AP Review Topics 2014
Topics requested by the class
(plus some topics left over from
my 2012 and 2013 classes)
RENAISSANCE ERA
HUMANISM
Humanism– Intro
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Petrarch = “father of Humanism”
Form of scholarship– return to the classics
of Greece and Rome, critical historical
scholarship
Civic humanism– originates in Italian city
states, brings together humanism with civic
reform
Christian humanism– part of Northern
Renaissance, brings together humanism
with Christian teachings
Humanist Education
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Prepares someone for “life of action”
Studies grammar, rhetoric, liberal arts,
philosophy, poetry, politics, history, etc.
Rejected scholasticism
Castiglione’s Book of the Courtier uses
humanist ideas to show how to be
successful at court
Florentine “Academy” revives the study of
Plato
Christian Humanism
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Erasmus: “Prince of the Humanists”
– Spread ideas of classical authors
– Praise of Folly criticized ignorance of
church
– Used knowledge of classical languages to
improve understanding of Bible
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Sir Thomas More: Utopia spread ideas
of reason and tolerance, against
ignorance and superstition, but not
anti-Christian
THE REFORMATION AND
COUNTER-REFORMATION
Reformation– First Steps
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1517: Luther posts the 95 Theses
Luther’s main ideas:
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“salvation by faith alone”
Angry about indulgences (Johann Tetzel)
Bible= only true source of Christian practice
2 sacraments: baptism and holy communion
“priesthood of all believers”– Bible in vernacular
Lutheranism quickly spread
throughout German states
The Reformation Spreads
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Protestant ideas spread throughout German states
and into Switzerland (Zwingli)
1520: Luther excommunicated (Leo X)
1524-25: Peasant Revolt
1530: Diet of Augsburg: Charles V rejects Luther’s
Confession of Augsburg (statement of faith)
Civil War in German states between Protestant
princes (Schmalkaldic League) vs. Catholic
Hapsburgs
1555: Peace of Augsburg: “whose region, his
religion”
The Reformation: Beyond
Luther
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1534-35: Anabaptists rule Munster
– Reject infant baptism, taking oaths, bearing
arms, ties between church/state
– Crushed (ex. Liberation of Munster)
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1536: Calvin publishes The Institutes of the
Christian Religion
– Bible only true source of practice, 2 sacraments
– Predestination– salvation only for the “elect”
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Strict theocracy set up in Geneva
The Anglican Church:
Under Henry VIII
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Henry VIII wanted a divorce couldn’t get
one creates his own church (with help
from Thomas Cranmer)
Act of Supremacy (1534): king = head of
church in England NOT pope
Six Articles: defined religious practices
(mostly Catholic– except for authority of
Pope)
Monasteries were dissolved land sold to
raise $$ and win supporters
The Anglican Church:
Edward VI and Mary
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True Protestant reform under Edward
VI
– 42 Articles defined practice– more
Calvinist ideas introduced
– Adoption of Thomas Cranmer’s Book of
Common Prayer
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Queen Mary brought back Catholicism
and married Philip II of Spain
– Persecution of Protestants (Bloody Mary)
Anglican Reformation:
Elizabethan Settlement
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Queen Elizabeth I (r. 1558-1603)
Act of Supremacy
Act of Uniformity– Book of Common Prayer
returned
39 Articles defined church practice:
generally Protestant but still ruled by
bishops
Elizabethan Settlement: some compromise
and ambiguity attempting to unite people
Opposition remained (Puritans, Catholics)
Counter Reformation
Council of Trent: Doctrine
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Began in 1545
Reaffirmed Doctrine
– No compromise with Protestants
– Sources for beliefs = Bible and traditions
– Justification through faith and good works
– Reaffirmed 7 sacraments
– Reaffirmed veneration of relics/images,
purgatory, indulgences
Counter Reformation
Council of Trent: Reforms
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Reforms of the Catholic Church
– No absenteeism (archbishops and bishops live in
areas they served)
– Simony (sale of church offices) outlawed
– Expansion of seminaries
– No indulgences in exchange for cash
– No fees to deliver sacraments
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Strengthened papal authority reforms of
Council not official without papal approval
(1564– approved by Pius IV)
Counter-Reformation:
Jesuits
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New religious orders in response to Reformation
Society of Jesus = most influential
Started by Ignatius of Loyola
Supported:
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Poverty and chastity
Disciplined prayer
Military organization
Strong education
Missionary activity– converting people to Catholicism or
getting them back from Protestantism
THE RELIGIOUS WARS
Religious Wars: France
Intro
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Calvinism grew in France, particularly
amongst nobility
Three decades of war between Catholics
and Huguenots
Henry II died (1559), France dominated by
widow, Catherine de’ Medici
Guise family led Catholic factions
Bourbon family led Huguenots
Religious Wars: France
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Warfare between sides began in 1562,
uneasy peace in 1570
1572: St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre
renewed fighting War of the Three
Henrys
Henry of Navarre= King Henry IV (r.
