3rd paragraph
8. record ['rekɔd]vt.&vi&n.
 1) vt. 记录;记载
 It is recorded in history Tokyo was destroyed twice by earthquakes.






据历史记载东京曾两次被大地震摧毁。
They were asked to keep a diary and record everything they ate and
drank. 他们被要求写日记并记录下他们吃喝的每一样东西。
2) vi. 记录;录音
Does this machine record well?
3) n. 记录;记载
When I travel, I keep a record of everything that happens.

我旅行的时候把发生的一切都记录下来。
His medical records showed that he was not healthy.

他的病历表明他身体状况不佳。

Language Points in the 3rd paragraph
4) n. 履历;成绩
 He has a very distinguished record. 他的履历非常出色。
 This airline has a poor safety record.
这家航空公司安全记录很糟糕。
5) n. 唱片;录制品
 My best friend John likes the record of Beethoven’s Sixth Symphony.
 我最好的朋友喜欢贝多芬的《第六交响曲》。
 Would you please play a record by the Beatles?
请放一首披头士的唱片好吗?
6) n. 最高记录;最佳记录
 All newspapers set sales records Monday.
星期一所有的报纸创销售记录。
 It is Liu Li who holds the record for running the mile.
是刘力在保持着公里跑记录。
Language Points in the 3rd paragraph
9.event [i'vent]n.
1) 发生的事情;事件
 The invention of anaesthetics is a great event in medicine.
麻醉剂的发明是医学界的一项大事。
 China’s accession to the WTO is the chief event of the 21st century.
中国加入WTO是21世纪的一项大事。
2) 比赛项目
 All students must take part in the track and field events.
所有学生须参加田径项目。
 Football is a team event.
足球是团体项目。
Language Points in the 3rd paragraph
10. consist [kən'sist]vi.
1) vi. (consist of) be made up of 组成;构成
 The crew consists of six persons.
全体人员由6人组成。
 This article consists of three paragraphs.
2) vi. (consist in ) have as an essential feature 在于;存在于
 Her charm does not consist only in her beauty.
她的魅力不仅仅在于她的美丽。
 The beauty of this house lies in its simplicity.
这间房子的美丽在于它的简约。
Unit One: The Olympic Games
Text (4)
Beginning in 776 B.C. the games were held 11regularly for
about 1,200 years. But in the year 397 A.D. the Olympics
were 12prohibited by the Roman Emperor.
Language Points in the 4th paragraph
11. regularly ['regjuləli]adv. 有规则地; 定期地
 You should go over your lessons regularly.
你应该定期复习。
 The plane flies from Shanghai to Lanzhou regularly every
Tuesday.
Language Points in the 4th paragraph
12. prohibit [prə'hibit]vt.
1) vt. (法令) 禁止
 Tourist class passengers are prohibited from using the first class
lounge.
普通舱游客禁止使用头等休闲室。
 Smoking is prohibited in public places.
不许在公共场合吸烟。
2) vt. 妨碍;阻碍
 Heavy fog prohibited flying.
大雾阻碍了飞行。
 Family finances prohibited me from going to college.
家庭财政状况妨碍了我上大学。
Unit One: The Olympic Games
Text (5)
It was not until 1896 that the first Olympics of modern times
were held in Athens. 13From then on the games have been
held regularly every four years. The Olympics have
become the world’s most important athletic events and a
14symbol of the sporting friendship of all the people of the
world.
Language Points in the 5th paragraph
13. from then on 从那时起…一直
 My father died when I was ten years old. From then on, I had to earn
my own living.


我10岁时父亲去世。从那时起,我得自己谋生。
From then on they became friends.
从那时起,他们成为好朋友。
14. symbol ['simbəl]n. 符号, 标志, 象征
 The dove is a symbol of peace
鸽子是和平的象征。
 The symbol for China is the Five-Starred Red Flag.

五星红旗是中国的象征。
Unit One: The Olympic Games
Exercises about the Text
I.
Vocabulary: fill in the blanks with the words and
expressions given below, changing the form where
necessary.
// from then on; a variety of; prohibit; eventually; honor;
// hold;
originally; divide; symbol;
regularly;
// record;
consist of; festival; compete
1) His day ______ between work and relaxation. (is divided )
2) This position ______ by him for eight years. (has been held)
3) Paris ______ as the “City of Light”. (is honored )
Unit One: The Olympic Games
Exercises about the Text
4) This big event ______ in all history books. (has been recorded )
5) He comes ______ to take care of the old artist. (regularly)
6) Violence ______ in TV programs for children. (is prohibited )
7) This big house ______ six rooms. (consists of)
8) There are ______ good books for you to choose from. (a variety of )
9) Sixteen athletes will ______ in the parachuting event (跳伞). (compete)
10) We continued working in spite of the rain and ______ finished the task.
(eventually)
11) His girl friend left him and ______ he lived in sadness. (from then on)
12) The color white is a ______ of purity. (symbol)
13) Is it on sale? What is the ______ price? (original)
14) What do you eat on this Chinese ______? (festival)
Unit One: The Olympic Games
Exercises about the Text
II. Structure
2. 1 Complete the following sentences after the model:
Model: The stadium was about 200 meters long and 30 meters wide.
Exercise:
1) During the journey, we saw (高达50英尺的浪).
2) The guide tells the tourists (这个城堡有600年历史了).
3) The competition (历时3个小时) made everyone exhausted.

