Unit 15
Pre-reading questions
Background information
Structure analysis
Comprehension questions
Language points of Text I
Grammatical items
Comprehension questions of Text II
Oral activities
Writing practice
Text Ⅰ Salvation
 1. Pre-reading questions:
 (1) You haven’t listened to a preacher’s
preaching, have you ? Are you interested in it ?
 (2) Have you ever read any stories from the
Bible? What kind of figure do you think Jesus
Christ was?
 (3) What religion, in your mind, is Christianity?
Background Information ( 1 )
 1. Some stories on the Christian religion : The
Jewish legend of the Creation of the world;
The born of the Christ. etc.
The world was created by Jehovah. In the
beginning the world just floated in space, with
no land , only endless waters .One day ,
Jehovah came and brooded over the sea,
somberly silent and dark. He was unhappy
about this.
Background Information ( 2 )
 So he commanded light which he called day and
the end of it night . heaven was made the next
day for the clouds to float on and the winds to
blow across. On the third day land emerged form
the waters with grass , trees and shrubs growing
on it . Then Jehovah said :
Background Information ( 3 )
 ‘ let the heavens be filled with stars so that the
seasons and days and the years may be
marked. ’ this was done ,thus ended the fourth
day. The fifth day saw the creation of fishes in
the waters and birds in the sky, among them
the mighty whale and the tiny minnow, the
giant ostrich and the little sparrow , then came
the most important creation of all –after
Jehovah ordered the world to be full of
creatures that creep and those that walk on
legs ,
Background Information ( 4 )
 he took some of the dust of the soil and
mounded it into an image just like himself. He
gave it life and called it man . this was the sixth
day ,and Jehovah was contented. The next day
he took arrest..
Background Information ( 5 )
 The eighth day sea the man , Adam, feeling
lonesome, as all other creatures had been given
the companionship of their won kind, but he was
alone . Jehovah took a rib from his body and out
came eve .thus Jehovah completed his great
mission of creation
Background Information ( 6 )
 2. Background information of the author and
the Text
Langston Hughes (1902-1967), modern
American black poet and writer, was born in
Joplin, Missouri on February1, 1902 and died
on May 22, 1967 in New York City. He
worked at a variety of jobs and lives in several
countries ,including The weary blues (1962) ,
Background Information ( 7 )
 his first volume of poetry, enabled Hughes to
attend Lincoln university in Pennsylvania ,form
which he graduated in 1929 . his writing is
largely concerned with depicting American
negro life ,particularly the experience of the
urban negro. ‘salvation’ is taken form his
autobiography ,The Big Sea (1940)
Structure analysis
 The essay is organized chiefly by means of the
following methods
 1) The story is organized in the chronological
order, with a flashback in the second paragraph.
2) Plenty of vivid and interesting descriptions in
the whole text.
Organization of Text Ⅰ( 1 )
 This story, which is a narrative text organized
mainly in the chronological order, is the
author’s recall of an experience in his youth .
The revival is the trigger that sets off the
whole story .it is within the conflict between
“being saved” and “not being saved” that the
story zigzags its course to the conclusion.
Organization of Text Ⅰ( 2 )
 The first paragraph serves as the introduction,
providing the background. Paragraphs 2-14 may
be regarded as the body of the story ,relating and
describing the special meeting held for the
“young lambs” who were saved .Paragraph 15 is
the concluding part ,revealing the writer’s
psychological feelings.
Organization of Text Ⅰ( 3 )
 Para 1
 This paragraph introduces the background. The
two opening sentences are the guideline for the
whole plot.
 Para 2-5
 At the beginning of the story , Langston
recounts what he has heard about Jesus from
the old people and how he waits piously for
Jesus to come .
Organization of Text Ⅰ( 4 )
 Para 6
 The conflict becomes intensified when all the
young people have gone to the altar but
Langston and Westley .
Organization of Text Ⅰ( 5 )
 Para 7-10
 The climax is reached when Langston alone is
left unsaved after his last fellow sinner is saved
by telling a lie..
