Culture Regions





Political culture regions
Political diffusion
Political ecology
Politico-cultural integration
Political landscapes
Politico-cultural integration

The nation-state

Characteristics






A type of independent country which results when people
have a common heritage, homeland, and culture
The people speak the same language and/or share a
particular religion
They possess a desire for nationhood and achieve political
independence
Nationality is culturally defined
The raison d’être lies in the cultural identity
The more people have in common culturally, the more stable
and potent is their nationalism
The nation-state


Nation-states, at least on a regional level, have
characterized much of human history and might be
linked to instinctual territoriality
Examples of modern nation-states that have culturally
homogenous populations, with only small minority
groups






Germany
Sweden
Japan
Greece
Armenia
Finland
The nation-state

Many other countries function as nation-states
because power is held by a dominant,
nationalistic cultural group




Contain sizable ethnic minorities treated as secondclass citizens
Minorities represent centrifugal forces
Israel is trying to cope with a sizable Arab minority
New nation-states contain large, territorially
compact ethnic minorities — former Soviet Union
and Yugoslavia
The nation-state


Nation-states, at least on a regional level, have
characterized much of human history and might be
linked to instinctual territoriality
Examples of modern nation-states that have culturally
homogenous populations, with only small minority
groups






Germany
Sweden
Japan
Greece
Armenia
Finland
The multinational country


Make up the majority of independent countries
and are not nation-states
Usually have federal rather than strong central
governments — examples include:






Switzerland
Canada
The United Kingdom
South Africa
Belgium
All are older multinational countries
The multinational country

A much larger number have arisen in
recent decades



Result of the collapse of European-based
colonialism
Most in Africa
Political boundaries drawn without regard to
the integrity of cultural or tribal groups
Ethnic separatism


We live in an age of rising ethnic
nationalism
One ethnic minority after another
demands independence or autonomy
Ethnic separatism

Results of rising ethnic nationalism



Old stable multinational countries are feeling
the effects — Canada, the United Kingdom
Some multinational countries have splintered
— the former Soviet Union, Yugoslavia,
Czechoslovakia
Ethiopia discarded its unitary government and
adopted an ethnic-based federalism in hopes
of preserving unity
Ethnic separatism

The impact ranges from:




Simple unrest to insurgencies
Forced deportations
Attempted genocides
Secessions
The problem in Quebec, Canada




Contains most of Canada’s approximately 7
million French Canadians
Constitute a cultural-linguistic minority seeking
autonomy or even secession
Descended from French colonists who
immigrated in the 1600s and 1700s
Lived under English or Anglo-Canadian rule from
1760 until well into the twentieth century
The problem in Quebec, Canada





Laws of Quebec retain a predominantly French
influence
French is the sole legal language
The visible use of English, illegal until recently,
was expunged
In several elections, a sizable minority voted for
independence
Many Anglo-Canadians have emigrated from
Quebec
Quebec, Canada


Canada has two
official languages,
French and English.
All provincial signs are
supposed to be in
both languages, yet
this sign, welcoming
visitors to Quebec’s
capital, is in French
only.
Quebec, Canada


Contrary to national
policy, Quebec has
French-only laws and all
signage, by provincial
law, must be in French.
Although the separatist
Parti Quebecois was
voted into power in 1994,
the majority did not vote
to separate.
Quebec, Canada

This implies that, at
least for now, most
Francophones want to
actively preserve and
promote their unique
cultural heritage
within the Canadian
federal system.
Politico-cultural integration


The international political map has taken
on a linguistic-religious character
Border wars and forced migration of
minorities could become common in the
future
The cleavage model


Originally proposed by Stein Rokkan and
Seymour Lipset
Proposes that persistent regional patterns in
voting behavior can usually be explained in
terms of tensions pitting:




National core area versus peripheral districts
Urban versus rural
Capitalists versus workers
Power-group culture versus minority culture
The cleavage model

Commonly, tensions coincide
geographically, with the result that the
core area:




Monopolizes power and wealth
Is more urbanized
Links government to the ruling elite culture
Ethnic minorities often live in peripheral,
largely rural, and less affluent areas
The cleavage model

Nature of the majority of ethnic separatist
movements that have moved beyond unrest to
violence or secession





Involve groups living away from core areas
Seceded republics from the former U.S.S.R.—lie
outside Russia
Slovenes and Croats occupied border territories in
Yugoslavia
Northern Ireland lies on the periphery of the United
Kingdom
Kurdistan is on the edge of Iraq, Iran, Syria, and
Turkey who now rule Kurdish lands
The cleavage model

