Info & Tips on
AP Human
Geography
EXAM
Format & Schedule for the
AP Human Geography Exam
Consists of 2 sections:
Section I: 60 minutes; 75 M-C ?’s
Counts 50% of total AP exam grade
48 seconds each
BREAK….15 min. or so….
Section II: 75 minutes; 3 Free Response
items
Counts 50% of final grade
3 Free Response Items:
-You have to do all 3 for full credit
-You have 75 total minutes to do these
-PREWRITE (!!!!) with each
-fancy form does NOT count…content is most
important
-Do NOT just list…
-Do what it says…IF it says define, do that
-If it says give an EX., do that
Glance ahead at all 3 ?’s
WHICH 1 you know most about?
Start with that one, leaving 2 pages for any you are
skipping
You have about 25 min. to answer each free
response question.
Take 5 min. to plan & outline your answer.
A formal essay is NOT required
But it is NOT enough to just list facts.
Illustrate your answers w/ GOOD geographic
examples whenever possible
Be sure that you number each of your
answers, including individual parts like 1a)
1b) 1c), in the answer booklet as the
questions are numbered on the next slide
 
Sample question:
1. The modern state system is engaged in a struggle
between the forces of supranationalism &
devolution.
A) Define both terms & give a geographic example
for each.
B) With reference to the political & economic
geography of Europe, briefly discuss three changes
resulting from supranationalism.
C) With reference to the political & economic
geography of Europe, briefly discuss 3 changes
resulting from devolution.
BUT…write in paragraphs…
Multiple Choice:
You can have 7 skips without penalty …
That is, if you totally don’t know some, leave up to
seven blank & it won’t hurt you. Choose the 7 you
are least sure about.
If you can narrow it to 2 or 3 of the choices, answer
it!
1 pt. for each correct….lose .25 (1/4) for each
wrong.
Blanks = nothing…
NOTE: Guy who wrote the Barron’s APHG Study Guide
never taught APHG…His Free Response stuff is
totally off base…so do not follow those instructions!!
His Multiple Choice ?’s are OK
Chapters Topics
% of ?’s
Ch. 1: Geog.: Nature & perspectives: 5-10
Ch. 2 + 3 Pop. Patterns/Migration
13-17
Ch/ 4-7 Cultural Patterns (cultural geog.)
13-17
Ch. 8 Polit. Geog.
13-17
Ch. 10 + 14 Agric. & rural land use
13-17
Ch. 9, 11, 14 Indus. + Econ Devel.
13-17
Ch. 12-13 Cities/urban land (services) 13-17
“How many do I have to get right….?” The answer
from an APHG guru…
That's really hard to say - especially since another factor
would be whether students skip the other questions or
answer them incorrectly. Skipped questions have no
penalty, but they lose 1/4 of the value of a right answer for
each incorrect answer. So a student who answers 50 right
and skips the other 25 will do much better that the students
who answers all the questions and gets 50 right. Be sure to
remind them to SKIP a question if they aren't sure or can't
eliminate at least 1 or 2 answers.
I just tell my kids to try to do better than the "average" kid
taking the test - since over half will pass, if they are
"average" or "above average" then they will get a 3, 4, or 5.
It is POSSIBLE to get a 4 by answering every multiple choice
question correctly and not getting any points on the free
response. (However getting all 75 questions is highly
unlikely!)
To summarize:
 If you TOTALLY do NOT know anything about it, SKIP
IT.
 TRY to avoid skipping more than 7…
 BUT…If there are more than 7 you just DO NOT
know, then skip more
 PRE-WRITE….BUT….for no more than 5 min. for
each question
 Writing TOO MUCH is MUCH better than NOT
including something that explains what you mean
 Clarify….explain….discuss…DO what it tells you to
do!
NOTES ON MAPS:
--economic maps --physical maps --climate maps
--cartogram
--legend --political maps
--population maps
1) gives info about how to read the maps to get info from the map
2) show landforms of an area…..the shape of the Earth’s surface
4) show places divided up by people, such as states (aka
“countries”), cities, counties, etc.; usually show rivers, major
lakes, oceans, etc., also
5) show climatic zones/areas within countries, continents, etc.
6) show natural resources in areas and/or ways that people make
a living; legends may show mines, factories, power plants,
etc. NOTE: the economy of a country is the way the money is
earned, used, spent, controlled, issued, etc.
7) shows were more people live…that is they show how (heavily,
thickly) or how sparsely (thinly) populated a place is
8) thematic map that shows political areas in relation to each
other regarding some quality or quantity. Examples?
dispersed
cartography agricultural
physiological
clustered (or a___?___)
concentration
arithmetic density
1) density which considers the # of farmers per unit of
farmland...land being farmed.
2) total # of something within an area; used to compare
the distribution of population in different countries.