 Para 11-14
 The conflict is resolved when Langston also
tells a lie and is thus “saved “from both sin and
Organization of Text Ⅰ( 6 )
 Para 15
 This concluding paragraph reveals Langston’s
guilty conscience about telling a lie and his
disillusionment with religion.
Comprehensive Questions ( 1 )
 Decide which of the following best states the
author's purpose of writing.
 A. To give an honest self-analysis.
 B. To entertain the reader in a humorous tone.
 C. To express his dissatisfaction with his aunt.
 D. To describe a church service.
 Key: A
Comprehensive Questions ( 2 )
 Answer the following questions:
 1. What was going on at Auntie Reed’s church
every night for weeks?
 2. What had the author learned about the
revival before he attended it?
 3. How did the people at the ceremony respond
to the author’s final salvation?
 4. Why did author cry in bed alone that night?
Comprehensive Questions ( 3 )
 Keys:
 1. A special religious ceremony was going on
there.( paragraph 1 )
 2. He learned that some very hardened sinner
had been brought to Christ, and that he could
see and hear and feel Jesus in his soul when he
was saved by God. ( paragraph 1 and 2 )
Comprehensive Questions ( 4 )
 3. They all broken into a sea of shouting,
rejoicing and leaping in the air. ( paragraph 13)
 4. He cried in bed alone because he couldn’t bear
to tell his aunt that he had lied. ( last paragraph )
Language points of Text Ⅰ( 1 )
 1. I was saved from sin …: I was rescued from
 The word sin, with an exclusively religious
connotation, refers to any offence against God or
a religious law. However, the word crime refers
to an act committed in violation of a law
prohibiting it.
Language points of Text Ⅰ( 2 )
 2. to bring the young lambs to the fold:
According to Christianity, Jesus is the Lamb of
God, any Christian is a lamb, and the preacher
is a shepherd. In the text , the young lambs
refer to children. “ fold” literally means an
enclosure for sheep. Here it means a group of
people who are Christian. So “ to bring the
young lambs to the fold” means to bring the
children into the Christian community.
Language points of Text Ⅰ( 3 )
 3. mourners’ bench: a frond row of seats at a
revival meeting, reserved for those who are to
make professions of penitence.
Language points of Text Ⅰ( 4 )
 4. Salvation: saving of the soul from sin
 The word salvation has a strong religious
connotation. In the Christian religion, salvation
of a person or his spirit is the state of being
saved from evil and its effects by death of
Jesus Christ on a cross
Language points of Text Ⅰ( 5 )
 5. I was saved when I was going on thirteen: I
was set free from the power of sin and evil
shortly before my thirteenth birthday.
 6.revival: a serious of meetings, characterized by
public confession of sins and declaration of
renewed interest in religion, intended to
encourage this to happen .
Language points of Text Ⅰ( 6 )
 7. preach: deliver a religious speech
A bishop preached to the assembled
Our local priest preached a sermon on the
need for forgiveness.
Language points of Text Ⅰ( 7 )
 8. hardened: lacking in human feelings and
showing no signs of shame or regret for wring
He was described in court as a hardened
Language points of Text Ⅰ( 8 )
 9. by leaps and bounds: very quickly
She has come on by leaps and bounds
with her reading.
Her English is improving by leaps and
Language points of Text Ⅰ( 9 )
 10. to bring the young lambs to the fold: to bring
the children under the protection and guidance of
 Fold
 (1) a fence enclosure for sheep ( in the passage
used figuratively to refer to a group of religious
 (2) your home or an organization where you
feel you belong
Language points of Text Ⅰ( 10 )
 e.g. Her children are all away at college now,
but they always return to the fold in the
The party needs to find a way of getting
its former supporters back to the fold.
 11. escort: go with and protect sb.
The police escorted her to the airport.
Several little boats escorted the sailing
ship into the harbor.
