Introductory Professional Development for Bilingual Teacher Certification Introductory Training Course for Bilingual Teacher Certification Prepared by: Carmen Tejeda-Delgado, Ed.D. Texas A&M University – Corpus Christi Guaranteed and viable instructional strategies coupled with classroom curricular design have the single most impact on student achievement than any other contributing factor (Marzano, 2001; “Classroom Instruction That Works”). Action steps toward successful mathematics instruction Step 1: Identify, understand, and communicate the content considered essential to provide quality and engaging mathematical instruction. Step 2: Sequence and organize the essential content so that students have necessary time to learn it. Step 3: Ensure teachers can articulate proven and effective Bilingual and English Language Learners (ELL) instructional strategies that will impact student achievement for all students. Step 1: Identify, understand, and communicate the content considered essential to provide quality and engaging mathematical instruction. 1.A 1.B 1.C 1.D Analyze The Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS). Provide an example of an activity that will assist students in meeting the particular TEKS statement being taught. Understand the terminology (verbs and nouns) included in each TEKS -- they are intentional and literal. Determine what resources are available to help understand the TEKS and the student expectations. Step 1A. Analyze The Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills Analyzing the TEKS is a critical practice for any educator; it is essential for a novice teacher. Bilingual teachers must familiarize themselves with the TEKS to lay a strong foundation for curriculum planning. Curriculum planning often takes the form of a Scope and Sequence. Step 1A: Analyze The Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (continued) ● Texas public schools use a legislatively mandated curriculum: The Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS). http://www.tea.state.tx.us ● As stipulated in Texas Education Code (TEC), Chapter 28, the required curriculum consists of foundation and enrichment subjects. ● The foundation TEKS are English Language Arts and Reading, Mathematics, Science, Social Studies, Spanish Language Arts and English as a Second Language. ● The enrichment TEKS are: Languages Other Than English, Fine Arts, Health, Physical Education, and Technology Applications ● Texas school districts are required to provide instruction in the essential knowledge and skills in both the foundation and enrichment curriculum. Step 1A: Analyze The Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (continued) Grade 3 Strand: Number, Operation, and Quantitative Reasoning The TEKS illustrated above are 3.1A, 3.1B, and 3.1C. The 3 represents the grade level, the (1) represents the TEKS and the order in which it is listed in the Third Grade TEKS document, and the letter (A,B,C,etc.) represents student expectations necessary to fulfill the requirements of any specific TEKS. Step 1 B: Provide an example of an activity to assist students to meet this student expectation. A Product of the Charles A. Dana Center at the University of Texas The student is expected to: ● (3.1.A) use place value to read, write (in symbols and words), and describe the value of whole numbers through 999,999 ~ Students play a game in which they try to build the largest number possible. Each player draws a game board as shown: ~ ____ ____ ____, ____ ____ ____ ~ Players take turns rolling a ten-sided number polyhedron or spinning a spinner labeled with numbers zero through nine. After each roll or spin, every player writes that number as a digit in one space on his or her game board. Once written, that digit cannot be moved. The winner has the largest number and can read it. Step 1.B: Questioning ● Open with... ~ Do you think you have made the greatest number and will win? ~ Why or why not? Step 1.B: Questioning ● Probe further with... ~What is your number? ~ How can you write your number with words? ~ Who has made the greatest number? What is it? How did you decide this is the greatest number? ~ Who has a 3 in the thousands place? ~ Whose number is closest to your number? How did you decide this is the closest number to yours? ~ Order all the numbers. How did you go about putting these numbers in order? ~ What strategy did you use to make your number? ~ What is the greatest number you can create by moving the digits of your number? ~ What is the lowest number you can create by moving the digits of your number? What strategy would you try the next time you play this game? Step1B: Listen for… • Does the student accurately read the six-digit numbers using patterns to name the numbers? (Caution: Students should use “and” only to indicate a decimal point.) • Does the student clearly describe the strategy used to create large numbers? • Does the student clearly describe the strategy used to compare and order numbers? • Does the student use ideas of place value to explain and justify strategies and responses? Step 