Ex.: In the United Kingdom has 241 people per sq. km
3) the science or mapmaking in order to store reference
material and/or communicate geographic info
4) the extent of feature's spread over space; used to
describe changes in distribution
5) if objects in an area are close together they are said t
be …
6) a feature that is relatively far apart from others
ID:
NIMBY
B.O.D.
Hydrocarbons
Particulates
Biomass
Fossil Fuels
Most of electricity for businesses comes from what
fuel source? For homes?
Not in My Backyard!
BOD: biochemical oxygen demand: decomposing
organic waste in water…uses up oxygen & not
enough for normal animals & plants …& can cause
algae to grow too much
Hydrocarbons: cause photochemical smog (dirty
fog): --comes from fuels + paint solvents
(removers)
Particulates: solids in the air from soot and
Biomass: -plant material, wood, animal wastes
-LCD vs. MDC w/ biomass? Methane
Fossil Fuels: coal, petroleum (oil), natural gas
-Finite supply & is unevenly distributed
Non-renewable energy: (can u make more?)
Most of electricity for businesses comes from what
fuel source?
Coal
For homes? Natural gas
Map Projection
interrupted projection map:
depicts continents as
accurately as possible by
leaving blank space in
less important areas of
the map like oceans.
Below: Mercator: A
cylindrical map
Inset is more of a conical
map ...area of focus
(Greenland) accurate, but
as it goes lower, loses
accuracy
LIGHTNING REVIEW!!!!!!
1. A page: Unambiguous (?) identification of a
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
place on the earth’s surface – may use lat-long
coordinates?
Reference to a location in relation to surrounding
places?
Changes in value systems, attitudes, customs,
language, and other cultural traits brought about
by the contact with a dissimilar culture group?
Racial segregation in South Africa?
The areal (what do you think this means?) extent of a
person’s regularly visited places during a day?
Activities’ tendency to concentrate in a location to
share facilities and services for mutual benefit?
Industry that includes the operation of farms, farm
equipment, and farm commodities?
APHG RAPID REVIEW answers
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
A Page: Unambiguous identification of place on earth’s
surface – may use lat-long coordinates? Absolute
location
Refer. to location in relation to surround. places?
Relative location
Changes in value systems, attitudes, customs, language,
& other cult. traits thru contact w/ dissimilar culture
group? Acculturation
Racial segregation in South Africa? Apartheid
The areal extent of person’s regularly visited places
during a day? Activity space
Activities’ tendency to concentrate in a location to share
facilities and services for mutual benefit?
Agglomeration or clustering
Industry that includes the operation of farms, farm
equipment, and farm commodities? Agribusiness
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
B page: Another name for the Neolithic Revolution?
__?__ About how long ago? __? __
The practice of raising& harvesting fish & other water
produce?
South Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Singapore?
The division of a region or country into smaller
administrative units, usually along ethnic lines?
Industries that provide goods and services to areas outside
its center?
An effort by realtors to convince whites living on the edges
of the expanding black housing areas to sell their homes,
usually at prices lower than fair market value – then resell
the houses to blacks at higher than market values?
Banks identified areas within a city that they believed
presented too high a risk of financial loss to receive
mortgage loans – usually related to the race of occupants?
Lines that separate countries?
A place where cargo is transferred from one form of
transportation to another?
ANSW. B Page:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
Another name for the Neolithic Revolution? __?__ About
how long ago? __? __ 1st agric. Revolution …
The practice of raising& harvesting fish & other water
produce? aquaculture
South Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Singapore? 4
dragons or 4 tigers…or 4 Asian dragons/tigers
Division of a region or country into smaller administrative
units, usually along ethnic lines? Balkanization or Devolution
Industries that provide goods and services to areas outside
its center? Basic industries
An effort by realtors to convince whites living on the edges of
expanding black housing areas to sell their homes, usually at
prices lower than fair market value – then resell the houses to
blacks at higher than market values? blockbusting
Banks identified areas within a city that they believed
presented too high a risk of financial loss to receive mortgage
loans – usually related to the race of occupants? redlining
Lines that separate countries? Borders or boundaries
A place where cargo is transferred from one form of
transportation to another? Break of bulk point
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
C page: A map that has been transformed into a type of
graph where the administrative units have been enlarged
or reduced in area to graphically reflect their numerical
share in the topic presented?
Maps which show distribution by area – often by symbols
or colors which fill an entire administrative unit?
Forces that tend to disintegrate or push apart?
Forces that tend to bind or pull together?
A state that is principally composed of a city and a
limited hinterland? __?__ Ex?
A concept that says that an area will specialize in the
production of items for which it has the greatest
economic advantage over other areas?
The joining together of large urban centers so that their
edges create a continuous developed area? ___?___
Ex?
1.
