Unit 15 Salvation Contents Pre-reading questions Background information Structure analysis Comprehension questions Language points of Text I Grammatical items Exercises Comprehension questions of Text II Oral activities Writing practice Text Ⅰ Salvation 1. Pre-reading questions: (1) You haven’t listened to a preacher’s preaching, have you ? Are you interested in it ? (2) Have you ever read any stories from the Bible? What kind of figure do you think Jesus Christ was? (3) What religion, in your mind, is Christianity? Background Information ( 1 ) 1. Some stories on the Christian religion : The Jewish legend of the Creation of the world; The born of the Christ. etc. The world was created by Jehovah. In the beginning the world just floated in space, with no land , only endless waters .One day , Jehovah came and brooded over the sea, somberly silent and dark. He was unhappy about this. Background Information ( 2 ) So he commanded light which he called day and the end of it night . heaven was made the next day for the clouds to float on and the winds to blow across. On the third day land emerged form the waters with grass , trees and shrubs growing on it . Then Jehovah said : Background Information ( 3 ) ‘ let the heavens be filled with stars so that the seasons and days and the years may be marked. ’ this was done ,thus ended the fourth day. The fifth day saw the creation of fishes in the waters and birds in the sky, among them the mighty whale and the tiny minnow, the giant ostrich and the little sparrow , then came the most important creation of all –after Jehovah ordered the world to be full of creatures that creep and those that walk on legs , Background Information ( 4 ) he took some of the dust of the soil and mounded it into an image just like himself. He gave it life and called it man . this was the sixth day ,and Jehovah was contented. The next day he took arrest.. Background Information ( 5 ) The eighth day sea the man , Adam, feeling lonesome, as all other creatures had been given the companionship of their won kind, but he was alone . Jehovah took a rib from his body and out came eve .thus Jehovah completed his great mission of creation Background Information ( 6 ) 2. Background information of the author and the Text Langston Hughes (1902-1967), modern American black poet and writer, was born in Joplin, Missouri on February1, 1902 and died on May 22, 1967 in New York City. He worked at a variety of jobs and lives in several countries ,including The weary blues (1962) , Background Information ( 7 ) his first volume of poetry, enabled Hughes to attend Lincoln university in Pennsylvania ,form which he graduated in 1929 . his writing is largely concerned with depicting American negro life ,particularly the experience of the urban negro. ‘salvation’ is taken form his autobiography ,The Big Sea (1940) Structure analysis The essay is organized chiefly by means of the following methods 1) The story is organized in the chronological order, with a flashback in the second paragraph. 2) Plenty of vivid and interesting descriptions in the whole text. Organization of Text Ⅰ( 1 ) This story, which is a narrative text organized mainly in the chronological order, is the author’s recall of an experience in his youth . The revival is the trigger that sets off the whole story .it is within the conflict between “being saved” and “not being saved” that the story zigzags its course to the conclusion. Organization of Text Ⅰ( 2 ) The first paragraph serves as the introduction, providing the background. Paragraphs 2-14 may be regarded as the body of the story ,relating and describing the special meeting held for the “young lambs” who were saved .Paragraph 15 is the concluding part ,revealing the writer’s psychological feelings. Organization of Text Ⅰ( 3 ) Para 1 This paragraph introduces the background. The two opening sentences are the guideline for the whole plot. Para 2-5 At the beginning of the story , Langston recounts what he has heard about Jesus from the old people and how he waits piously for Jesus to come . Organization of Text Ⅰ( 4 ) Para 6 The conflict becomes intensified when all the young people have gone to the altar but Langston and Westley . Organization of Text Ⅰ( 5 ) Para 7-10 The climax is reached when Langston alone is left unsaved after his last fellow sinner is saved by telling a lie.. Para 11-14 The conflict is resolved when Langston also tells a lie and is thus “saved “from both sin and trouble. Organization of Text Ⅰ( 6 ) Para 15 This concluding paragraph reveals Langston’s guilty conscience about telling a lie and his disillusionment with religion. Comprehensive Questions ( 1 ) Decide which of the following best states the author's purpose of writing. A. To give an honest self-analysis. B. To entertain the reader in a humorous tone. C. To express his dissatisfaction with his aunt. D. To describe a church service. Key: A Comprehensive Questions ( 2 ) Answer the following questions: 1. What was going on at Auntie Reed’s church every night for weeks? 