1589-1610)
– Made peace between warring factions
– “Paris is worth a mass.”
– Edict of Nantes (1598)
Religious Wars: Spain
Netherlands
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Philip II controlled Spain, Spanish Empire,
Netherlands, Burgundy, Two Sicilies, Sardinia,
islands in W. Mediterranean
Dutch revolted against foreign rule
– Upset about Catholicism (many Calvinist) and Spanish
taxation
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Duke of Alva sent to control Netherlands rebellion
continued
Spanish rule restored in South
Northern provinces formed Union of Utrecht (1579),
William of Orange (the Silent) led
Independence struggle continues, truce in 1609,
independence recognized 1648
Religious Wars: Spain
vs. England
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Spanish/ English alliance ended with
Mary’s death
Philip wanted to conquer England and
free it from Protestant control
1588: launched the Spanish Armada
Huge loss for Spain hurt Spanish
prestige, step in Spain’s decline
Religious Wars: 30 Years
War (background)
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Peace of Augsburg only recognized
Lutheranism or Catholicism
Calvinists wanted rights
Fighting begins in Hapsburg ruled,
Bohemia
Religious Wars: 30 Years
War, Bohemian Phase
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Bohemian Calvinists worried about
Ferdinand’s (Hapsburg, HRE) election as
king of Bohemia
Defenestration of Prague (1618)– Catholic
members of royal council thrown out
window
Rebels took control of Prague, demanded
Ferdinand out, got help from the Palatinate
Catholic victory w/ help from Bavaria,
Palatinate put under Catholic control
Religious Wars: 30 Years
War, Danish Phase
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King Christian IV of Denmark and
Holstein (Lutheran) intervened against
Ferdinand II
Catholic Victory: w/ help of Albrecht
von Wallenstein Denmark was
defeated and pushed out of German
affairs
Religious Wars: 30 Years
War, Swedish Phase
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King Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden invaded
Germany.
France comes in too against Hapsburgs
Early Swedish victories Wallenstein
defeated but Adolphus killed (1632)
Forces exhausted, Treaty of Prague
signed strengthened Hapsburgs (Catholic
Victory)
Religious Wars: 30 Years
War, French Phase
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France (Cardinal Richelieu) wanted to
weaken Hapsburgs gets directly
involved in war
Eventually France/Protestants won
France occupied Bavaria
Peace negotiations began 1641.
Protestant/French victory
Religious Wars: Peace of
Westphalia (1648)
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Territory gained for France, Sweden,
Brandenburg
Independence of Netherlands and
Switzerland
German states can make own treaties and
alliances
Recognition for Calvinists
Fragmented the HRE
Isolated Spanish Hapsburgs
France turning into major power
MAJOR FIGURES OF THE
SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION
Astronomy: opposing the
Ptolemaic view
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Nicholas Copernicus: introduces
heliocentric theory in On the
Revolution of Heavenly Spheres
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Tycho Brahe: detailed observations of
universe, didn’t support heliocentric,
gave notes to Kepler
Johannes Kepler: heliocentric theory, 3
laws of planetary motion (elliptical
orbits)
Astronomy: Galileo
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Improvements to telescope
– Evidence of heliocentric theory
– Moons of Jupiter, rings of Saturn, craters
on Moon, sunspots
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Condemned by Catholic Church, books
banned by Inquisition, ordered to
recant
While under house arrest, worked on
laws of motion
Sir Isaac Newton
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Studies of motion, optics, invented
calculus
Principia Mathematic (1687)
Law of Universal Gravitation
– Mathematical explanation of gravity
– Explains planetary motion and the motion
of EVERYTHING
The Scientific Method
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Francis Bacon
– Inductive method: experimentation, systematic
observation, collection of data BEFORE coming
to scientific generalizations
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Rene Descartes
– Deductive method: reasoning out general law
from specific cases then applying it to cases that
can not be observed
– “I think therefore I am”
A Few More Areas of
Science
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Anatomy and Physiology
– Rejecting the ideas of Galen
– Andreas Vesalius: detailed anatomical
drawings
– William Harvey: heart functions as pump,
blood circulates
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Chemistry
– Robert Boyle: Boyle’s Law
(volume/pressure)
MAJOR PHILOSOPHES OF
THE ENLIGHTENMENT
Philosophes