Page C: Map that’s been transformed into a type of
graph where the admin. units have been enlarged or
reduced in area to graphically reflect their numerical
share in the topic presented? Cartogram
2.
Maps which show distribution by area – often by symbols or
colors which fill an entire administrative unit? Choropleth
Forces that tend to disintegrate? Centrifugal
Forces that tend to bind together? Centripetal
A state that is principally composed of a city and a limited
hinterland? City-state Ex? old: Athens new: Singapore
A concept that states than an area will specialize in the
production of items for which it has the greatest economic
advantage over other areas? Comparative advantage
The joining together of large urban centers so that their edges
create a continuous developed area? Conurbation or
Megalopolis Ex? BosWash, ChiPitts, San-San; East-west
in Japan from Tokyo to Kyushu; Ruhr region of Germany
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
1. D Page: The spatial structure of the world economic
system that includes unequal development – one
area w/ the greatest wealth and economic power …&
another area/region which lacks development? Also
known as the Brandt line
2. A recent shift in population from urban to rural
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
areas?
Number of births per 1000 population?
Number of deaths per 1000 population?
# of deaths of children less than age 1 per 1000
births?
Birth rate minus death rate, expressed as a
percentage?
Survey system used by the French with narrow but
long sections? Made to give all access to a river.
Survey system used by British colonies?
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
D: The spatial structure of the world economic system that
includes unequal development – 1 area w/ the greatest
wealth & econ. power…& another area/region which lacks
development? Also known as the Brandt line Coreperiphery
A recent shift in population from urban to rural areas?
Counterurbanization
Number of births per 1000 population? Crude birth rate
Number of deaths per 1000 population? Crude death rate
Number of deaths of children less than age 1 per 1000
births? Infant mortality rate
Birth rate minus death rate, expressed as a %? Rate of
natural increase
Survey system used by the French? Long lot
Survey system used in British colonies? Metes and
bounds
E Page
1. Survey system that includes division of land into regular
pattern of squares or rectangles?
2. Wherever a culture group has modified its environmental
setting – this is the result?
3. Model that uses graphs of birth & death rates to illustrate
historical trends of population?
4. Shift from manufacturing jobs to a service dominated
economy?
5. Relationship between the number of active workers in a
country (age 15-64) & those younger & older than the worker
group?
6. Idea that spatial interaction will decline in intensity with
increasing distance from the origin?
7. The measure of the increase in total jobs based on the ratio
between basic employment and total employment?
8. Industries that provide goods and services to areas outside
its center?
9. In an urban setting, the highest land values are found near
the city center (or CBD). What is the expression of the
relationship between land values & distance from city center?
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
E: Survey system that includes division of land into regular pattern of
squares or rectangles? Township and range
Wherever a culture group has modified its environmental setting – this
is the result? Cultural landscape
Model that uses graphs of birth and death rates to illustrate historical
trends of population? Demographic transition model
Shift from manufacturing jobs to a service dominated economy?
Deindustrializtion (postindustrial economy)
Relationship between the number of active workers in a country (15-64)
& those younger & older than the worker group? Dependency ratio
Concept that spatial interaction will decline in intensity with increasing
distance from the origin? Distance decay
The measure of the increase in total jobs based on the ratio
between basic employment and total employment? Multiplier
effect
Industries that provide goods and services to areas outside its
center? Basic Industries
In an urban setting, the highest land values are found near the
city center (or CBD). What is the expression of the relationship
between land values and distance from city center? Bid-rent
curve (usually convex – sharp decrease just inside city
center, declines are lower in areas farther from the center as
the curve flattens)
1. F Page: Spread of ideas or innovations from a point
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
of origin?
2 Diffusion Types?
3 Types of E________ diffusion?
Common agricultural practice in warmer Asian
regions where two crops are grown on the same land
within the same year?
# of years it take a population to double?
The permanently inhabited portion of the earth?
Urban development section outside of a city – usually
along transportation beltways – that is now selfsufficient?
A territory within & surrounded by a different state?
A territory outside of its state or surrounded by
another state?
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
F: Spread of ideas or innovations from a point of origin?
Diffusion
2 BasicTypes in ?#1? Expansion and Relocation
3 Types of Expansion diffusion? Contagious,
stimulus, hierarchical
Common agricultural practice in warmer Asian regions
where 2 crops are grown on the same land w/in the
same year? Double cropping
Rate of natural increase divided into 70? Doubling time
The permanently inhabited portion of the earth?
Ecumene
Urban development outside of a city – usually along
transportation beltways – that is now self-sufficient?
Edge city
A territory within and surrounded by a different state?
Enclave
A territory outside of its state, separate from the main
land area of the state? Exclave
1. G page: 200 nautical miles from a coastal state that
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
can be claimed for use of the water and sea bottom?
Farming that requires a large expanse of land &
unit per land area of production is low?