Nature of the majority of ethnic separatist
movements that have moved beyond
unrest to violence or secession



Restive Tibet is on the margin of China
Arab West Bank-Gaza districts under Israeli rule are
peripheral
Slovakia, poor and more rural than the Czech
Republic was remote from the center of power at
Prague
The cleavage model


In fewer cases, the secessionist
peripheries were actually more prosperous
than the political core area
Federalist government reduces core versus
periphery tensions


Reduces appeal of separatist movements
Switzerland has been able to join speakers of
German, French, Italian, and Raeto-Romansh
into a single, stable country
The cleavage model


Canada developed under Francophone
pressure toward a Swiss-type system
Russia has been obliged to adopt a more
federalist structure to accommodate
demands of ethnic minorities


Has 31 ethnic republics within
One republic, Chechnya has fought and won
de-facto independence
Sakba Republic





Located in Russia’s Siberia province
Example of rising ethnic demands
Forms one-fifth of Russia’s land area and
contains about one million people
Roughly 35 percent of population is ethnic
Sakha or Yakut—people of Turkic origin
Russians, who outnumber Sakha are
concentrated in ten urban areas
Sakba Republic


Sakha dominant in
rural/small-town core of
republic
Demands of Sakha led to
declaration of state
sovereignty in 1990



Has its own elected
president and parliament
Has its own flag, coat-ofarms, and a constitution
Has attained some
measure of genuine
economic independence
Sakba Republic



A 1995 survey revealed 72 percent of all ethnic
Yakuts felt more loyalty to Sakha than to Russia
A third of all Russians expressed same loyalty to
Sakha over Russia
Sakha had not yet tried to seek independence


Autonomy represents embryo of a nation-state
Ongoing Russian emigration from Sakha complicates
the matter
Cleavage model


Political imprint on economic geography
In the cleavage model economic contrasts
clearly reveal the internal spatial
arrangement of the country’s economic
influence
Cleavage model

Laws differing from one country to another often
impact on economic land use giving political
boundaries an economic character

United States-Canadian border in the Great Plains




Crosses an area of environmental and cultural sameness
Different laws and regulations, foster differences in
agricultural practices
In the United States, an act passed in the 1950s encouraged
sheep raising by guaranteeing an incentive price for wool
In Canada, farmers devoted more attention to hogs
Cleavage model

Borders also usually cause economic
disruptions



Highway networks become fragmentary in
border zones
Need to control border crossings
Some countries close borders stopping the
flow of goods
Austrian-Czech border
Sumdo, Himachal Pradesh, India


This military post not
only guards the
Indian-Tibetan border,
but is also the source
of the Sutlej River.
Irrigation water from
this Himalayan river is
critical for survival in
both India and
Pakistan.
Sumdo, Himachal Pradesh, India



The blue sign (in Tibet)
says “Welcome to the
Land of God.”
The English reflects the
colonial influence.
Since it is very difficult to
clearly demarcate borders
in mountainous regions,
such areas are often
disputed.
Sumdo, Himachal Pradesh, India


India has deliberately
constructed roads into
the border regions to
ensure control.
Because of snow, these
roads are only open three
or four months a year
and are frequently
destroyed by landslides
and floods.
Sumdo, Himachal Pradesh, India


Under army
supervision, local and
migrant labor is
employed to repair
the damage.
Work is done by men,
women and children.
Culture Regions





Political culture regions
Political diffusion
Political ecology
Politico-cultural integration
Political landscapes
Imprint of the legal code

Laws regulating the land-survey system can be
quite noticeable




Often require that land be divided into specific
geometric patterns
Political boundaries as a result, become highly visible
Quebec encourages land survey in long, narrow
parcels
Most English-speaking provinces of Canada adopted a
rectangular system
Imprint of the legal code

Legal decisions made long ago by a vanished
government can remain imprinted on the
landscape

Example of former Danish provinces of Schleswig and
Holstein now German




Danish laws broke up farm villages and dispersed rural
populations in isolated farmsteads
Many fragmented landholding were combined into unit-block
farms
In nearby German-ruled provinces different laws prevailed
Over a century later the old border is still visible
Imprint of the legal code