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Critics of the Old Regime
new ideas on government, economics,
religion
Proposed ways to improve human
condition and reform society
Believed in supremacy of reason
Reason could reveal natural laws
Believed in progress
Philosophes: Foundations
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Hobbes “social contract”
Locke social contract, natural rights,
tabula rasa
Philosophes: Voltaire
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Most well-known philosophe
Supported:
– Enlightened Despotism
– Deism: rational approach to Christianity
– Tolerance
Philosophes: Rousseau
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More radical thinker
Natural education learn from direct
experience
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Social Contract
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– “All men are born free, but everywhere
they are in chains”
– Government should be formed based on
the general will
Philosophes: Montesquieu
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No ideal political system (situation
varies from place to place)
Admired British system
Separation of powers between
branches of government with a checks
and balance system
Philosophes: Beccaria
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Essay on Crimes and Punishments
Law and justice should conform to the
laws of nature
Against torture and death penalty
Supported quick justice
Punishment should work to rehabilitate
criminal
Philosophes: Economics
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Physiocrats
– Laissez-faire
– Land = source of wealth (not gold and silver)
– Only tax should be on land
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Adam Smith
– Laissez-faire
– Mercantilism interferes with natural laws
– Economic self-interest should regulate economy
WARS OF THE LATE 17TH/
EARLY 18TH CENTURY
Louis XIV’s Wars
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War of Devolution (1667-1668): France invaded
Sp. Netherlands and Franche-Comte. Louis forced
to withdraw, but won some land on border of Sp.
Netherlands
Dutch War (1672-1678): Louis invaded Holland,
Dutch flooded their land to resist, France won
Franche-Comte and lands on border of Sp. Neth.
War of the League of Augsburg (1688-1697):
a.k.a. Nine Years’ War, Louis trying to expand to
Rhine, William of Orange formed alliance against
him, Louis lost most gains BUT kept Alsace.
War of Spanish Succession…
War of Spanish
Succession
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Spanish king died w/out heir left crown to Louis
XIV’s grandson Philip of Anjou Major powers did
NOT want to see France in control of Spain and the
Spanish colonies
Peace settlements (1713/1714)
– Philip of Anjou = Spanish king BUT successors could not
also rule France
– Austrian Hapsburg won Spanish Netherlands and land in
Italy
– France lost colonies in North America to England
– England won land including Gibraltar and won Asiento
(contract to trade slaves in North America)
– Elector of Brandenburg = king of Prussia
War of Austrian
Succession
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War of Jenkins’ Ear merged with European war
(Frederick the Great of Prussia trying to take Silesia
from Maria Theresa of Austria)
Prussia, France, Spain, Bavaria, Saxony vs. Austria,
Great Britain, Netherlands
Colonies: Great Britain fighting France in North
America and India
Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle (1748):
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Austria forced to recognize Prussian control of Silesia
All other major territorial gains returned
Maria Theresa recognized as heir to Hapsburg land
Confirmed emergence of Prussia as great power
Did not settle colonial issues
Diplomatic Revolution
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Prussia allied with Great Britain
Austria allied with France (ended
traditional rivalry between France and
Hapsburgs)
– Russia joined in alliance
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Old rivalries still remained (Fr/GB,
Aus/Pru)
Seven Years’ War (17561763): Europe
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Frederick the Great invaded Saxony (ally of
Austria) Frederick said it was a
preventative war
Britain provided financial support (not
military)
France struggled fighting in Europe and
colonies simultaneously
1762: anti-Prussian alliance fell apart when
Russia made peace with Prussia
Seven Years’ War (17561763): Colonies
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a.k.a.: French and Indian War
Britain initially doing poorly
William Pitt the Elder turned things around
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Aid to Prussia
Reorganized military
Retained control of the seas
Major victories starting in 1757 (Plessy, Wet
Indies, Fort Duquesne Pittsburg, Montreal)
Treaty of Paris of 1763: British controlled
more of N. America and India
Other major conflicts of
th
the 18 c.