A culture group that is usually small in area &
number & very slow to change?
Relocated capital city for desire to unify or promote
growth?
Restoration of run-down dwelling in low-income inner
city neighborhoods?
Complex integrated computer programs for data
management & display in map form & in layers?
Rural or natural land sector around many European
cities which limits urban growth?
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
G: 200 nautical miles from a coastal state that can be
claimed for use of the water and sea bottom? Exclusive
Economic zone (EEZ) (may go to 350 nm if continental
shelf)
Farming that requires a large expanse of land and unit
per land area of production is low? Extensive agriculture
A culture group that is usually small in area and number
and very slow to change? Folk culture
A manufacturing activity that is free to locate where it wants
to be? Footloose industry
Relocated capital city for desire to unify or promote
growth? Forward Capital (or forward thrust capital)
Restoration of run-down dwelling in low-income inner city
neighborhoods? Gentrification
Complex integrated computer programs for data
management and display in map form? GIS
Rural or natural land sector around many European cities
which limits urban growth? Greenbelt
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
H Page: Total value of goods & services produced
within a country on a yearly basis divided by
population?
UN ranking of countries based on four measures of
development? ___?__ And what are these 4
measures? ___?___
Mechanisms that support business operations –
such as roads, railroads, communication systems,
water, sewer?
Part of the economy that is not reported to the
government or taxed, often illegal?
A country without any territory bordering an ocean?
Language used for communication – especially
between peoples who speak different languages?
Program to aid economic development without
destruction of valuable natural resources? 
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
H: Total value of gods and services produced within a
country on a yearly basis divided by population? GDP
per capita
UN ranking of countries based on four measures of
development?
Human Development Index (econ.,
politcal, demographic, social, )
Mechanisms that support business operations – such as
roads, railroads, communication systems, water, sewer?
Infrastructure
Part of the economy that is not reported to the
government or taxed, often illegal? Informal sector
(EX: drugs/drug trafficking)
A country without any territory bordering an ocean?
landlocked
Language used for communication – especially between
peoples who speak different languages? Lingua franca
Program to aid economic development without
destruction of valuable natural resources?
Sustainable development
1. i Page: Economic system that promoted accumulation
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
of wealth by encouraging exports and limiting imports?
A city with more than 50,000 inhabitants and adjacent
counties that have at least 50% of their population in
the metro area?
A cohesive grouping of people who share a political
unit?
Boundary that follows a geological feature, such as a
river or mountain range?
Floods, hurricanes, cyclones, earthquakes, volcanic
eruptions are a few examples?
Economic dependency in former colonies despite
gaining political independence?
Number of people divided by the land area?
Manufacturing in US owned border factories in Mexico?
Semi nomadic herders who take flocks to higher
elevations in the summer and valleys in winter? 
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
Pg i: Economic system that promoted accumulation of
wealth by encouraging exports and limiting imports?
Mercantilism
A city with more than 50,000 inhabitants and adjacent
counties that have at least 50% of their pop. in the metro
area? Metro. statis. area
A cohesive grouping of people who share a political unit?
Nation-state
Boundary that follows a geological feature, such as a river or
mountain range? Natural boundary
Floods, hurricanes, cyclones, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions
are a few examples? Natural hazards
Econ. depend. in former colonies despite gaining polit.
independence? Neocolonialism
Number of people divided by the land area? Population
density
Manufac. in US owned border factories in Mex.?
Maquiladoras
Semi nomadic herders who take flocks to higher elevations in
the summer and valleys in winter? Transhumance
1. J Page: 1993 Trade pact between Mexico, US and
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Canada?
Particular business functions that are completed
outside the organization (hired out)?
Large business firms based in developed countries
that have established factories in other countries?
Grazing of sheep and cattle on natural grasslands?
Number of people per unit area of arable or cultivable
land?
Large scale commercial agricultural operations
typically found in LDCs?
View that humans have choices in the way they
interact with their physical settings; the antithesis of
environmental determinism?
Largest city in a country that is more than double the
size of the next largest city?
Answers 
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
J: 1993 Trade pact between Mexico, US and Canada?
NAFTA
Particular business functions are completed outside the
organization? Outsourcing
Large business firms based in developed countries that
have established factories in other countries?
Transnational corp.’s (aka multinational)
Grazing of sheep and cattle on natural grasslands?
Pastoralism
Number of people per unit area of arable or cultivable
land? Physiological density
Large scale commercial agricultural operations typically
found in LDCs? Plantation
View that humans have choices in the way they interact
with their physical settings; the antithesis of environmental
determinism? Possibilism
Largest city in a country that is more than double the size
of the next largest city? Primate city
Page K: In relation to migration, slavery would be a ____
factor and/or ____ migration.