waves that were fifty meters high

that this fort is six hundred years old

that was three hours long
Unit One: The Olympic Games
Exercises about the Text
2. 2 Change the following sentences after the model:
The first Olympics of modern times were not held in Athens until 1896.→
-- It was not until 1896 that the first Olympics of modern times were held in
Athens.
Exercise:
1) Her husband didn’t come home until after midnight.
2) The farmer did not stop harvesting until it was very dark.
3) He did not go to bed until he had finished his homework.
Key

It was not until after midnight that her husband came home.

It was not until it was very dark that the farmer stopped harvesting.

It was not until he had finished his homework that he went to bed.
Unit One: The Olympic Games
Exercises about the Text
III. Translation: Translate the following sentences into
Chinese.
1) The 2008 Summer Olympic Games was held in Beijing.
2) It was not until the 1950s that TV came to control people’s spare time.
3) The illegal copying of records should be prohibited by law.
4) Qi Hui broke the record in women’s breaststroke at the National Games.
Key

1) 2008年奥林匹克运动会在北京举办。

2) 直到20世纪50年代电视才开始控制人们的业余时间。

3) 盗版唱片应该受到法律禁止。
Unit One: The Olympic Games
Exercises about the Text
5. He kept on studying hard and eventually got a high score on the College
English Achievement Test - Band 4.
6. This sports committee consists of three Japanese, five Australians and
six Englishmen.
7. The lion is a symbol of courage.
8. She divided her friends into three types: cold, friendly and polite.
Key

4) 齐晖在全运会上打破了女子蛙泳记录。

5) 他坚持努力学习,最终在大学英语四级考试中取得了好成绩。

6) 这个体育委员会由3个日本人,5个澳大利亚人和6个英国人组成。

7) 狮子是勇气的象征。

8) 她把朋友分成三种:冷淡的,友好的,礼貌的。
Unit One: The Olympic Games
Enjoy English: Summer Olympics
Archery ['ɑ:tʃəri]
Badminton
baseball
Basketball
Beach Volleyball
Boxing
Canoe / Kayak ['kaiæk]
Cycling
Equestrian [i'kwestriən]
Fencing
射箭
羽毛球
棒球
篮球
沙滩排球
拳击
皮划艇
场地自行车
马术
剑术
Unit One: The Olympic Games
Enjoy English: Summer Olympics
Field Hockey
Gymnastics
Judo
Modern Pentathlon
Mountain Biking
Rowing
Sailing
Shooting
Soccer
Softball
曲棍球
体操
柔道
现代五项
山地自行车
划船
帆船
射击
足球
垒球
Unit One: The Olympic Games
Enjoy English: Summer Olympics
Swimming and Diving
Synchronized Swimming
Table Tennis
Tae Kwon-Do
Team Handball
Tennis
Track & Field
Triathlon
Volleyball
Water Polo
Weightlifting
Wrestling
游泳跳水
游泳
乒乓球
台拳道
手球
网球
田径
铁人三项
排球
水球
举重
摔跤
Unit One: The Olympic Games
Enjoy English: Winter Olympics
Winter Olympics
Alpine Skiing
Biathlon
Bobsled
Cross Country
Curling
Figure Skating
Free-style Skiing
高山滑雪
滑雪射击
长橇
越野
冰槲
花样滑冰
自由式滑雪
Unit One: The Olympic Games
Enjoy English: Winter Olympics
Luge [lu:ʒ]
Nordic Combined
Short Track Speed-skating
Skeleton
Ski Jumping
Snowboarding
无舵雪橇
现代冬季两项
短道速滑
钢架雪橇
跳台滑雪
跳板滑雪
Unit One: The Olympic Games
Enjoy English: Proverb
Better to be envied than pitied.
宁被人妒,不受人怜。
 Better to die standing than live kneeling.
宁愿站着死,也不跪着生。