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Wars of Peter the Great won land from
Sweden (Great Northern War)
Wars of Catherine the Great won land
from the Ottoman Empire
Partitions of Poland:
– divided between Russia, Austria and Prussia
– Division complete by 1794 after Polish national
revolt led by Thaddeus Kosciuszko
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American Revolution
French Revolution
THE FRENCH REVOLUTION
French Revolution:
Causes
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Old Regime
Financial and Administration problems
– Debt, inefficient bureaucracy
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Nobility
– Reasserting authority
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Failed attempts to tax nobility and reform
govt spending
King called the Estates General in 1789
(hadn’t met since 1614) to get approval of
new taxes
French Revolution:
Estates General
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Representatives from each estate with
demands (cahiers)
Nobles (2nd estate) want increased power
Third Estate wants abolition of privileges of
1st and 2nd estates
King wants $, and wants to vote by estate
3rd estate refused (wanted voting by
head) June 17, 1789 they declared
themselves the National Assembly:
Revolution Begins
French Revolution: 1st
Phase (moderate)
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Tennis Court Oath: vow to write a constitution
King ordered 1st and 2nd estates to join Assembly,
but rumors of mercaneries coming
Storming of the Bastille (July 14, 1789)
Great Fear– peasants begin supporting revolution
August 4: Old Regime abolished
Declaration of Rights of Man
Fall 1789: increased violence (Women’s march) and
more radical clubs forming
1790: Decreased power/$ for church, Civil
Constitution of the Clergy
Constitution of 1791: limited constitutional
monarchy
French Revolution:
Constitutional Monarchy
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1791 Constitution
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Unicameral legislature
King could only delay legislation
King controlled army and foreign policy
Indirect elections (through active citizens and
passive citizens)
– 83 departments
– Full rights for Jews and Protestants
– Slavery abolished within France
French Revolution:
Phase (radical)
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nd
2
1791: growing counter-revolution, fueled by
émigrés, King Louis tried to flee
Legislative Assembly split into rival factions
– Girondins dominated: wanted to spread revolution
– Jacobins growing in popularity
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War with Austria and Prussia as war dragged on,
sans-culottes got more radical
Summer: Tuileries stormed, September massacres
followed
Increasing demands for new elections with
universal male suffrage
Convention elected Constitution of 1792 made
France a Republic
January,1793: Louis XVI executed
French Revolution: 3rd
Phase (really radical)
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Growing counter-revolution (especially in Vendee
region)
Committee of Public Safety established, spring 1793
(led by Danton, Carnot and Robespierre)
Jacobins allied with sans-culottes and took over
government
Government instituted price controls, levee en
masse and the Reign of Terror
Robespierre tried to create his “Republic of Virtue”:
churches closed, calendar changed, enemies
guillotined
French Revolution: The
End
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Robespierre overthrown in 1794
(Thermidorean Reaction), supporters of
Robespierre were punished
New government= Directory
New Constitution (1795)
– 5 executive council
– 2-house legislature w/ limited franchise (vote)
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Moderate forces back in power
Problems with growing royalist rebellions
allowed for the increasing popularity of
Napoleon
“ISMS”-CONSERVATISM,
LIBERALISM, NATIONALISM
Conservative Politics after
the French Revolution
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Support authority of monarchy and
aristocracy
Dominate European affairs after
Napoleon’s defeat (but challenged)
Concert of Europe and the congress
system works to maintain the status
quo throughout Europe.
Nationalism after the
French Revolution
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Want national borders drawn along the lines of
national (ethnic) groups
Opposed to multi-national states (like Austria and
Russia) and national groups being split up (Italy
and Germany)
Support popular sovereignty
Big areas of nationalist pressure: Ireland, German
states, Poland, Balkan region, Italy, Eastern Europe
Mostly unsuccessful in early/mid 1800s w/ a few
exceptions (Greece, Belgium)
Liberalism after the
French Revolution
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Want moderate political reform and freer
economies
Inspiration from Enlightenment ideas: legal
equality, freedom of press, getting rid of arbitrary
power of the government.