2. What had the author learned about the revival before he attended it? 3. How did the people at the ceremony respond to the author’s final salvation? 4. Why did author cry in bed alone that night? Comprehensive Questions ( 3 ) Keys: 1. A special religious ceremony was going on there.( paragraph 1 ) 2. He learned that some very hardened sinner had been brought to Christ, and that he could see and hear and feel Jesus in his soul when he was saved by God. ( paragraph 1 and 2 ) Comprehensive Questions ( 4 ) 3. They all broken into a sea of shouting, rejoicing and leaping in the air. ( paragraph 13) 4. He cried in bed alone because he couldn’t bear to tell his aunt that he had lied. ( last paragraph ) Language points of Text Ⅰ( 1 ) 1. I was saved from sin …: I was rescued from sin… The word sin, with an exclusively religious connotation, refers to any offence against God or a religious law. However, the word crime refers to an act committed in violation of a law prohibiting it. Language points of Text Ⅰ( 2 ) 2. to bring the young lambs to the fold: According to Christianity, Jesus is the Lamb of God, any Christian is a lamb, and the preacher is a shepherd. In the text , the young lambs refer to children. “ fold” literally means an enclosure for sheep. Here it means a group of people who are Christian. So “ to bring the young lambs to the fold” means to bring the children into the Christian community. Language points of Text Ⅰ( 3 ) 3. mourners’ bench: a frond row of seats at a revival meeting, reserved for those who are to make professions of penitence. Language points of Text Ⅰ( 4 ) 4. Salvation: saving of the soul from sin The word salvation has a strong religious connotation. In the Christian religion, salvation of a person or his spirit is the state of being saved from evil and its effects by death of Jesus Christ on a cross Language points of Text Ⅰ( 5 ) 5. I was saved when I was going on thirteen: I was set free from the power of sin and evil shortly before my thirteenth birthday. 6.revival: a serious of meetings, characterized by public confession of sins and declaration of renewed interest in religion, intended to encourage this to happen . Language points of Text Ⅰ( 6 ) 7. preach: deliver a religious speech A bishop preached to the assembled mourners. Our local priest preached a sermon on the need for forgiveness. Language points of Text Ⅰ( 7 ) 8. hardened: lacking in human feelings and showing no signs of shame or regret for wring doing He was described in court as a hardened criminal. Language points of Text Ⅰ( 8 ) 9. by leaps and bounds: very quickly She has come on by leaps and bounds with her reading. Her English is improving by leaps and bounds. Language points of Text Ⅰ( 9 ) 10. to bring the young lambs to the fold: to bring the children under the protection and guidance of God Fold (1) a fence enclosure for sheep ( in the passage used figuratively to refer to a group of religious believers) (2) your home or an organization where you feel you belong Language points of Text Ⅰ( 10 ) e.g. Her children are all away at college now, but they always return to the fold in the holidays. The party needs to find a way of getting its former supporters back to the fold. 11. escort: go with and protect sb. The police escorted her to the airport. Several little boats escorted the sailing ship into the harbor. Language points of Text Ⅰ( 11 ) 12. rhythmical: having a regular repeated pattern of weak and strong stresses He could hear the rhythmical beating of his heart. Language points of Text Ⅰ( 12 ) 13. sermon: (1 ) a religious talk given as part of a church service The minister preached a sermon on the importance of brotherly love. (2 ) a long talk in which someone advised other people how they should behave in order to be better people I really don’t think it’s a politician’s job to go delivering sermon on public morality. Language points of Text Ⅰ( 13 ) 14. the ninety and nine safe in the fold: the ninety- nine lambs already saved and kept in the fold Language points of Text Ⅰ( 14 ) 15. leave out (1 ) pay no attention to sb. No one speaks to him; he’s always left out. (2 ) fail to include You have left out the most important word in this sentence. Language points of Text Ⅰ( 15 ) 16. be left out in the cold: if you are left out in the cold, you feel you do not belong to a particular group of people and are not admired by them. Language points of Text Ⅰ( 16 ) 17. hold out (1 ) stretch out He held out his hand to Mary. (2 ) offer The proposals hold out a real prospect for settling the dispute. Few people hold out any hope of finding more survivors. Language points of Text Ⅰ( 17 ) 18. and some of them jumped up and went to Jesus right away: then some of us young sinners got up from the mourner’s bench and went to Jesus immediately. Symbolically, it is to go to the picture of Christ hanging from the front wall of the church, or to the crucifix standing behind the altar on the platform , or simply to the altar