Language points of Text Ⅰ( 11 )
 12. rhythmical: having a regular repeated
pattern of weak and strong stresses
He could hear the rhythmical beating of his
Language points of Text Ⅰ( 12 )
 13. sermon:
 (1 ) a religious talk given as part of a church
The minister preached a sermon on the
importance of brotherly love.
 (2 ) a long talk in which someone advised
other people how they should behave in order
to be better people
I really don’t think it’s a politician’s
job to go delivering sermon on public morality.
Language points of Text Ⅰ( 13 )
 14. the ninety and nine safe in the fold: the
ninety- nine lambs already saved and kept in the
Language points of Text Ⅰ( 14 )
 15. leave out
 (1 ) pay no attention to sb.
No one speaks to him; he’s always left out.
 (2 ) fail to include
You have left out the most important word
in this sentence.
Language points of Text Ⅰ( 15 )
 16. be left out in the cold:
 if you are left out in the cold, you feel you do not
belong to a particular group of people and are
not admired by them.
Language points of Text Ⅰ( 16 )
 17. hold out
 (1 ) stretch out
He held out his hand to Mary.
 (2 ) offer
The proposals hold out a real prospect for
settling the dispute.
Few people hold out any hope of finding
more survivors.
Language points of Text Ⅰ( 17 )
 18. and some of them jumped up and went to
Jesus right away: then some of us young
sinners got up from the mourner’s bench and
went to Jesus immediately.
Symbolically, it is to go to the picture of
Christ hanging from the front wall of the
church, or to the crucifix standing behind the
altar on the platform , or simply to the altar on
which are placed the Bible, candles, bread and
Language points of Text Ⅰ( 18 )
 19. kneel: go down onto one’s knees
She knelt down and tried to see under the
Kneeling in front of the altar, he prayed
for an answer.
Language points of Text Ⅰ( 19 )
 20. and the church sang a song about the lower
lights are burning: and the people in the church
sang a song about the lower lights in hell. Hell
is thought to be a place of great heat and
danger, with eternal fires burning .
Language points of Text Ⅰ(20 )
 in the Christian religion, it is a place where the
souls of bad people are to be punished after
death. And , by the way , in this seemingly
grammatically incorrect sentence, the writer put
the lower lights are burning, a clause after the
preposition about to tell the reader what the song
is about .
Language points of Text Ⅰ( 21 )
 21. prayer: a solemn request made to God
These prayers have been written specially
for people suffering from cancer.
She always says her prayers before she
goes to sleep.
 22. still I kept waiting to see Jesus: the word
see id italicized to make the reader aware that
Langston meant to see Jesus with his naked
Language points of Text Ⅰ( 22 )
 23. finally all the young people had gone to the
altar and were saved, but one boy and me.: here
“ one” is used instead of “ a’ to emphasize that
there was only one boy left on the mourner’s
Language points of Text Ⅰ( 23 )
 24. I heard the songs and the minister saying:
A minister is a Protestant clergyman who has
been authorized to conduct religious services.
The counterpart in Roman Catholic and
Eastern Orthodox churches is called a “ priest.”
The minister here and the “ priest “ in
Paragraph 3 refer to the same person.
Language points of Text Ⅰ( 24 )
 A Priest is not called a preacher, however,
though he also preaches. A priest usually sands
high up in the pulpit, but a minister in black
churches, which tend to be more emotional with
a lot of singing, is closer to church people and
may walk among them.
Language points of Text Ⅰ( 25 )
 25. sister: a female fellow member of a
Christian church
 26 sob : cry loudly while taking in
sudden ,sharp breaths I found her sobbing in
the bedroom because she had broken her
favorite doll . she sobbed herself to sleep the
night you left
Language points of Text Ⅰ( 26 )
 27 hold up: delay
 Traffic was held up for several hours by the
accident . an unofficial strike has held up
 28 God had not struck Westley dead.: God had
not punished Westley.
Language points of Text Ⅰ( 27 )
 29 for taking his name in vain : for talking
disrespectfully about him, without his
knowledge, to another person.