Unit One: The Olympic Games
Enjoy English: Unit Humor
Jack is an eight-year-old boy and often forgets things. Last
Sunday was his uncle’s birthday, but he forgot it. He felt
very sorry, so this morning he wrote a letter to his uncle:
Dear Uncle,
I’m very sorry I forgot your birthday last Sunday. Please
excuse me, and you may just forget my birthday next
Thursday.
Unit One: The Olympic Games
Enjoy English: Supplementary Reading
“All work and no play
makes Jack a dull boy” is an
English saying. It is true that
all of us need recreation. We
cannot work all the time if we
want to keep healthy and
enjoy life.
“只工作不玩耍聪明孩子也变
傻”是一句英国格言。的确,
我们都需要娱乐。要保持健
康和享受生活,我们就不能一
味地工作。
Unit One: The Olympic Games
Enjoy English: Supplementary Reading
Recreation and Sports
娱乐与运动
Everyone has his own way of relaxing.
Maybe the most common way is to
take part in sports. There are two sorts
of sports: team sports and individual
sports. Team sports are such sports as
basketball, volleyball and football.
Individual sports are such sports as
running and swimming, discus and
javelin throwing.
每一个人都有自己的休
息方式。或许最常用的
便是参与体育运动。有
两种体育运动:团体运
动和个人运动。篮球,
排球和足球属团体活动,
而跑步,游泳,铁饼和
标枪则属个人运动。有
些人更喜欢当观众。当
大型足球赛时,想买上
门票几乎是不可能的,
因为每一个人都想进去
观看。
Unit One: The Olympic Games
Enjoy English: Unit Humor
Some people prefer to be spectators.
When there is an important football
match, it is almost impossible to get
tickets because everybody wants to
attend it.
It is very important for everyone to
relax from time to time and enjoy
some form of recreation. So all of us
should take an active part in sports
and recreation in order to keep fit.
有些人更喜欢当观
众。当大型足球赛
时,想买上门票几
乎是不可能的,因
为每一个人都想进
去观看。
对于每一个人来说,
时不时地放松一下,
享受某种方式的娱
乐是非常重要的。
因此,要保持健美
我们都应该积极参
与体育和娱乐活动。
Unit One: The Olympic Games
Grammar: Tense & Voice
1. 时态
1.1 基本概念:
英语的时态是一种动词形式,不同时态用于表示不同的时间和
方式。
1.2 种类:
 从时间 (time) 上看,英语的时态有现在、过去、将来、过去将
来之分。从语体或语态方面 (aspect) 看,英语的时态又有一般、
进行、完成、完成进行之分。

Unit One: The Olympic Games
Grammar: Tense & Voice
1.3 用法:

一般现在时表示现在、经常或习惯的动作或状态、普遍现象、
常识或客观真理。一般过去时用于过去某一时间内发生的或过
去习惯性的动作或状态。一般将来时表示将要发生的动作或存
在的状态,将来打算做的事。现在完成时表示过去发生的动作
造成目前的结果或对现在造成影响,或表示从过去延续至今的
动作、状态和习惯。将来完成时表示将来某时之前已完成或发
生的事情。过去完成时表示过去某时间之前已经发生的动作或
状态,即过去的过去。
Unit One: The Olympic Games
Grammar: Tense & Voice
1.4时态形式一览表:

英语共有十六种时态,其表现形式如下(以study为例)。
一般
进行时
完成时
完成进行时
现在
study
am
is
are
have
studies
过去
studying
have
studied
been studying
has
has
had studied
had been studying
shall
shall
was
studied
studying
were
将来
shall
shall
study
will
过 去 should
study
将来
would
be studying
have studied
have been studying
will
will
will
should
be studying
would
should
have studied
would
should
have been studying
would
Unit One: The Olympic Games
Grammar: Tense & Voice
2. 语态:
2.1 基本概念:
英语中有两种语态:主动语态和被动语态。主动语态表示主语是
动作的执行者。被动语态表示主语是动作的承受者,即行为动作
的对象。英语的语态是通过动词形式的变化表现出来的。
2.2 被动语态
 * 没有必要说出动作的发出者。如:
 The dictionary is designed for beginners learning English.



* 强调动作的承受者。如:
This room is shared by three of us.
Unit One: The Olympic Games
Grammar: Tense & Voice
2.3 被动语态的构成
被动语态由“be的相应形式 + 动词的过去分词”构成。时态由be的变化表
示。
1) 常见被动语态的各种时态形式
一般时态
现在
过去
am
is
are
was
+ given
进行时态
am
is
are
was
+ given
将来
were
shall
完成时态
have
+ being given
+ been given
has
had been given
+ being given
were
——
shall
+ be given
+ have been given
will
will
——
过去将来 should
should
+ be given
would
+ have been given
would
Unit One: The Olympic Games
Grammar: Tense & Voice
* 被动语态没有将来进行时和各种完成进行时。
* 被动语态的将来时还有其它两种表现形式: “to be going to …” 和
“to be to …”。如:
My classmate Zhou is going to be sent to work in Tibet for three months.
The meeting is to be held next Monday.
2) 带情态动词的被动语态:由“情态动词 + be + 动词的过去分词”
构成。如:
This problem cannot be solved immediately.
This TV program might have been watched by every child.
Unit One: The Olympic Games
Grammar: Tense & Voice
3)不定式的被动语态:由 “to + be + 及物动词的过去分
词”构成。如:
Two novels are required to be read by you.
Twenties more trees are to be planted today.
4)有些动词用主动形式表示被动意义。如:
This pen writes well.
Family saga novels sell good.
Unit One: The Olympic Games
Grammar: Tense & Voice
5)感官动词或使意动词使用省略 “to” 的动词不定式,
主动语态中不带 “to”,
但变为被动语态时,须加上 “to”. 如:
I saw him enter this building.
→ He was seen to enter that building.
They had him overload the truck.
→ He was asked to overload the truck.
Unit One: The Olympic Games
Sentence Variety