on which are placed the Bible, candles, bread and wine. Language points of Text Ⅰ( 18 ) 19. kneel: go down onto one’s knees She knelt down and tried to see under the door. Kneeling in front of the altar, he prayed for an answer. Language points of Text Ⅰ( 19 ) 20. and the church sang a song about the lower lights are burning: and the people in the church sang a song about the lower lights in hell. Hell is thought to be a place of great heat and danger, with eternal fires burning . Language points of Text Ⅰ(20 ) in the Christian religion, it is a place where the souls of bad people are to be punished after death. And , by the way , in this seemingly grammatically incorrect sentence, the writer put the lower lights are burning, a clause after the preposition about to tell the reader what the song is about . Language points of Text Ⅰ( 21 ) 21. prayer: a solemn request made to God These prayers have been written specially for people suffering from cancer. She always says her prayers before she goes to sleep. 22. still I kept waiting to see Jesus: the word see id italicized to make the reader aware that Langston meant to see Jesus with his naked eyes. Language points of Text Ⅰ( 22 ) 23. finally all the young people had gone to the altar and were saved, but one boy and me.: here “ one” is used instead of “ a’ to emphasize that there was only one boy left on the mourner’s bench. Language points of Text Ⅰ( 23 ) 24. I heard the songs and the minister saying: A minister is a Protestant clergyman who has been authorized to conduct religious services. The counterpart in Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox churches is called a “ priest.” The minister here and the “ priest “ in Paragraph 3 refer to the same person. Language points of Text Ⅰ( 24 ) A Priest is not called a preacher, however, though he also preaches. A priest usually sands high up in the pulpit, but a minister in black churches, which tend to be more emotional with a lot of singing, is closer to church people and may walk among them. Language points of Text Ⅰ( 25 ) 25. sister: a female fellow member of a Christian church 26 sob : cry loudly while taking in sudden ,sharp breaths I found her sobbing in the bedroom because she had broken her favorite doll . she sobbed herself to sleep the night you left Language points of Text Ⅰ( 26 ) 27 hold up: delay Traffic was held up for several hours by the accident . an unofficial strike has held up production. 28 God had not struck Westley dead.: God had not punished Westley. Language points of Text Ⅰ( 27 ) 29 for taking his name in vain : for talking disrespectfully about him, without his knowledge, to another person. I said: “ Susan is really a gossip, ”and just then she walked in and said: ”Who’s taking my name in vain? ” Language points of Text Ⅰ( 28 ) 30 break into : suddenly start doing sth. When using this phrase, we usually use a noun rather than a gerund after into .He felt so happy that he broke into a song. She walked quickly, occasionally breaking into a run. Language points of Text Ⅰ( 29 ) 31 in a hushed silence :in a dead silence 32 joyous: full of joy Don’t miss this chance to buy twenty joyous songs together on one album. Sara’s party was a joyous occasion –there were hundreds of people there. Grammatical items The use of –ing participle clauses Passive voice Grammar exercises ( 1 ) Ⅰ. Note the use of –ing participle clauses in the following sentences. 1. So I sat there calmly in the hot , crowded church, waiting for Jesus to come to me. “ Waiting for Jesus to come to me” is the adverbial clause of the accompanying circumstance. 2. Still I kept waiting to see Jesus. “waiting to see Jesus” is the object clause. Grammar exercises ( 2 ) 3. And I kept waiting serenely for Jesus, waiting, waiting --- but he didn’t come. “waiting serenely for Jesus, waiting, waiting…”is the object clause. 4. I heard the songs and the minister saying: “Why don’t you come? My dear child, why don’t you come to Jesus?...” “saying” is the object complement. Grammar exercises ( 3 ) 5. I began to be ashamed of myself, holding everything up so long. “holding everything up so long” is the adverbial clause of the accompanying circumstance. Grammar exercises ( 4 ) 6. I began to wonder what God thought about Westley, who certainly hadn’t seen Jesus either, but who was now sitting proudly on the platform, swinging his knickerbockered legs and grinning down at me, surrounding by deacons and old women on their knees praying. “swing … and grinning …” is adverbial clause of the accompanying circumstance; “praying” is the post modifier of “ old women on their knees” Grammar exercises ( 5 ) Ⅱ. Turn the following sentences into passive voice. 1. The announcer gives weather reports once a day. Weather reports are announced once a day. 2. I’ll have to strengthen the balcony. The balcony will have to be strengthened. Grammar exercises ( 6 ) 3. Perhaps the clerk overlooked the order. The order may have been overlooked by the clerk. 