I said: “ Susan is really a gossip, ”and
just then she walked in and said: ”Who’s
taking my name in vain? ”
Language points of Text Ⅰ( 28 )
 30 break into : suddenly start doing sth.
 When using this phrase, we usually use a noun
rather than a gerund after into .He felt so happy
that he broke into a song. She walked quickly,
occasionally breaking into a run.
Language points of Text Ⅰ( 29 )
 31 in a hushed silence :in a dead silence
 32 joyous: full of joy
 Don’t miss this chance to buy twenty joyous
songs together on one album. Sara’s party was a
joyous occasion –there were hundreds of people
Grammatical items
 The use of –ing participle clauses
 Passive voice
Grammar exercises ( 1 )
Ⅰ. Note the use of –ing participle clauses in the
following sentences.
 1. So I sat there calmly in the hot , crowded
church, waiting for Jesus to come to me.
 “ Waiting for Jesus to come to me” is the
adverbial clause of the accompanying
 2. Still I kept waiting to see Jesus.
 “waiting to see Jesus” is the object clause.
Grammar exercises ( 2 )
 3. And I kept waiting serenely for Jesus,
waiting, waiting --- but he didn’t come.
 “waiting serenely for Jesus, waiting,
waiting…”is the object clause.
 4. I heard the songs and the minister saying:
“Why don’t you come? My dear child, why
don’t you come to Jesus?...”
 “saying” is the object complement.
Grammar exercises ( 3 )
 5. I began to be ashamed of myself, holding
everything up so long.
 “holding everything up so long” is the adverbial
clause of the accompanying circumstance.
Grammar exercises ( 4 )
 6. I began to wonder what God thought about
Westley, who certainly hadn’t seen Jesus either,
but who was now sitting proudly on the platform,
swinging his knickerbockered legs and grinning
down at me, surrounding by deacons and old
women on their knees praying.
 “swing … and grinning …” is adverbial clause
of the accompanying circumstance; “praying” is
the post modifier of “ old women on their knees”
Grammar exercises ( 5 )
Ⅱ. Turn the following sentences into passive
 1. The announcer gives weather reports once a
 Weather reports are announced once a day.
 2. I’ll have to strengthen the balcony.
 The balcony will have to be strengthened.
Grammar exercises ( 6 )
 3. Perhaps the clerk overlooked the order.
 The order may have been overlooked by the
 4. In my college, the Director draws up the
year’s programme.
Grammar exercises ( 7 )
 In my college, the year’s programme is drawn
up by the Director.
 5. They allowed him to carry some extra
credits this semester.
 He was allowed to carry some extra credits this
Grammar exercises ( 8 )
 6. Someone had better stop them before it’s too
 They’d better be stopped before it was too late.
Grammar exercises ( 9 )
Ⅲ. Fill in the blanks with the proper form of one
of the words given in the box.
 Swell break encourage bear enclose
 Fall
beat invite
simile wait
Grammar exercises ( 10 )
 1. If you keep praising the child, he will get a
swollen head.
beaten path across the
 2. We followed a _______
 3. Several months passed, and I had not
received any ______________new.
fallen soldier has been honored
 4. The __________
as a martyr.
Grammar exercises ( 11 )
 5. Mozart, a _________
musician, is famous
not only in Europe but also all over the world.
 6. When all the fairies gathered around
celebrating the birth of Snow White, an
broken vase, he was
 7. When father say the ________
Grammar exercises ( 12 )
 8.Would you kindly send the ________letter
professor Berman?
smiling faces
 9. Wherever you go , you can see _______
 10. Be patient. You are now on the top of the
Exercises ( 1 )
Vocabulary Exercises
Ⅰ. Explain the italicized part in each sentence in
your own words.
 1. My aunt spoke of it for days ahead.
 In advance / beforehand
 2. And the whole building rocked with prayer
and song.
 Was moving slowly and regularly in harmony
Exercises ( 2 )
 3.God had not struck Westley dead for taking
his name in vain or for lying in the temple.
 using his name with disrespect/ profaning his
 4. I began to be ashamed of myself, holding
everything up so long.
 delaying the whole affair for a long time.