1B: Look for… • Does the student use place value and patterns in number relationships to compare and order six-digit numbers? ● Does the student demonstrate an understanding of place value in strategies for the game? ● Can the student identify the different values of the different places in a number? ● Does the student recognize the relative values of the places in a number? ● Can the student write the number in words? Clarifying Activities (n.d.) Retrieved June 2, 2006 from UT Dana Center: http://www.utdanacenter.org/mathtoolkit/instruction/3.php Step 1C: Understand the terminology of the Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) • TEKS 4.8.C: Use essential attributes to define two- and three-dimensional geometric figures. ● Notice the word define. The students are expected to demonstrate their understanding as part of the assessment. ● Notice the words used in each TAKS question ● Refer to the script for a detailed description of Grade 4 Math, Obj. VIII. Activity 1 Study the objectives and complete Form 1A in your script for questions 3 (example shown), 6, 11, 14, 17, and 36. Step1.D: TEKS Resources ● Refined TEKS for 2006 – 2007 http://www.tea.state.tx.us/curriculum/math/index.html ● Texas Education Agency: http://www.tea.state.tx.us This site will allow you to browse through a multitude of websites, links, resources; particularly the TAKS Blueprints. The TAKS blueprints establish the length of each test and the number of test items measuring each objective. These blueprints provide consistency from one test administration to the next. They have been developed to ensure that each subject-area/grade-level test includes a variety of the Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) student expectations eligible for assessment. In addition, each subject-area blueprint reflects an appropriate distribution of the TEKS across objectives for that grade level. (refer to the script for examples of the blueprint) Step 2: Sequence and organize the essential content so that students have necessary time to learn it. A. Know the student expectations for your grade level. B. Administer diagnostics (beginning, middle, and end of year) to determine the level of mathematical numeracy of each student. C. Incorporate a data-driven instructional continuum: diagnose, teach, assess; diagnose, teach, assess; diagnose, teach, assess. Activity 2 Refer to the University of Texas Dana Center website: http://www.utdanacenter.org/mathtoolkit/teks/overview.php Using Form 1-B in your script, answer the questions related to understanding the TEKS. (Use additional paper as necessary.) Step 2.A: Know the student expectations for your grade level... Developing a solid mathematical foundation is essential for every child. In the elementary grades students are building beliefs concerning ~ what mathematics is ~ what it means to know and do mathematics ~ what it means to be a mathematical learner. These beliefs influence their thinking about performance in and attitudes toward mathematics. These beliefs affect their attitudes and beliefs related to studying mathematics in later years. Step 2.A: Know the student expectations for your grade level.. K-8 Mathematics has six strands ~ Number, operations, and quantitative reasoning ~ Patterns, relationships, and algebraic thinking ~ Geometry and spatial reasoning ~ Measurement ~Probability and statistics ~Underlying processes and mathematical tools 9-12 Mathematics TEKS are defined by the specific course http://www.tea.state.tx.us/curriculum/math/index.html Step 2.A: Know the student expectations for your grade level… The Mathematics TEKS are designed to complement the mathematics standards of the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM). The standards of NCTM serve as an umbrella for the TEKS. Activity 3 ● Access Clarifying Activities with Assessment Connections, Grade 4 at http://www.utdanacenter.org/mathtoolkit/instruction/acti vities/4.php ● Locate the clarifying activity concerning the following student expectation: Understand the place-value structure of the baseten number system and be able to represent and compare whole numbers and decimals. ● Complete forms 2-A and 2-B in your script for this activity. Step 2.B: Administer diagnostics (beginning, middle and end of year) to determine students’ levels of mathematical numeracy. ● Administering mathematical diagnostics is a conventional and smart way to determine the mathematical abilities of your students. ● Diagnostics will inform the teacher as to the specific needs of each student as well as the strengths of each student. ● The results of diagnostic assessments should guide lesson plans, scope and sequence, and long range goals. Step 2.B: Administer diagnostics (beginning, middle and end of year) to determine students’ levels of mathematical numeracy. ● Grades K-2: mClass Wireless Generation Assessment is supported by the Texas Education Agency ● Grades 3-12: Texas Mathematics Diagnostic System (TMDS) is a product of the Governor’s Mathematics Initiative and is free to all school districts. Activity 4 ● Access the Texas Education Agency website: http://www.tea.state.tx.us/ ● Locate The Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) ● Locate TEKS by grade level ● Locate Grade 4 ● Use Grade 4 Mathematics TEKS and Fourth Grade Math Diagnostic Instrument (1-15 only) to complete form 2-C. This instrument is found in your accompanying script. Step 3: Ensure teachers can articulate proven and effective Bilingual and English Language Learners (ELL) instructional strategies that will impact student achievement for all students. 