Sentence writing is the basis for composition. If the basis is weak,
however hard you try, your writing is inevitably (不可避免地) poor.
Here is an example of a poorly-written paragraph:



When I was a student in Lanzhou University, there were only
4000 students. Chemistry Department was the largest
department.The department had about 600 students. Physics
Department was the second largest department.The
department had about 500 students. Foreign Language
Department had only 150 students.The department was the
least department.
Unit One: The Olympic Games
Grammar: Sentence Variety
The biggest problem in the paragraph is that the sentences
are too choppy (零碎), which means that there are too
many short sentences. If we combine (合并) the related
simple sentences into compound (并列句) or complex (复
合句) sentences, we will have a far better paragraph. The
following is a much better one.
Unit One: The Olympic Games
Grammar: Sentence Variety


When I was a student at Lanzhou University, there were only
around 4000 students.The chemistry department was the
largest department, which had about 600 students.The second
largest department was the physics department with around
500 students.The foreign language department, with only about
150 students, was the smallest one at that time.
Unit One: The Olympic Games
Grammar: Sentence Variety
So remember, writing a composition is like writing a
piece of musical work. You must have a rhythm,
which means you have to vary sentence lengths and
patterns. Otherwise, those who read your
composition will be bored to death.
Unit One: The Olympic Games
Grammar: Sentence Variety
Exercise: Rewrite the following paragraph by linking
up the related simple sentences to achieve sentence
variety.
Leonardo da Vinci painted the Mona Lisa. He was an Italian
painter. He lived during the Renaissance.The woman in the
painting is smiling.There has been talk about the meaning of her
smile for centuries.
→ Revised version one the next page

Unit One: The Olympic Games
Grammar: Sentence Variety
Recommended Revision

Leonardo da Vinci, an Italian painter who lived during
the Renaissance, painted the Mona Lisa. The woman in the
painting is smiling. There has been talk about the meaning
of her smile for centuries.
Unit Two: Everything Included
Unit Guidance
Warm-up Questions
Text: Everything Included
Language Points
Exercises: 1)Vocabulary; 2) Structure; 3) Translation
Enjoy English
Grammar
 Adjective (形容词)
Academic Writing
 How to Enrich Simple Sentences 1 (如何丰富简单句 1)
Unit Two: Everything Included
Warm-up Questions
Warm-up Questions
1. What was your most exciting trip?
2. Which do you prefer: to tell people your troubles or to
hide them? Why?
Unit Two: Everything Included
Text (Para. 1)
Ann started work last summer, so she did not have a 1holiday.
She 2saved as much as she could and, in January, she
3booked a package trip to Rosas, Spain. She left London
airport early on the morning of the first Saturday in August.
She was very excited, as this was her first trip 4abroad*.
During the flight they had a snack, and when they 5arrived
at Barcelona airport, a special bus 6was ready to take them
to their hotel in Rosas. The weather was beautiful and Ann
enjoyed the bus trip.
Unit Two: Everything Included
Language Points in Para. 1
1. holiday ['hɔlədi]n. 假日,休息日,节日
 Where will you spend your holiday?
你假期是在哪度过的?
 We have a holiday every Saturday and Sunday.
每个星期六和星期天是我们的休息日。
 During the Spring Festival, the majority of Chinese people can
enjoy a long holiday.
春节期间中国人可以享受一个长假。
Unit Two: Everything Included
Language Points in Para. 1
2. save[seiv]vt.&n.
1) vt. 储蓄;积攒,保存
 She had saved three hundred pounds since Christmas.
 圣诞节以来她已经存了300英镑。
 In order to buy a new house, the Smiths saved as much as they could.
 为了买房子,史密斯夫妇拼命攒钱。
2) vt. 救助,搭救;挽救
 The doctors managed to save his life.
 医生们设法抢救了他的生命。
 The woman tried to save his daughter from the fire at the risk of her
own life.
 这位妇女冒生命危险从火里抢救他的女儿
Unit Two: Everything Included
Language Points in Para. 1
3. book [buk]vt.&n.
 1) vt. to arrange for(e.g. tickets) in advance; reserve 预订,预约,登记
 The flight is fully booked.


机票已经预售完毕。
Can I book you to lecture to the society on the 25th of December?

我可以预约您12月25日向公众发表演说吗?
2) n. 书,本子
I lost my book yesterday.

我的书昨天丢了。


Unit Two: Everything Included
Language Points in Para. 1
4. abroad[ə'brɔ:d]a.& ad.
1) ad. in or to a foreign country 到国外,在国外
 She is famous for her singing at home and abroad.
 无论是国内还是国外,她都很有名气。
 Studying abroad is still in vogue nowadays.
 在当今去海外求学仍然很流行。
2) adj. 海外的 (做表语;或放在名次之后作定语)
 Many people would like to take holidays abroad.
 很多人喜欢在海外度假。
 The conference delegates included scholars from abroad.
 与会代表包括海外学者。
Unit Two: Everything Included
Language Points in Para. 1
5. to arrive at 到达,抵达
 She arrived at Lanzhou Railway Station early this morning.