4. In my college, the Director draws up the year’s programme. Grammar exercises ( 7 ) In my college, the year’s programme is drawn up by the Director. 5. They allowed him to carry some extra credits this semester. He was allowed to carry some extra credits this semester. Grammar exercises ( 8 ) 6. Someone had better stop them before it’s too late. They’d better be stopped before it was too late. Grammar exercises ( 9 ) Ⅲ. Fill in the blanks with the proper form of one of the words given in the box. Swell break encourage bear enclose Fall beat invite simile wait Grammar exercises ( 10 ) 1. If you keep praising the child, he will get a _______ swollen head. beaten path across the 2. We followed a _______ grass. 3. Several months passed, and I had not received any ______________new. encouraging fallen soldier has been honored 4. The __________ as a martyr. Grammar exercises ( 11 ) 5. Mozart, a _________ born musician, is famous not only in Europe but also all over the world. 6. When all the fairies gathered around celebrating the birth of Snow White, an ___________guest arrived. uninvited broken vase, he was 7. When father say the ________ furious. Grammar exercises ( 12 ) enclosed 8.Would you kindly send the ________letter to professor Berman? smiling faces 9. Wherever you go , you can see _______ 10. Be patient. You are now on the top of the ___________list. waiting Exercises ( 1 ) Vocabulary Exercises Ⅰ. Explain the italicized part in each sentence in your own words. 1. My aunt spoke of it for days ahead. In advance / beforehand 2. And the whole building rocked with prayer and song. Was moving slowly and regularly in harmony with Exercises ( 2 ) 3.God had not struck Westley dead for taking his name in vain or for lying in the temple. using his name with disrespect/ profaning his name 4. I began to be ashamed of myself, holding everything up so long. delaying the whole affair for a long time. Exercises ( 3 ) 5. Suddenly the whole room broke into a sea of shouting, as they saw me rise. started suddenly 6. When things quieted down, all the new young lambs were blessed in the name of God. became quiet Exercises ( 4 ) Ⅱ. Fill in each blank with one of the two words from each pair and note the difference of meaning between them. 1. SIN CRIME a. The murder rate in Holland is double that in crime the United States and the general _______ rates are much higher than in the United States. Exercises ( 5 ) sin to waste food. b. In most cultures, it’s a ______ c. According to the preacher, no one is entirely free from ____ sin crime d. He was charged with the ______of blackmailing. Exercises ( 6 ) Difference: Sin refers to acts that violate religious, ethical, or moral standards, while crime, specifically to the breaking of laws or serious misconduct. Exercises ( 7 ) 2. PRAY PREACH a. They were sent by their organization to ______ Islam to the local people in the region, preach where Christianity was also active. b. The poor farmers were _______ praying that it would stop raining soon. Exercises ( 8 ) c. Now all we could do is help ourselves and pray to God for mercy on us. _______ d. While rich countries may _______ preach free trade gospels, they remain staunch protectionists. Exercises ( 9 ) Difference: Pray is to speak to God in order to give thanks or to ask for his help, while preach refers to people’s trying to persuade others accept a belief, as well as to a clergyman’s talk on a religious or moral subject during a religious service. Exercises ( 10 ) 3. SPECIAL SPECIFIC specific instructions on a. The trainer provided ______ how to cope with possible problems that might come up during his absence. b. Will you please be a little more________? specific I’m a bit confused about the topic. Exercises ( 11 ) c. These machined are all identical in their surface but each one is _______ special in its construction. d. At the meeting yesterday, we noticed something very ________ special about him: moody, uneasy and anxious at times. Exercises ( 12 ) Difference: Special refers to something or somebody that is more important than other things or people; and the word also mean different from normal. Specific is used to refer to a particular fixed area or subject. This word can also refer to people who are giving precise and exact descriptions. Exercises ( 13 ) 4. WALL SOB sobbing a. The film ends with the heroine_______ desperately as her lover walks away resolutely. b. We could see clearly his skinny shoulders shook with his ________ sobbing Exercises ( 14 ) wailed as though she were c. The woman _______ dying every time she stubbed a toe. d. When the coffin was to be carried away, most wail in mourning, woman to ________ Exercises ( 15 ) Difference: To sob is to weep with audible convulsive catches of breath and the heaving of one’s chest, accompanied by grasps, usually implying pathetic circumstances, while wail suggests a loud, unbroken, usually highpitched cry in circumstances of grief. Sometimes wail can be used to show contempt, implying a weak, self-pitying attitude. Exercises ( 16 ) Translation exercises Translate each of the following sentences into English, using the word or phrase given in the bracket. Inflect the word or phrase where necessary. 