Chapter 22, Section
World Geography
Chapter 22
The Caucasus and
Central Asia
Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.
Chapter 22, Section
World Geography
Chapter 22: The Caucasus and Central Asia
Section 1: The Caucasus Nations
Section 2: The Central Asian Nations
Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.
Chapter 22, Section 1
The Caucasus Nations
• What climatic and political conditions
have influenced economic activities in
Georgia?
• How have political and religious
differences with neighboring nations
affected the people of Armenia?
• How do demands for economic recovery
conflict with environmental issues in
Azerbaijan?
Chapter 22, Section 1
Georgia
Chapter 22, Section 1
Georgia
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The subtropical climate
of the Black Sea coast
supports the production of
fruits, wine, tea, silk, and tobacco.
The continental climate of the east
supports production of grains and
vegetables.
The economy suffered after the
fall of communism, and the GDP
dropped by nearly three quarters.
Since the mid-1990s, the economy
has improved through the
development of its coal,
petroleum, and natural gas
industries.
Minority ethnic groups in the
north have pressed for more
autonomy, or independence.
Chapter 22, Section 1
Armenia
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Armenia is a small, mountainous, land-locked country.
The Armenians are an ancient Indo-European people,
and the majority of Armenians are Orthodox Christians.
At the beginning of World War I, the Turks attempted to
deport the entire Armenian population, and about one
third of Armenia’s total population died en route or were
massacred in an act of genocide.
Inspired by nationalism and religion, Armenians have
fought with the predominantly Islamic Azeris in
neighboring Azerbaijan.
In the early 1990s, conflict between Armenia and
Azerbaijan has forced many refugees to flee the area..
Chapter 22, Section 1
Azerbaijan
Almost half of the nation’s inhabitants live in rural areas, and the
irrigated lowlands produce many agricultural goods.
Economic Problems
• Conflict with Armenia has led to
severe economic problems.
• Azerbaijan has vast oil reserves
near the Caspian Sea, but
foreign investors are hesitant
because the area is prone to
earthquakes.
• Azerbaijan is a country without
direct access to the Black or
Mediterranean seas.
• Attempts to build an oil pipeline
have met with political
resistance from Russia, which
is wary of competition.
Environmental Change
• Petroleum and related
chemical industries have
caused environmental
problems.
• The Caspian Sea has been
badly polluted by sewage
and petroleum wastes for
decades..
• Pollution has reduced the
number of fish surviving in
the Caspian Sea.
• Other forms of pollution
include air pollution and
overuse of pesticides on
farms.
Chapter 22, Section 1
Section 1 Review
How did the fall of communism affect the economy of Georgia?
a) The economy grew quickly.
b) The economy grew slowly.
c) The economy suffered.
d) The economy was unaffected.
How has Russia affected the economy of Azerbaijan?
a) Russia gave large amounts of aid for development.
b) Russia tried to block the construction of a new oil pipeline.
c) Russia provided Azerbaijan with a large market for its goods.
d) Russia blockaded Azerbaijan.
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Chapter 22, Section 1
Section 1 Review
How did the fall of communism affect the economy of Georgia?
a) The economy grew quickly.
b) The economy grew slowly.
c) The economy suffered.
d) The economy was unaffected.
How has Russia affected the economy of Azerbaijan?
a) Russia gave large amounts of aid for development.
b) Russia tried to block the construction of a new oil pipeline.
c) Russia provided Azerbaijan with a large market for its goods.
d) Russia blockaded Azerbaijan.
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Chapter 22, Section 2
The Central Asian Nations
• What are some major physical
characteristics of the Central Asian
nations?
• How does Islam influence the peoples of
Central Asia?
• How did the economic activities of
Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan change under
the control of the former Soviet Union?
• How has the excessive irrigation and the
overuse of pesticides and fertilizers
changed the region’s environment?
Chapter 22, Section 2
Physical Characteristics
Chapter 22, Section 2
Physical Characteristics
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The terrain varies considerably,
from the mountains in the
southeast to much flatter land in
the west.
The climate of the region is
mostly arid or semiarid, with
precipitation ranging from 3 to 10
inches annually.
Two of Asia’s largest deserts, the
Kara Kum and Kyzyl Kum, lie to
the east of the Caspian Sea.
In northern Kazakhstan, the
steppes create a rich topsoil
called chernozem.
Parts of the region have large
reserves of oil and natural gas.
Chapter 22, Section 2
People and Culture
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The Central Asian countries are home to a mixture of peoples,
and Russians form a large minority in several countries of the
region.
Kazaks, Turkmen, Uzbeks, and Kyrgyz speak related Turkic
languages, while the Tajiks speak a language related to Farsi,
the language of Iran.
Many people also speak Russian, once the official language.
Most people in the region are Muslims.
The connection between these people and the Arabian core of
Islam has traditionally been weak, intensified when the region
was incorporated into the Soviet Union.
Religious connections between Muslims in Central Asia and
those in Southwest Asia are not strong, and Soviet control
made this difference more pronounced.
Since independence from the Soviet Union, some national
leaders have called for a more open adoption of Islamic rules
as the basis for their governments, but popular support for
Islamic fundamentalism remains low.
Chapter 22, Section 2
Economic Activities
Many people in Central Asia traditionally were nomadic herders
who lived in yurts, or portable round tents.
Under the Soviet Union
• People’s lives changed
dramatically under Soviet
control.
• Nomadic peoples were forced
to settle in villages and work
on government farms.
• Massive irrigation systems
diverted waters from the Syr
Darya and the Amu Darya
rivers to grow cotton in the
southern region.
• The Soviet government
encouraged industrial
development in the cities.
Since Independence
• Industrial development spurred
the growth of many cities.
• Kazakh industries process
farm products and mineral
resources, while Uzbekistan is
home to the region’s only
significant aviation factory.
• A larger share of the region’s
people continues to live in rural
areas, where farming and
herding predominate.
• Tourism is becoming
economically important in the
cities along the ancient Silk
Road.
Chapter 22, Section 2
Environmental Change
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Rapid economic development resulted in environmental
problems for the Central Asian countries, as elsewhere in the
former Soviet Union.
Soviet planners developed a set of canals to divert fresh water
from the Amu Darya and Syr Darya rivers, so that cotton fields
could be irrigated.
Although the region became a leading cotton producer, the
project cause the Aral Sea to lose two thirds of its volume and
become saltier.
The sand blown from the exposed seabed contributed to the
desertification, or extension of the desert landscape, of the
area.
Some experts predict that the entire Aral Sea will disappear by
2030.
Pesticides and fertilizers have left soil and water highly
contaminated, and exposure to heavy doses of these
chemicals has created serious health risks for workers.
Chapter 22, Section 2
Section 2 Review
Uzbekistan is the only country in the region to have which
industry?
a) petroleum extraction
b) textile
c) aviation
d) electronics
How have irrigation projects affected the region?
a) The Aral Sea has lost two thirds of its volume.
b) The region has become a “breadbasket” for the world.
c) The region’s population has exploded with new food
sources available.
d) Agricultural chemicals have left the Aral Sea heavily
polluted.
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Chapter 22, Section 2
Section 2 Review
Uzbekistan is the only country in the region to have which
industry?
a) petroleum extraction
b) textile
c) aviation
d) electronics
How have irrigation projects affected the region?
a) The Aral Sea has lost two thirds of its volume.
b) The region has become a “breadbasket” for the world.
c) The region’s population has exploded with new food
sources available.
d) Agricultural chemicals have left the Aral Sea heavily
polluted.
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