今天早晨她到达了兰州火车站。
As soon as you arrive at the airport, please call me.
你一到达机场就给我打电话。
6. to be ready to 准备好了要做...
 He is ready to be asked.

他已经准备好了应答一切。
The students are ready to take the final examinations.
学生已经为期末考试做好了准备。
Unit Two: Everything Included
Text (Para. 2)
At the hotel, she 7checked in, and then went to her room to
change before dinner. She was just ready to go downstairs,
when she found that her Spanish money was not in her
handbag. She carefully looked in all her luggage, but she
could not find it. All she had was a small purse with ten
English pound notes in it!
Unit Two: Everything Included
Language Points in Para. 2
7. check [tʃek]v.
 to examine 核对,检查,查看
 Did you check your purse for the keys?
 钥匙在不在你的手提袋里?你查过了吗?
 Most students like to check their answers with their classmates
immediately after the examinations.
 大部分学生喜欢一考完试就和同学讨论答案。
 to check in / out (在旅馆、机场等)登记,报到 / 退房结帐
 He has not checked in at any hotel yet.
 他还没去任何宾馆办入住手续。
 You must check in at the airport an hour before your plane arrives.
 在你的飞机到达前一个小时,你必须办理登机手续。
 You have to check out before noon; otherwise, you will be charged for
another day.
 你必须中午12点前结账,否则宾馆要加收你新一天的钱。
Unit Two: Everything Included
Language Points in Para. 3
Ann found a place to 8change her English money. She had
very few pesetas, and she would be here for two weeks. 9On
her way back to the hotel, Ann bought some cheese, some
bread and some oranges. When she got back, she told the
manager that her doctor had told her not to eat Spanish food;
she would just have breakfast each day. This was all right,
as she knew the price of hotels included breakfast.
Unit Two: Everything Included
Language Points in Para. 3
8. change [tʃeindʒ]vt.
 1) vt. 兑换,交换
 Could you change a fifty-yuan note for me?
 你能帮我兑换一张50元人民币吗?
 Anne changed all her U.S. dollars into francs before going to
France.
 在去法国前,安把她所有的美金都换成了法郎。
 2) vt. 改变
 Due to bad weather, the plane had to change course.
 由于坏天气,飞机不得不改航线。
 She is not very resolute; she always changes her mind.
 她不是很有主见;她总是改主意。
Unit Two: Everything Included
Language Points in Para. 3
3) n. 零钱;变化
 How much have you got in change。
 你有多少零?
 If we do not want to fail, we have to have a change of leadership.
 如果我们不想失败,就得换领导。
9. on one’s way to ... 在去... 的路上
 He met a former classmate on his way to school.
 在去学校的路上,他遇到了以前的同学。
 His bicycle broke down on his way to work, so he was late for work.
 他的自行车在去上班的路上坏了,所以他上班迟到了。
Unit Two: Everything Included
Text (Para. 4)
For the rest of her holiday, Ann swam in the hotel
swimming pool, or lay on the beach and got a suntan. She
also went for long walks with one of the other tourists, a
Scottish girl called Jane. However, when the others went
to interesting places, she always said she was not well.
10In fact, her holiday was not bad, *except that she was
always hungry. 11After all, a piece of fruit for lunch, and
bread and cheese for supper is not very much ...
especially not for two weeks!
Unit Two: Everything Included
Language Points in Para. 4
10. in fact 事实上;甚至,确切地说
 He is not a qualified teacher; in fact, he doesn't know how to
teach.
他不是一个好老师;事实上,他根本不知道怎样教书。
 They have known each other for a long time, since their days in
Paris, in fact.
他们认识已经很久了;确切地说从他们在巴黎时就开始了。
11. after all 比竟
 Don’t expect too much from him; he is a beginner, after all.
 不要对他预期太高;他只是一个新手。
 This is, after all, the least important part of the problem.
 这毕竟是整个问题中最不重要的。
Unit Two: Everything Included
Text (Para. 5)
Late in the afternoon of their last day, Ann and Jane were on
the beach. Jane asked her why she never ate with them in
the hotel restaurant. The food was excellent. Ann told her all
about her money problems. Jane looked at her for a minute,
and then said, “But did you not know? The price of this