1. 他们希望靠生一个孩子来挽救他们的婚 姻。 （save ) They hoped to save their marriage by giving birth to a child. Exercises ( 17 ) 2. 总统和他的眷属到各地都有特工人员护送。 Secret service men escorted the President and his family everywhere. Exercises ( 18 ) 3. 听众不时以阵阵掌声打断总统候选人的 讲话。(punctuate) The presidential candidate’s speech was punctuated now and then by outbursts of applause from the audience. 4. 胜利的喜讯传来，全国上下欢欣鼓舞。 (rejoicing) As soon as the news of victory came, there was great rejoicing all over the country. Exercises ( 19 ) 5. 自改革开放以来，我国的第三产业突飞猛 进。（by leaps and bounds ) The tertiary industry in our country has been developing by leaps and bounds since the reform and opening drive started. 6. 牧师就慈善的必要性向全体教徒们作了一 次布道。（preach a sermon ) The priest preached a sermon to the congregation on the need for charity. Exercises ( 20 ) 7. 这位雇员为了维护自己的尊严没有在盛 气凌人的老板面前下跪。（ kneel on one’s knees) In order to maintain his dignity the employee didn’t kneel on his knees in front of the overbearing boss. 8. 大会主席宣布选举结果后，全场沸腾起 来，顿时成了欢乐的海洋。（break into a sea of ) Exercises ( 21 ) When the chairman announced the election results, the whole assembly clapped and cheered, and the meeting hall broke into a sea of great joy. 9. 他名声很不好，因为他常常背后说别人 的闲话。（take somebody’s name in vain ) He has a very bad reputation, for he often takes other’s people’s manes in vain. Exercises ( 22 ) 10. 这条新马路的修建因天气恶劣而受阻了。 (hold up ) The building of the new road has been help up by the bad weather. Exercises ( 23 ) Exercises for integrated skills Dictation After the war our church was in a very bad condition./ So we decided to build a modern one/ at eh top of a hill outside our town./ We raised a lot of money and bought all the necessary materials. / We built the walls of stone and glass, / Exercises ( 24 ) and the heavy doors of wood and metal. / It was one of the most attractive buildings in town/ when it was completed. /From the top of the church there is a wonderful view. / You are see the entire town and countryside for miles around. / people from all parts of the country come and visit the church every day. Text Ⅱ The Capture of Kunta Kinte Comprehension question of Text Ⅱ ( 1 ) 1. Why did Kunta enjoy for breakfast? 2. What was the dominant religion? 3. How were nursing babies taken care of by their farming mothers? 4. What part did Kunta’s dog play in the action? 5. How many attackers did Kunta attempt to fight off? 6. Why does Haley use African word like Kujalo, bolong and toubob? Comprehension question of Text Ⅱ ( 2 ) 7. The narrative begins in a quiet , slow, almost dreamlike way, but it concludes in frantic action. Where exactly does the turning point occur? 8. What effect does the passage have on you ? Oral activities ( 1 ) Ⅰ. The following is a self-introduction to his job by an English teacher Rufino. Read the passage and then fall in pairs and tell each other what Rufino said. Make any necessary change in person, tense, use of words, etc. to make your retelling of the story logical, meaningful and comprehensible. “ My name’s Rufino and I teach English in a secondary school in Spain. My students are mostly the 13-14 age range. English language Oral activities ( 2 ) learning begins at the age of 8 here to my classes have been studying English for six years. I work in a small town in the north of Spain. There is a strong awareness of language in this region of Spain as we have two languages in the community here, Spain and Basque. Oral activities ( 3 ) English is the third language we learn and it’s a foreign language. There is very little exposure to English in society here. Even Sky News on the TV is dubbed. I suppose teachers themselves are a major resource for the teaching and learning. Oral activities ( 4 ) We do a pre-service course at university, either a three-year course, so we are trained and qualified teachers. There are also some opportunities for in-service training, for example, in seminars organized by local teachers’ centers, or by the publishers. However , these are all voluntary and sometimes they are expensive and traveling is involves. Oral activities ( 5 ) We are well-resourced in schools. I have a blackboard, an overhead projector, a cassette player, and a video in my classroom, and there is a self-access centre in the school. This isn’t so common in schools but depends on the enthusiasm of teachers as it takes time and energy to set up a centre and to encourage Oral activities ( 6 ) Pupils to use it. Personally I’ve put a lot of my own efforts into developing these kinds of resources because I think the age group I teach benefits tremendously from opportunities for organizing their own learning. Ⅱ. Retell Langston Hughes’ story from the point of view of either his aunt or the minister at the revival. Writing practice Narrate one of your unusual experiences in Chronological order Good bye!