Support elected parliaments (with narrow
franchise), written constitutions
Support laissez-faire economic policies
Mostly unsuccessful in early/mid 1880s except in
France (1830 Revolution) and Britain (Reform Bill of
1832)
THE AGE OF NATION STATES
(CHAPTER 22)
Crimean War, 1853-1856
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CAUSES:
– Russian expansionism
– Ottoman weakness
– Russia claiming right to “protect” Orthodox
Christians within Ottoman lands
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EXPANSION:
– Russia occupied Ottoman lands (Rumania) and
Ottomans declared war
– British and French declared war on Russia to
stop Russian expansion
– Piedmont joins Allies too (looking for credibility)
Crimean War, 1853-1856
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RESULTS:
– Nicholas I died in 1855, Alexander II sued for
peace
– Treaty of Paris (1856): Russia returned land to
Ottomans, Black Sea neutral, Russia gave up
right to protect Christians w/in Ottoman Empire

IMPORTANCE:
– Concert of Europe destroyed
– Increased instability in European affairs
– Showed Ottoman weaknesses (but they did do
some reforms)
Unification of Italy
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
Revolution failed in Italian states in 1848
Count Camillo Cavour, PM of Piedmont-Sardinia led
unification
– Liberal reforms in P-S (strengthening the constitutional
monarchy, economic growth, diplomatic recognition)
– Allied with France (Napoleon III) against Austria
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War w/ Austria (1859): French leave war early. P-S
wins Lombardy, Austria keeps Venetia
Most northern Italian states rebel and vote to join
P-S. Napoleon III let this happen, and Fance won
Nice and Savoy (from P-S).
Unification of Italy (2)
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Guiseppe Garibaldi (romantic republican) & the Red
Shirts landed in Sicily (1860) to support rebellion.
Red Shirts took Sicily and then went to Naples.
Piedmont took Papal States (except Rome) and
Garibaldi gave control of Naples and Sicily to
Piedmont.
1861: Kingdom of Italy proclaimed
1866: Italy won control of Venetia after AustroPrussian War
1870: Italy took control of Rome, made capital of
Italy
Unification of Germany
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German Confederation remained after 1848,
dominated by Austria and Prussia
Otto von Bismarck was appointed PM of
Prussia because King Wilhelm I wanted to
reform the military and he needed money
(and the liberals in Parliament wouldn’t give
it to him).
Bismarck used “blood and iron” (realpolitik)
to get what he wanted.
Unification of Germany
(2)
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Danish War (1864)
– Prussia allied with Austria to fight Denmark and
take control of Schleswig and Holstein.

Austro-Prussian War/ 7 Weeks War (1866)
– Prussia uses Schleswig and Holstein to pick fight
with Austria. Prussia wins, retains control of
both provinces and PUSHES AUSTRIA OUT OF
GERMAN AFFAIRS
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North German Confederation formed
(1867), established federal council and
lower house (Reichstag)
Unification of Germany
(3)
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Southern German states needed to be “convinced”
to join. Problems with France will help this process.
Bismarck edited a telegram between the French
ambassador and Wilhelm I Napoleon III declared
war.
With Franco-Prussian War, southern states join with
Prussia
Prussia wins war, Germany unified, Germany gets
control of Alsace-Lorraine, Wilhelm crowned Kaiser
MAJOR changes to the balance of power in Europe
France: Third Republic
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After 1860, Napoleon III made some liberal reforms
w/in France but struggled in foreign policy (Italy,
Mexico, Prussia). He lost power after the FrancoPrussian War.
Radicals in Paris started the Third Republic
conservatives outside Paris, in 1871 elections
monarchists won majority of seats, temporary
power given to Adolphe Thiers
Radicals elected their own government: The Paris
Commune
France: Third Republic (2)
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Paris Commune was crushed
Constitution of Third Republic created a weak
government w/ most power in the hands of the
parliament.
Multi-party system also contributed to govt’s
weaknesses.
Threats to the government included the Boulanger
Affair (attempt to overthrow govt w/ support from
monarchists) and the Dreyfus Affair.
During this period socialists also gained influence in
France.
Hapsburg Empire after
1848

Hapsburgs had continued problems with the
nationalist groups w/in the empire.
– October Diploma (1860) tried to give more
authority to assemblies in Hungary and
Bohemia wasn’t enough for the Magyars.
Wanted to go back to March Laws of 1848.
– February Patent (1861) established a parliament
for the empire Magyars wouldn’t participate.
– Compromise of 1867 created the Dual Monarchy
– Unrest continued w/ the other nationalist groups
Russia and Alexander II

Reforms of Alexander II
– Emancipation Edict of 1861
– Elected rural assemblies (zemstvos) handled some local
affairs (taxation, elementary schools)
– Legal and judicial reforms (including equality before law,
trial by jury, public trials)
– Reduced term of service in military
– Plans for dumas
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Suppression of revolt in Poland
Growth of radicals and people who wanted more
reforms Alexander II assassinated in 1881.