holiday includes 12absolutely everything!”
Unit Two: Everything Included
Language Points in Para. 5
12. absolutely [absolutely]adv. 完全地;非常,极其,
实实在在地
 He found the place absolutely delightful.
 他发觉这地方非常令人愉悦。
 It is absolutely the best show in town.
 这的确是城里最好的表演。
Unit Two: Everything Included
Exercises about the Text: Vocabulary
Fill in the blanks with the words given below, changing
the forms if necessary.
// abroad; beach; book; change; check
// save; holiday; flight; package
// purse; absolutely; manager; suntan
1) I like traveling during my ______. (holidays)
2) In order to buy a car, he tries to ______ as much as possible. (save)
3) She has ______ a trip to Australia for the coming holiday. (booked)
Unit Two: Everything Included
Exercises about the Text: Vocabulary
4. He took a ______ of cigarettes out of his pocket. (package)
5. Nowadays, studying and working ______ have become
fashionable. (abroad)
6. bird in ______ is not easy to shoot. (flight)
7. I like having ______ for my lunch, since it could save me
much time. (snacks)
8. As soon as she arrived in Shanghai, she ______ in at a hotel.
(checked)
9. Ann felt extremely depressed since her ______ had been
stolen. (purse)
Unit Two: Everything Included
Exercises about the Text: Vocabulary
10. Before she departed for the U.S., she had ______ some
money into U.S. dollars. (changed )
11. After we had spent a vacation at the seaside, the ultraviolet light gave us a ______. (suntan)
12. I enjoy lying on the ______ to get a suntan. (beach)
13. Alice is ______ the best student in her class. ( absolutely)
14. As the definition suggests, a ______ manages everything
in a trade or business. (manager)
15. His ______ will be carried here later by train. (luggage)
Unit Two: Everything Included
Exercises about the Text: Vocabulary
II. Structure:
2. 1 Read the sample first and then complete the following
sentences by using “as...as”:
She saved as much as she could and then booked a package trip to
Rosas. 她尽可能攒钱,接着定了一张去罗萨斯的套餐旅游机票。
1) In order to buy a new house, __________.
2) __________ in order to catch the early bus.
3) __________ in order to support her daughter.
Suggested Answers
 1) The Smiths saved as much money as they could.
 2) She got up as early as she could
 3) She worked as hard as she could
Unit Two: Everything Included
Exercises about the Text: Vocabulary
2.2 Read the sample first and then complete the
following sentences by using“except that…” (除了)
Sample:
 In fact, her holiday was not bad, except that she was
always hungry
事实上,除了她时常感到有点饿,她的假期不坏。
Unit Two: Everything Included
Exercises about the Text: Vocabulary
Exercise
1) I like this course very much, (除了家庭作业太多之外).
2) I knew nothing about the accident (除了我在报上所看到的).
3) We had a very pleasant time (除了天公不作美外).
4) I like her (除了她生气的时候).
Possible answers
1) except that there is too much homework.
2) except what I have read in the newspaper.
3) except that the weather was not very fine.
4) except when she was angry.
Unit Two: Everything Included
Exercises about the Text: Vocabulary
2.3 Read the sample first and then re-write the
following sentences, using “all + attributive clause” to
achieve emphasis.
Sample:
All she had was a small purse with ten English pound notes
in it.
她拥有的所有东西不过是一只小钱包和里面的10英镑。
Unit Two: Everything Included
Exercises about the Text: Vocabulary
Exercise:
1) I only need this.
2) She only needs some reassurance.
3) We only need your promise.
Possible answers
1) This is all I need.
2) All she needs is some reassurance.
3) All we need is your promise.
Unit Two: Everything Included
Exercises about the Text: Translation
III.Translation:Translate the following sentences into English.
为了买房子,他们尽可能地攒钱。(as...as possible)
(In order to buy a house, they saved as much money as they could.)