Exercises ( 3 )
 5. Suddenly the whole room broke into a sea of
shouting, as they saw me rise.
 started suddenly
 6. When things quieted down, all the new young
lambs were blessed in the name of God.
 became quiet
Exercises ( 4 )
Ⅱ. Fill in each blank with one of the two words
from each pair and note the difference of
meaning between them.
 a. The murder rate in Holland is double that in
the United States and the general _______
rates are much higher than in the United States.
Exercises ( 5 )
sin to waste food.
 b. In most cultures, it’s a ______
 c. According to the preacher, no one is entirely
free from ____
 d. He was charged with the ______of
Exercises ( 6 )
 Difference:
 Sin refers to acts that violate religious, ethical,
or moral standards, while crime, specifically to
the breaking of laws or serious misconduct.
Exercises ( 7 )
 a. They were sent by their organization to
______ Islam to the local people in the region,
where Christianity was also active.
 b. The poor farmers were _______
praying that it
would stop raining soon.
Exercises ( 8 )
 c. Now all we could do is help ourselves and
pray to God for mercy on us.
 d. While rich countries may _______
preach free trade
gospels, they remain staunch protectionists.
Exercises ( 9 )
 Difference:
 Pray is to speak to God in order to give thanks
or to ask for his help, while preach refers to
people’s trying to persuade others accept a belief,
as well as to a clergyman’s talk on a religious or
moral subject during a religious service.
Exercises ( 10 )
specific instructions on
 a. The trainer provided ______
how to cope with possible problems that might
come up during his absence.
 b. Will you please be a little more________?
I’m a bit confused about the topic.
Exercises ( 11 )
 c. These machined are all identical in their
surface but each one is _______
special in its
 d. At the meeting yesterday, we noticed
something very ________
special about him: moody,
uneasy and anxious at times.
Exercises ( 12 )
 Difference:
 Special refers to something or somebody that
is more important than other things or people;
and the word also mean different from normal.
Specific is used to refer to a particular fixed
area or subject. This word can also refer to
people who are giving precise and exact
Exercises ( 13 )
 a. The film ends with the heroine_______
desperately as her lover walks away resolutely.
 b. We could see clearly his skinny shoulders
shook with his ________
Exercises ( 14 )
wailed as though she were
 c. The woman _______
dying every time she stubbed a toe.
 d. When the coffin was to be carried away, most
wail in mourning,
woman to ________
Exercises ( 15 )
 Difference:
 To sob is to weep with audible convulsive
catches of breath and the heaving of one’s
chest, accompanied by grasps, usually
implying pathetic circumstances, while wail
suggests a loud, unbroken, usually highpitched cry in circumstances of grief.
Sometimes wail can be used to show contempt,
implying a weak, self-pitying attitude.
Exercises ( 16 )
Translation exercises
 Translate each of the following sentences into
English, using the word or phrase given in the
bracket. Inflect the word or phrase where
 1. 他们希望靠生一个孩子来挽救他们的婚
姻。 (save )
 They hoped to save their marriage by giving
birth to a child.
Exercises ( 17 )
 2. 总统和他的眷属到各地都有特工人员护送。
 Secret service men escorted the President and his
family everywhere.
Exercises ( 18 )
 3. 听众不时以阵阵掌声打断总统候选人的
 The presidential candidate’s speech was
punctuated now and then by outbursts of
applause from the audience.
 4. 胜利的喜讯传来,全国上下欢欣鼓舞。
 As soon as the news of victory came, there
was great rejoicing all over the country.
Exercises ( 19 )
 5. 自改革开放以来,我国的第三产业突飞猛
进。(by leaps and bounds )
 The tertiary industry in our country has been
developing by leaps and bounds since the reform
and opening drive started.
 6. 牧师就慈善的必要性向全体教徒们作了一
次布道。(preach a sermon )
 The priest preached a sermon to the
congregation on the need for charity.