Legal imprints can be seen in the cultural
landscapes of urban areas


In Rio de Janeiro, building height restrictions
resulted in a waterfront lined with buildings of
uniform height
Most American cities have no height
restrictions resulting in a jagged skyline
Rio de Janeiro - control
NYC – no control
Physical properties of boundaries



Usually most visible where tight
restrictions limit movement of people
between neighboring countries
Between the United States, nearly invisible
in many places
Even undefended borders are marked by
boundary pillars and custom houses
Physical properties of boundaries

Relic boundaries can persist for hundreds
or thousands of years


Hadrian’s Wall in England — built by the
Romans parallels the modern border between
England and Scotland
The Great Wall of China
Physical properties of boundaries

Urban boundaries mark street gang
territories



Use spray-painted graffiti to mark their “turf’
Gang core areas contain internally supportive
graffiti
Gang territories can be mapped
The impress of central authority

Attempts to impose centralized government
appear in many facets of the landscape



Railroad and highway patterns focus on the national
core area
In Germany, the rail network developed before
unification in 1871 resulting in no focal point
The superhighway of autobahns, encouraged by
Hitler, tied the various parts of the Reich to Berlin and
the Ruhr industrial district
Brasilia, Brazil


This is the Congresso
Nacional of Brasilia,
Brazil’s monumental
planned capital built
in 1960.
Brasilia was intended
to open up the
sparsely settled
interior, decentralize
population away from
Brasilia, Brazil


the coast, and
symbolize aspirations
of development,
modernization, and
frontier conquest.
The dome houses the
Senate while the
more open bowl
houses the Chamber
of Deputies,
Brasilia, Brazil


perhaps symbolizing
relative degrees of
access.
The office towers
were deliberately
placed so that the sun
rises between them
on April 21st,
inauguration day.
The impress of central authority

Military landscapes directly linked a country’s
central authority’s defense





Often concentrated in border districts
Can result in sizable areas being cleared of
permanent inhabitants
Provided space for defensive installations and
maneuvers
Stable countries such as the United States
permit display of provincial borders
Unstable countries often suppress visible sign of
provincial borders
National iconography on the
landscape




The cultural landscape is rich in symbolism
visual metaphor
Political messages are often conveyed
through symbolism
In the United States flags and eagles
convey clear messages
Statues and monuments are important
parts of the political landscape
National iconography on the
landscape


Sites of heroic resistances against invaders
prompt feelings of nationalism
Some geographers feel iconography derives
from an elite, dominant group within a country



Purpose is to legitimize or justify power and control
Often represents only one side of an issue
Example-Mount Rushmore in the Black Hills of South
Dakota
Seneca Falls, New York

Seneca Falls, founded
in 1831, is known as
the birthplace of
women’s rights
because political
activists such as
Elizabeth Cady
Stanton and Harriet
Tubman of
underground railroad
fame lived and
worked here.
Seneca Falls, New York

In 1848, Stanton and
others organized the
First Women’s Rights
Convention at which
the foundation for the
suffrage movement
was laid.
Seneca Falls, New York


The Hall of Fame was
founded in 1969 and
opened in this historic
bank in 1979.
Classical architecture
was traditional for
banks, lending an
aura of authenticity
and trustworthiness.
Rome


The Arch of Titus was
the first triumphal
arch.
It was built in 81 AD
by Emperor Domitian
to celebrate his son
Titus’ conquest of
Jerusalem in 70 AD.
Rome


A triumphal
procession carrying
the spoils from the
Temple of Solomon is
depicted on the
interior of the arch.
Roman armies would
depart the city
marching through the
arch and upon return
Rome


from battle, stand their
bloodied spears against it
as a symbol of glorious
victory.
This arch became the
model for others world
wide and they can be
found in most of the
world’s capitals from Paris
to New Delhi.
Summary

Political Culture Regions

Independent Countries
territoriality
 boundaries
 centrifugal and centripetal forces



Supranational Political Bodies
Electoral Geography
Summary

Political Diffusion


Country Building as Diffusion
Diffusion of Insurgencies and Innovations
Summary

Political Ecology


Folk Fortresses
The Heartland Theory


Halford Mackinder
Warfare and Environmental Destruction
Summary

Politico-Cultural Integration





The Nation-State
The Multinational Country
Ethnic Separatism
The Cleavage Model
Political Imprint on Economic Geography
Summary

Political Landscapes

Imprint on the Legal Code




border landscapes
Physical Properties of Boundaries
The Impress of Central Authority
National Iconography on the Landscape
Descargar

Slide 1