你要想看那场时装表演的话,就得早点儿定座位。(book)
(You’ll have to book early if you want to see that fashion show.)

学生们已经准备好了参加期末考试。(be ready to do...)
(The students are ready to take the final examinations.
)

Unit Two: Everything Included
Exercises about the Text: Translation
你一到机场,先办登机手续然后在候机大厅吃饭。(check in)
As soon as you arrive at the airport, you check in first and then eat at the
restaurant in the waiting hall.

在上班的路上,他突然想起他忘记了关窗户。(on one’s way to ...)
On his way to work, he suddenly remembered that he had forgotten to
close the window.

她习惯于晚饭后在校园散步。(go for a walk)
She is in the habit of going for a walk on campus after supper.

Unit Two: Everything Included
Enjoy English: Proverb
Enough is better than too much.
过犹不及。
 Every bean has its imperfection.
金无足赤,人无完人。

Unit Two: Everything Included
Enjoy English: Humor
Excellent Communication Skill 绝好的交流技能
After friends of mine landed at busy Boston Airport, they
were unable to attract the attention of any porters (搬运
工人) to help with their luggage. In desperation (绝望),
the husband took out a five-dollar bill (钞票) and waved
it above the crowd.
In an instant, a skycap (机场行李搬运员) was at his side.
“Sir,” observed the porter, “you certainly have excellent
communication skills.”
Unit Two: Everything Included
Enjoy English: Supplementary Reading
Contingency 偶然错误
John:
Linda:
John:
Linda:
How do you feel about flying?
I don’t mind flying. What I don’t like is not
being able to keep an eye on my luggage.
Whenever the man at the airport takes my
luggage, I expect to never see it again.
There is always a chance it will fly to Paris
while you fly to Rome. Has anything like that
ever happened to you?
No, but it has happened to other people. Just
the other day I heard about an old woman
who lost her luggage. It was a true story. She
was taking a five-day journey around Europe.
约:你怎么看飞行?
林:我并不介意坐飞机。
我所不喜欢的是我盯不
住我的行李,每次机场
人员帮我拿走行李,我
就没想再能看到它。
约:总有这样的时候,
你去的是罗马,而行李
却去了巴黎。你是否也
发生过类似的事?
林:没有,其他人发生
过类似的事。就在前两
天我还听说一位老太太
丢了行李。这是真的故
事。当时她正在欧洲五
日游
Unit Two: Everything Included
Enjoy English: Supplementary Reading
John:
Linda:
John:
Linda:
Where did her luggage get lost?
I don’t think she ever found out. When
she arrived in Europe, her luggage wasn’t
there. She had to travel through four
countries in the same clothes.
I suppose she bought another toothbrush,
at least. Could she buy another dress?
No. She had spent all her money on the
tickets for the journey. Besides, she never
had time to shop. Every time they
reached another airport, she had to
spend her time in the luggage room,
looking for her luggage.
约:她的行李在哪丢
的?
林:我想她也不清楚。
当她到欧洲时,行李
不在那。她不得不穿
着同一件衣服周游四
国。
约:我想她至少应该
买把牙刷吧。她有机
会再买套衣服吧?
林:不,她把所有钱
都花在了旅行交通费
上。此外,她也没时
间购物。每到一个机
场她都得到行李房寻
找她的行李。
Unit Two: Everything Included
Enjoy English: Supplementary Reading
John:
Linda:
John:
What a way to spend her holiday! But
that’s not as bad as a story I heard.
There was a family of four on a big ship.
They were there to say goodbye to a
friend of theirs.
I suppose the ship left before the
family got off.
That’s right.They said that they didn’t
hear any warning bells.They didn’t
know the ship had left until they finally
decided it was time to get off. By then
the ship was almost out to sea. Of
course they wouldn’t make the captain
turn around to take them back.
约:太糟糕的假日!但
她的故事还没有我听到
的那个故事糟糕。有一
家四口人在一只大船上。
他们在那给一个朋友送
行。
林:我想这家人还没离
开,船就开了。
约:对了。他们说没听
到任何警铃。他们并不
知道船已经离开了,直到
他们认为该是下船的时
候了。而那时船已经到
了海上。当然,他们不
可能让船长掉转船头送
他们回去。
Unit Two: Everything Included
Enjoy English: Supplementary Reading
Linda:
John:
Linda:
John:
Linda:
And of course they didn’t have any
luggage with them.
It was worse than that. All four of
them had to stay in one small cabin
for the whole week.They had a
baby and a small child.The child
came down with measles the next
day.
So they couldn’t leave their small
cabin.
They couldn’t leave it, and nobody
else could come near them. I
suppose somebody had to leave
food at their door.
What a terrible time they had!
林:不用说他们没带任何
行李。
约:情况比那更糟。一个
星期内,他们四人必须呆
在一个小船舱里。他们有
一个婴儿、一个小孩。小
孩第二天出麻疹病到了。
林:因此他们不能离开船
舱。
约:他们不能离开,别人
也无法靠近他们。我想他
们的食物是靠某人放在门
边。
林:多么可怕的日子!
Unit Two: Everything Included
Grammar: Adjective
1. 形容词的用法:形容词可在句中作
定语
 Look at the beautiful moon!
表语
 This book is both interesting and instructive.
宾语补足语
 He is always keeping his room clean and tidy.
相当于名词 (形容词前加the)
 He has a keen sense of the new.

Unit Two: Everything Included
Grammar: Adjective
2. 形容词的表现形式
2.1形容词的比较等级 (degrees of comparison) 一般有两个:

比较级 (comparative degree) 和最高级 (superlative degree)。平常所见的形
容词通常称为原级 (positive degree)。
2.1.1 比较级

用于两者的比较。其表现形式为:含有形容词比较级的主句+从属连词
than引导的从句 (从句中常省去意义上和主句相同的部分);或两个短语进
行比较。如:

She is older than my mother. (从句中省略is old)

There are more students in this class than in that one. (从句中省略
there are students)