Exercises ( 20 )
 7. 这位雇员为了维护自己的尊严没有在盛
气凌人的老板面前下跪。( kneel on one’s
 In order to maintain his dignity the employee
didn’t kneel on his knees in front of the
overbearing boss.
 8. 大会主席宣布选举结果后,全场沸腾起
来,顿时成了欢乐的海洋。(break into a
sea of )
Exercises ( 21 )
 When the chairman announced the election
results, the whole assembly clapped and
cheered, and the meeting hall broke into a sea
of great joy.
 9. 他名声很不好,因为他常常背后说别人
的闲话。(take somebody’s name in vain )
 He has a very bad reputation, for he often takes
other’s people’s manes in vain.
Exercises ( 22 )
 10. 这条新马路的修建因天气恶劣而受阻了。
(hold up )
 The building of the new road has been help up
by the bad weather.
Exercises ( 23 )
Exercises for integrated skills
 Dictation
After the war our church was in a very
bad condition./ So we decided to build a
modern one/ at eh top of a hill outside our
town./ We raised a lot of money and bought all
the necessary materials. / We built the walls of
stone and glass, /
Exercises ( 24 )
 and the heavy doors of wood and metal. / It was
one of the most attractive buildings in town/
when it was completed. /From the top of the
church there is a wonderful view. / You are see
the entire town and countryside for miles around.
/ people from all parts of the country come and
visit the church every day.
 Text Ⅱ
 The Capture of Kunta Kinte
Comprehension question of Text Ⅱ ( 1 )
 1. Why did Kunta enjoy for breakfast?
 2. What was the dominant religion?
 3. How were nursing babies taken care of by
their farming mothers?
 4. What part did Kunta’s dog play in the action?
 5. How many attackers did Kunta attempt to
fight off?
 6. Why does Haley use African word like Kujalo,
bolong and toubob?
Comprehension question of Text Ⅱ ( 2 )
 7. The narrative begins in a quiet , slow, almost
dreamlike way, but it concludes in frantic action.
Where exactly does the turning point occur?
 8. What effect does the passage have on you ?
Oral activities ( 1 )
Ⅰ. The following is a self-introduction to his job
by an English teacher Rufino. Read the
passage and then fall in pairs and tell each
other what Rufino said. Make any necessary
change in person, tense, use of words, etc. to
make your retelling of the story logical,
meaningful and comprehensible.
 “ My name’s Rufino and I teach English in a
secondary school in Spain. My students are
mostly the 13-14 age range. English language
Oral activities ( 2 )
 learning begins at the age of 8 here to my
classes have been studying English for six
years. I work in a small town in the north of
Spain. There is a strong awareness of language
in this region of Spain as we have two
languages in the community here, Spain and
Oral activities ( 3 )
 English is the third language we learn and it’s a
foreign language. There is very little exposure to
English in society here. Even Sky News on the
TV is dubbed.
I suppose teachers themselves are a major
resource for the teaching and learning.
Oral activities ( 4 )
 We do a pre-service course at university, either
a three-year course, so we are trained and
qualified teachers. There are also some
opportunities for in-service training, for
example, in seminars organized by local
teachers’ centers, or by the publishers.
However , these are all voluntary and
sometimes they are expensive and traveling is
Oral activities ( 5 )
 We are well-resourced in schools. I have a
blackboard, an overhead projector, a cassette
player, and a video in my classroom, and there is
a self-access centre in the school. This isn’t so
common in schools but depends on the
enthusiasm of teachers as it takes time and
energy to set up a centre and to encourage
Oral activities ( 6 )
 Pupils to use it. Personally I’ve put a lot of my
own efforts into developing these kinds of
resources because I think the age group I teach
benefits tremendously from opportunities for
organizing their own learning.
Ⅱ. Retell Langston Hughes’ story from the point
of view of either his aunt or the minister at the
Writing practice
 Narrate one of your unusual experiences in
Chronological order
Good bye!

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