2. In migration, a good climate would be what kind of factor?
3. A physical feature, such as a body of water, which hinders
migration is an example of ___?___
4. 1:24,000 is an example of what kind of scale?
5. A system for transferring locations from a globe to a flat map
is
6. The name given to a portion of Earth’s surface is known as
7. The International Date Line is measured at _?_degrees. Is it
latitude or longitude?
8. Number of movements from Place A to Place C is reduced by
the existence of Place B which is closer to A?
9. Area of land under foreign control that is claimed by another
country? EX would be Cyprus…Taiwan…Kashmir
10. A type of map where lines connect places with equal data
values (such as elevation, temperature)?
11. Provision of UNCLOS that allows for division of territorial
waters when two countries are closer than 400 nm?

1.
K:: In relation to migration, slavery would be a _____factor and/or
____ migration. Pull….forced
2.
In migration, a good climate would be what kind of factor?
Pull/voluntary
3.
A physical feature, such as a body of water, which hinders
migration is an example of ____? Intervening obstacle
4.
1:24,000 is an example of what kind of scale? Fractional (ratio)
5.
A system for transferring locations from a globe to a flat map is __?
projection
6.
The name given to a portion of Earth’s surface is known as a___?
toponym
7.
The International Date Line is measured at 180 degrees. Is it
latitude or longitude? longitude
8.
Number of movements from Place A to Place C is reduced by the
existence of Place B which is closer to A? intervening
opportunity
9.
Area of land under foreign control that is claimed by another
country? Irredentism
10. A type of map where lines connect places with equal data values
(such as elevation, temperature)? Isoline maps
11. Provision of UNCLOS that allows for division of territorial waters
when two countries are closer than 400 nm? Medial line principle
1.
Page L: What are the other 2 acceptable terms for a
formal region?
2. Diffusion of AIDS is an EX: of which type of diffusion?
3. Culture combines what 3 fundamental elements?
4. A cultural group’s 3 main values/beliefs?
5. The idea that deals the reduction in time it takes for
something or someone to reach another place?
6. The world's 5 largest concentrations of people in order?
7. The number of people per area of arable land?
8. Why did Europe & N. America go from Stage 1 to Stage 2?
9. Why did Africa, Latin Amer., & Asia go from Stg 1 to Stg 2?
10. The process of legally adding land area to a city in the US
is ____.
11. The city plus its contiguous built-up suburbs is the ____.
12. The largest type of urbanized area is _____
1.
Page L: What are the other 2 acceptable terms for a formal
region? Homogeneous & uniform
2. Diffusion of AIDS is an EX: of which type of diffusion?
relocation
3. 3 fundamental elements of culture? Values, material artifacts,
political institutions
4. A cultural group’s 3 main values/beliefs? Language, religion,
ethnicity
5. The idea that deals the reduction in time it takes for something
or someone to reach another place? Space/time compression
6. The world's 5 largest concentrations of people in order? E.Asia,
S.Asia, W.Europe, SE Asia, NE North Amer.
7. The number of people per area of arable land? Physiological
density
8. Why did Eur. & N. Amer. go from Stage 1 to Stage 2? Industrial
revolu.
9. Why Africa, Latin Am., & Asia from Stg 1 to Stg 2? Medical rev.
10. The process of legally adding land area to a city in the US is
____. annexation
11. The city plus its contiguous built-up suburbs is the ____.
Urbanized area
12. The largest type of urbanized area is _____ . megalopolis
1.
1. Page M: The circulation area of a newspaper is
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
an example of what kind of region?
The currently approximate world annual natural
increase rate?
2 areas of the world with the highest TFR’s?
Area of the world w/ lowest TFR’s?
Why did Malthus’ predictions not come true?
Neo-Malthusians say what?
The most important pull factor for migrants to
North America ?
The most important obstacle to emigration from
Eastern Europe during the past 50 years?
Who are the boat people? (from where to where &
when?)
10. 3 periods of large increase in UN membership?
9.
Page M: The circulation area of a newspaper is an example of
what kind of region? Functional
2. Currently approximate world annual NIR? 1.4%
3. 2 areas of the world with the highest TFR’s? Africa & the
Middle East (W. Asia)
4. Area of the world w/ lowest TFR’s? N-W Europe
5. Why did Malthus’ predictions not come true? Growth of
technology (Indus. Rev.) increased food production & let to
lower pop. in areas of increasing pop. (MDC’s)
6. Neo-Malthusians say what? Struggle will be for more than
just food; are enough resources, just not distributed evenly
7. The most important pull factor for migrants to North America ?
Econ opportunity
8. The most important obstacle to emigration from Eastern Europe
during the past 50-60 years? Communism (USSR, E. Europe,
China, N. Korea)
9. Who are the boat people? (from where to where & when?)
Vietnam; late 70’s- early 80’s
10. 3 periods of large increase in UN membership? Late 1940’s
(after WWII); 60’s-70’s (Africa/Asia out of colonialism);
90’s (fall of communism)
1.