After two years in the countryside my father is healthier. (从句中省略
than he was)
Unit Two: Everything Included
Grammar: Adjective
2.1.2 最高级
用于两者以上的比较。其表现形式为:定冠词the + 形
容词最高级 + (名词) + 表示范围的短语或从句。
 Xiao Liu is the most diligent student in our class.
 This is the best film I have ever seen.
 Do you know the tallest man?
 He is the best among us in dealing with people.
Unit Two: Everything Included
Grammar: Adjective
2.1.3 形容词的比较级和最高级的表现形式
1) 规则变化
构成法
原级
比较级
最高级
单音节词尾加-er和-est
great
long
…
brave
late
…
big
hot
…
greater
longer
…
braver
later
…
bigger
hotter
…
greatest
longest
…
bravest
latest
…
biggest
hottest
…
clever
narrow
able
…
happy
heavy
…
difficult
delicious
…
cleverer
narrower
abler
…
happier
heavier
…
more difficult
more delicious
…
cleverest
narrowest
ablest
…
happiest
heaviest
…
most difficult
most delicious
…
单音节词以-e结尾,只
加-r和-st
闭音节单音节词尾只有
一个辅音字母时,先写
此辅音字母,再加-er和est
少 数 以 -er , -ow , -able
结尾的双音节词,末尾
加-er;
以-y结尾的词,如-y前是
辅音字母,变-y为-i,再
加-er和-est
其它双音节和多音节词
前加more和most
Unit Two: Everything Included
Grammar: Adjective
2) 不规则变化,如:good/well – better – best; many/much –
more – most; bad – worse – worst; far – farther/further –
farthest/further; little – less - least
3) 形容词前加less和least表示“较不”和“最不”,如:
interesting – less interesting – least interesting
Unit Two: Everything Included
Grammar: Adjective
2.2 同级:
1)“as…as” 表示 “…和…相等 (一样)”
This knife is as sharp as that one. (从句中省略了is)
This box is as heavy as that one. (从句中省略了is)
2)“not as … as” 或 “not so … as” 表示 “…和…不相同 ( 不一样)”
He is not as tall as his father. (从句中省略了is)
She is not so beautiful as I have expected (从句中省略了she is).
Unit Two: Everything Included
Grammar: Adjective
2.3 几倍于:用twice (两倍), three times (三倍) 等加“as…as”。如:
1) Shanghai is ten times as big as my hometown (is).
2) The output of this shirt factory is now twice as high as it was last year.
2.4 表示程度:用much, far, still, even, a little, no, any, a great of等状语来
修饰形容词或副词的比较级。如:
1) The Yellow River is long, but the Yangtze River is even longer.
黄河长,长江更长。
2) You should study even harder to achieve still greater victory.
你应该学习根刻苦以取得更大的成绩。
Unit Two: Everything Included
Grammar: Adjective
2.5 “比较级 + and + 比较级” :(后面不可接than从句) 表示 “越来
越…”。如:
1) The days are getting longer and longer.
天变得越来越长。
2) I rely more and more on his help.
我越来越依赖于他的帮助。
2.6 “the + 形容词或副词比较级… the + 形容词或副词比较级…”,
意思是 “越…,就越…”。如:
1) The harder you study, the better grade you will get.
你学习越刻苦,成绩就会越好。
2) The sooner, the better.
越快越好。
Unit Two: Everything Included
Grammar: Adjective
2.7 “more than” 和 “less than” 这两个固定词组分别表示 “多
于”,“少于”。如:
1) Our university has established relationships with more than sixty
countries.
我的大学和六十多个国家建立了关系。
2) We finished our homework in less than three hours.
不到三小时我便完成了家庭作业。
2.8 “all the better” 和 “so much the better” 均有 “因此更…”
的含义。
1) If that is so, all the better.如果情况是这样的,那更好。
2) If he will come, so much the better.如果他能来,那更好。
Unit Two: Everything Included
Academic Writing: How to Enrich Simple Sentences (1)
How to Enrich Simple Sentences (1)
如何丰富简单句 (1)
Simple sentence does not mean that the sentence is simple in
meaning; it means that the sentence contains a subject and a
verb. Please identify the subject and the verb in the
following sentence:
The bird flies.
(1) The subject is ________, and the verb is ________.
(Answers: the bird / flies)
Unit Two: Everything Included
Academic Writing: How to Enrich Simple Sentences (1)
But the sentence above is too simple, it cannot fully convey the
various thoughts the readers want to express. In actual writing, the
simple sentence has many modifiers (修饰语). With the modifiers, you
will have many expanded sentences (扩展句). Now take a close look at
how modifiers enrich the above simple sentence:




The bird flies to the South of China.
In winter, the bird flies to the South of China.
In winter, the bird with gray feathers flies to the South of China.
In winter, the bird with gray feathers flies to the South of China
to enjoy the mild weather there.
Unit Two: Everything Included
Academic Writing: How to Enrich Simple Sentences (1)
In the first sentence a prepositional phrase (介词短语) “to the
South of China” is added to the original sentence to indicate
(表示) direction; in the second sentence, another
prepositional phrase “in winter” is added to indicate time;
in the third sentence, a third prepositional phrase “with gray
feathers” is added to indicate characteristics of the bird; in
the fourth sentence, an infinitive phrase (动词不定式) “to
enjoy the mild weather there” is added to indicate purpose
(目的) of the action (动作).
Unit Two: Everything Included
Academic Writing: How to Enrich Simple Sentences (1)
Exercise:
Please enrich the following sentence with the given phrases:
“on the boy’s shoulder”, “with long white hair”
The cat sits.
(2) _________________________________
(Answer; The cat with long white hair sits on the boy’s shoulder.)
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Preface to the Book College English