Democratic Reform in
Great Britain
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Benjamin Disraeli: Conservative Party
William Gladstone: Liberal Party
Reform Bill of 1867: Conservatives gave right to
vote to most of the urban working class.
Gladstone’s Great Ministry (1868-1874)
– Civil service reform, expanded public education, union
rights, secret ballot, judiciary reforms

Disraeli in Office
– Reforms for the working class including Factory Act
(working conditions), Public Health Act (urban sanitation),
public housing, more rights for unions
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Reform Bill of 1884– vote for most farm workers
The “Irish Question”
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Act of Union (1801): united Ireland with GB. After
Catholic Emancipation (1829) there were more Irish
Catholics in House of Commons increasingly vocal
about home rule for Ireland.
Home rule most strongly opposed in northern
Ireland (Ulster– Protestant majority).
Several home rule bills were proposed by
Gladstone defeated.
1914: Liberals pass home rule bill couldn’t be
enforced b/c of opposition in Ulster. Irish
nationalist begin arming and forming a militia
MAJOR CHANGES IN
WOMEN’S ROLES AND THE
FEMINIST MOVEMENTS
Women and the
Reformation
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Protestants tended to move away from
medieval view of women as
“temptress”
Favored more education of women
(literacy) for role as pious housewives,
educating children in religion
Some women found Biblical passages
that alluded to their equality w/ men
Women and the Scientific
Revolution
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Women excluded from most higher
learning and from scientific societies
A few instances of women involved in
sciences (patrons, working alongside
husbands)
Greater intellectual freedom for
women in artisan crafts
Most women barred from
science/medicine until late 1800s
Women and the
Industrial Revolution
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w/ commercialization and mechanization of
agriculture some of women’s traditional roles over
production were changing hurt women’s ability to
earn $ from the land
Mechanization in textiles also changed women’s
jobs move to factory
19th c.: domestic service = major employer of
women
Big changes (1) women’s work = “home” work (2)
not associated w/ new tech. (3) view that women’s
income only “extra”
Women and the
Enlightenment
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Helped promote ideas of Enlightenment (ex.
Madame Geoffrin)
Some philosophes argued for expanded education
for women but still maintained traditional roles
Some (Montesquieu) believed women were not
naturally inferior. Some (Diderot) did not see
reform of women’s roles as necessary.
Rousseau: women’s sphere separate, educated only
as subordinates
Mary Wollstonecraft: Women need = education to
men not allowing this hinders progress for
humanity.
Women and the French
Revolution
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October 1789: Women’s March
Olympe de Gouge: Declaration of the Rights of
Woman (1791)
Increased # of female revolutionary societies
(Reign of Terror period)– initially welcomed.
Became more radical: more control of food prices,
wanted to wear cockade (revolutionary symbol) on
caps, brawled with women they thought weren’t
revolutionary enough
October 1793: govt banned all women’s societies
Also 1973: banned from army, sitting in Convention
Believed they could not be active citizens
Political Feminism

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Growth of liberalism didn’t necessarily
mean more rights for women.
John Stuart Mill and Harriet Taylor
used liberal ideas to argue for more
rights for women.
Women’s Suffrage
Movement: Britain

National Union of Women’s Suffrage
Societies/ Millicent Fawcett
– women should get vote through Parliament by
proving their respectability and responsibility

Women’s Social and Political Union/
Emmeline Pankhurst
– Suffragettes
– More radical tactics

Vote extended after WWI
Political Feminism: The
Continent
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France: few women argued for the
vote until early 1900s, rejected violent
action, didn’t get vote until after WWII
Germany: laws forbid female
participation in politics, organizations
in early 1900s focused on improving
women’s social conditions (ex.
Education, public health), earned vote
after WWI
Antifeminism
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Late 19th c. w/ growing influence of biology more
arguments of biological inferiority of women
Reinforced traditional roles for women
Some thinkers did argue for increased education for
women (Darwin, Huxley)
Some see Freud as showing women as
“incomplete” human beings
Social scientists portrayed women as more
creatures of feeling and emotion than intellect
20th c. Feminism

Simone de Beauvoir, The Second Sex
(1949) explored the way her life was
different because she was a woman.
– Argued that women had social and economic
disadvantages
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Feminists focused on social problems faced
by women (ex. Spousal abuse) 20th c.
Feminism less political (than 19th c.) more
social movement and critique of society
Emphasis on women controlling their own
lives
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