Page N
•
Political reasons for migrating falls under which type of push
factor?
•
A man and his family migrate to the USA in 1910. He’s most
likely from which country? China, Mexico, Poland, Sweden
•
Most migrants to the USA during the 1960s & 1970s came
from where?
•
Most migrants to the USA since the 1980s have come from
where ?
•
Main reason migration to the USA decline during the 1920’s?
•
What are 2 terms for someone who is paid to help
undocumented Mexicans immigrate?
•
The largest interregional migration in the USA of AfricanAmericans was the ____ in ___ & it moved ____ to ____
•
In a ____ government, power is located centrally, & decisions
come from the central govt.
•
In a ____ government, power is more diffused among regions
and/or ethnicities
•
5 Permanent members of the UN Security Council?
Page N:
•
Political reasons for migrating falls under cultural push factors
•
A man and his family migrate to the USA in 1910. He is most likely
from which of these 4?… Poland
•
Most migrants to the USA during the 1960s & 1970s came from
where? Asia (India, China, Vietnam)
•
Most migrants to the United States since the 1980s have come
from where ? Latin America, especially Mexico
•
Main reason migration to the USA decline during the 1920’s?
Quota laws of 1921 & 1924 limiting ethnicity of migrants
•
What are 2 terms for someone who is paid to help undocumented
Mexicans immigrate? Pollero, coyote
•
The largest interregional migration in the USA of African-Americans
was the ____ in ___ & it moved ____ to ____
Great Migration…1920’s-30’s; south to north
•
In a ____ government, power is located centrally, & decisions
come from the central govt. unitary
•
In a __government, power is more diffused among regions and/or
ethnicities
federal
•
5 Permanent members of the UN Security Council?
USA, Russia, China, France, UK
Page O:
1. In 19th & most of 20th century: most prominent (most
common) type of intraregional migration worldwide?
2. World region that is the hearth for 3 of major world
religions?
3. In 1st half of the 20th century: which below helped make it
easier (facilitated) the transportation of beef to global
markets?
canning refrigerated ships airplanes hi-speed railways
4. Name 2 countries which have a majority population of
Shiite Muslims.
5. Name at least 3 countries which are majority Eastern
Orthodoxy.
6. Which industry below will locate closer to raw materials?
soft-drink bottler brewers nickel smelting
baking
auto mfg.
Page O:
1. In 19th & most of 20th century: most prominent (most
common) type of intraregional migration worldwide?
Rural to urban
2. World region that is the hearth for 3 of major world religions?
SW Asia or Mid-East
3. In 1st half of the 20th century: which below helped make it
easier (facilitated) the transportation of beef to global
markets?
canning refrigerated ships airplanes hi-speed railways
4. Name 2 countries which have a majority population of Shiite
Muslims.
Iran & Iraq
5. Name at least 3 countries which are majority Eastern
Orthodoxy. Greece, Russ., Ukraine, Georgia,
6. Which industry below will locate closer to raw materials?
soft-drink bottler brewers nickel smelting
baking
auto mfg.
Page P: Contagious Diffusion
Cultural Ecology
Culture
Density Diffusion
Distance Decay
3 main cultural values
1. Rapid, widespread diffusion of a characteristic throughout the
population; process that causes expansion diffusion or the spread
of a feature from one place to another in a snowballing process (gets
bigger as it rolls along…).
2. The geographic study of human-environment relationships;
relationship between culture & environment; Important to
geographers in constructing regions
3. The body of customary beliefs. material traits, and social forms that
together constitute the distinct tradition of a group of ppl, from the
Latin word cultus;
3 main parts: language, religion, & ethnicity
4. The frequency with which something occurs in space; feature being
measured could be people, houses, cars, volcanoes, or etcetera.
(anything) measured in sq. km., sq. mi., hectares, acres, or other
unit of area.
5. The process by which a characteristic spreads across space from one
place to another over time; (b/c of communication technology, new
ideas in one place diffuse quickly to others)
6. Ppl in more than one region may improve & modify an idea at the
same time but in different ways
7. Phenomenon in which contact diminished w/ increasing distance &
eventually disappears.
Page P: (Rough...need to edit!!!)(
1. Rapid, widespread diffusion of a characteristic throughout the
population; process that causes expansion diffusion or the spread
of a feature from one place to another in a snowballing process (gets
bigger as it rolls along…). Contagious Diffusion
2. The geographic study of human-environment relationships;
relationship between culture & environment; Important to
geographers in constructing regions Cultural Ecology
3. The body of customary beliefs. material traits, and social forms that
together constitute the distinct tradition of a group of ppl, from the
Latin word cultus; Culture
4. main parts: language, religion, & ethnicity 3 main cultural values 4.
The frequency with which something occurs in space; feature being
measured could be people, houses, cars, volcanoes, or etcetera.
(anything) measured in sq. km., sq. mi., hectares, acres, or other
unit of area. Density
5. The process by which a characteristic spreads across space from one
place to another over time; (b/c of communication technology, new
ideas in one place diffuse quickly to others) Diffusion
Ppl in more than one region may improve & modify an idea at the
same time but in different ways
6. Phenomenon in which contact diminished w/ increasing distance &
eventually disappears. Distance Decay
Shatterbelt
Shatter belt - "a region caught between stronger
colliding external cultural-political forces, under
persistent stress, & often fragmented by aggressive
rivals."
Area hit often with outside conflicts and stresses
It has also played the role of a cold war buffer zone.
EX: Southeast Asia: borders the "giants" of India and
China. One country of the realm, Myanmar, borders
both. To the east, the island State of Indonesia
controls the western half of the island of New Guinea,
yet the whole island is included in the pacific realm.
Another EX: Eastern Europe: often invaded, cultural
differences
Terms NOT in our book….
1. two-pronged, from 2 + fork: to cause to divide into 2 branches or
parts, to divide into 2 branches or parts you can ____ rivers,
states, regions, gov’ts. bifurcate
2. Spread of birth control: diffusion of fertility control
3. Boundary that follows a geological feature, such as a river or
mountain range? Natural boundary
4. Floods, hurricanes, cyclones, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions are a
few examples? Natural hazards
5. Area of land under foreign control that is claimed by another country?
Irredentism
6. 200 nautical miles from a coastal state that can be claimed for use of
the water and sea bottom? Exclusive Economic zone (EEZ)
(may go to 350 nm if continental shelf)
7. Provision of UNCLOS that allows for division of territorial waters when
two countries are closer than 400 nm? medial line principle
8. Shift from manufacturing jobs to a service dominated economy?
Deindustrializtion (postindustrial economy
9. The measure of the increase in total jobs based on the ratio between
basic employment and total employment? Multiplier effect
10. Streets & roads in urban areas that wander…are NOT grid patterns,
like older pre-colonial cities dentritic
1. In an urban setting, the highest land values are found near the
city center (or CBD). What is the expression of the relationship
between land values and distance from city center? Bid-rent
curve (usually convex – sharp cost decrease just inside
city center, declines are lower in areas farther from the
center as the curve flattens)
2. A concept that states than an area will specialize in the
production of items for which it has the greatest economic
advantage over other areas? Comparative advantage
3. Another name for the Neolithic Revolution? __?__ About how
long ago? __? __ 1st agric. Revolution …
4. The practice of raising& harvesting fish & other water produce?
aquaculture
5. South Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Singapore? 4 dragons
or 4 tigers…or 4 Asian dragons/tigers
6. Division of a region or country into smaller administrative units,
usually along ethnic lines? Devolution ...or Balkanization
ID each person’s/event contribution:
Rostow
Christaller
Ravenstein
Von Thunen
Malthus
Zelinsky:
Carter/Begin/Sadat:
Samuel Slater
Karl Marx & F. Engels
Dalai Lama:
Siddhartha:
Joseph Smith:
Plessy vs. Ferguson
Jakob Ammam:
Aristotle:
Hoyt
Burgess
Hecateus:
Mackinder & Spykman
Harris & Ullman
Rostow (model) 5 things needed for inter. trade:
Christaller: Central place theory
Ravenstein (11 laws of migration: who migrates & why)
Von Thunen (model) agric. & distance to city (transpor./land cost)
Malthus food = arithme. & people = geomet/exponential
Zelinsky: (Demog.trans/migra:2’s migrate 1’s stay 2’s to 3 & 4)
Nicholas Appert: canning 1801
Carter/Begin/Sadat: Camp David Accords (Sinai to Egy.)
S. Slater brought textiles to US (late about 1800) in New Engl.
Karl Marx & F. Engels developed communist theory
Dalai Lama: Tibetan religious leader (former state also
Siddhartha: Indian prince who became The Buddha…thru “middle way”
Joseph Smith: Founder of Mormonism
Plessy vs. Ferguson US court case: separation of races
Jakob Ammam: Moravian leader, led grp to US; Amish
Aristotle: wrld. = round
3 pieces of evidence…
Hecateus: Gk. 1st geography bk
Hoyt (ch. 13) developed sector model lo/hi class areas
Burgess: developed concentric model for urban areas
MacKinder & Spykman: M: Heartland Theory S: Rimland Theory
Hoyt: Sector urban model
Harris & Ullman: Multiple Nuclei Urban model.
These models
show WHAT?
Which is which
model?
What does this model show? What point is it trying to
make?
Added terms:
Special Economic Zone (SEZ’s): “Open Cities” “Open Coastal
Zones” areas that encourage international investment & trade
despite political differences… BEST EX: China…Shanghai
EEZ (exclusive econ. Zone): UNCLOS
Entrepot: City that is primarily just a port area w/o econ. Activity of
its own; Singapore WAS this way about 40 yrs. ago…but has
changed to industry, etc., as an “Asian Tiger”
Shatter belt: area(s) caught between 2 more powerful groups who
oppose each other.
Can be cultural (like linguistic) or political (democratic vs.
communistic)
-- "a region caught between stronger colliding external culturalpolitical forces, under persistent stress, & often fragmented by
aggressive rivals.“
EX: E. Europe played the role of a cold war buffer zone.
Also: SE Asia borders the "giants" of India & China.
One country in that area, Myanmar, borders both.
To the east, the island State of Indonesia controls the western half
of the island of New Guinea, yet the whole island is included in
the pacific realm
Heartland (H. MacKinder) vs. Rimland (N. Spykman) Theory of
Geopolitics:
1904, Halford Mackinder published a theory RE: political strength in
Eurasia…analyzed the strengths & weaknesses of the regions
Concluded the Russian Core & areas east of the core had potential to
become a world power.
1919: revised his theory to include E. Europe & the theory became
known as Mackinder's Heartland Theory.
Basically stated:
- Who rules East Europe commands the heartland.
- Who rules heartland commands the World Island (Eurasia & Africa)
- Who rules the World Island commands the World.
1942, Nicholas Spykman: countered Mackinder's Heartland Theory.
Spykman stated that Eurasia's Rimland, the coastal areas or buffer
zone, is the key to controlling the World Island, not the heartland.
Spykman's book, "America's Strategy in World Politics" was published
during World War II dealt w/ political & military strength of the USA at
that time.
Today we look at the Rimland in terms of its economic strength &
potential, but the book dealt w/ primarily military intervention,
control & conquest of the Old World.
enclave & exclave (see next slide):
1) enclave: an area surrounded by an area
that does not rule it.
EX’s: Vatican City; Lesotho; Gambia (actually
a penne-enclave b/c it has a small outlet to the
sea):
2) exclaves: parts of a national territory
separated from the main body of the country
EX’s: Alaska; Kaliningrad (part of Russia but
on Baltic Sea); former E. Pakistan, separated
from W. Pakistan
Enclaves
Exclaves
Region outlines: Tell about each:
Countries ? Where Ethnicities? Neighbors?
Religions? Languages?
Shapes of states? Name each?
Peninsulas? Bodies of water? Islands?
States? Regions? Religions?
Ethnicities
European
Rivers
Regions Ethnicities? Religions?
Region? ID countries? Religions?
Region?
ID countries?
Religions?
Region? ID countries? Religions?
Region?
ID countries? Religions?
ID the following (who, what, when, where?):
1. NATO
16. SEZ’s
2. UN
17. EEZ
3. Warsaw Pact
18. Benelux
4. CMSA’s
5. OPEC
6. EU
7. COMECON
8. BRP
9. CDR
10. NIR
11. TFR
12. IMR
13. CBR
14. GDP/GNP
15. CBD
Ramadan
Religions:
Eight-fold Path
Which relates to
what religion,
Caste system
4 Noble Truths
branch, or
5 Pillars
denomination?
Main in Greece & Russia
Gurus
Imam
Patriarch
Deities: Shiva, Brahma, Vishnu
Krishna (hero)
Ma’kah (Mecca)
White cows are sacred (2)
Hajj
Swastika
Lotus is a symbol (2)
Mandela
Kabbah
Bible
Torah
Vedas
Qu’ran (Koran)
NAME
that
symbol!
Symbols of
14 religions
Clockwise
from N. Pole:
 Baha'i
 Buddhism
 Christianity
 Confucianism
 Hinduism
 Islam
 Jainism
 Judaism
 Shinto
 Sikhism
 Taoism
 Wicca
 Zoroastrianism
 Druidism
Religious
Symbols:
Can you
name
these
now?
ID religion
Some good discussion ?’s:
1. Explain demographic transition model.
2. Which of the sections of the demographic
transition model countries are most likely to
migrate & WHY?
3. Explain the differences between the major
aspects of folk culture & popular culture
4. *In order of less specific to most specific,
organize each of these terms in regards to
languages…and give English’s category for
each:
a) branch b) family c) group d) subgroup
1.
Explain in detail why Sub-Saharan African countries
have so many problems with development.
2.
Discuss the evolution of the modern concept of the
state.
3. A) Women & development: What is the GDI and how
does it affect the development level of a state?
B) What are some of the negative aspects of
globalization on women in LDC’s?
C) What are some of the positive aspects in LDC’s?
Colonial
Powers
in Africa
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