3.A 3.B 3.C Understand that not all students are the same and that differentiated strategies must be a part of our daily instruction. Identify students’ different multiple intelligences as described by Howard Gardner Employ proven and effective bilingual and mathematical instructional strategies. Step 3.A: Understand that not all students are the same and that differentiated strategies must be a part of our daily instruction. Research has shown nine categories of strategies that have a strong effect on student achievement for all students in mathematics at all grade levels (Marzano, Pickering, Pollock, 2001). The following reflect the articulated strategies: • Identifying similarities and differences • Summarizing and note taking • Reinforcing effort and providing recognition • Homework and practice • Nonlinguistic representations • Cooperative learning • Setting objectives and providing feedback • Generating and testing hypotheses • Question, cues, and advanced organizers Step 3.A: Understand that not all students are the same and that differentiated strategies must be a part of our daily instruction (continued) This section of the module will focus on proven and effective strategies focused on enhancing academic achievement for all students. Teachers should recognize that for any strategy to be effective, the students’ learning styles must be identified. Teachers should utilize that knowledge as the catalyst between the student and the strategy. Step 3.B: Identify students’ different multiple intelligences as described by Howard Gardner Examining how to identify the bilingual students’ most developed intelligences and learning styles is critical. As a result, more of their learning in school can take place through their preferred intelligences while other intelligences are being further developed. Applying the appropriate instructional strategy that best matches that child’s way of learning ensures an enhanced level of academic achievement (Gardner, 2002). Since no single instructional strategy works best for everyone, identifying the differences and similarities in our students’ learning styles and multiple intelligences can provide us with excellent data that can be used to help guide our instruction. Describing Intelligences in Students Arnstrong(2000): Eight Ways of Learning Children who are highly: Think Love Need Linguistic in words reading, writing, telling stories, playing word games books, tapes, writing tools, paper, diaries, dialogue, discussion, debate, stories Logical-Mathematical by reasoning experimenting, questioning, figuring out logical puzzles, calculating materials to experiment with, science materials, manipulatives, trips to the planetarium and science museum Describing Intelligences in Students Spatial in images and pictures designing, drawing, visualizing, doodling art, LEGOs, video, movies, slides, imagination games, mazes, puzzles, illustrated books, trips to art museums Bodily-Kinesthetic through somatic sensations dancing, running, jumping, building, touching, gesturing role play, drama, movement, things to build, sports and physical games, tactile experiences, hands-on learning Musical via rhythms and melodies singing, whistling, humming, tapping feet and hands, listening sing-along time, trips to concerts, music playing at home and school, musical instruments Interpersonal by bouncing ideas off other people leading, organizing, relating, manipulating, mediating, partying friends, group games, social gatherings, community events, clubs, mentors/apprenticeships Intrapersonal in relation to their needs, feelings, and goals setting goals, meditating, dreaming, planning, reflecting secret places, time alone, selfpaced projects, choices Naturalist through nature and natural forms playing with pets, gardening, investigating nature, raising animals, caring for planet earth access to nature, opportunities for interacting with animals, tools for investigating nature (e.g., magnifying glass, binoculars) Step 3.B: How to identify Students' Multiple Intelligences or learning styles To organize observations of a student's multiple intelligences, the bilingual teacher may employ a checklist like the one in Script Figure 3.1. This checklist has not been subjected to any protocols necessary to establish reliability and validity and should only be used informally in combination or conjunction with other sources of assessment information when describing students' multiple intelligences (Armstrong, 2000). Step 3.B: How to identify Students' Multiple Intelligences or learning styles In addition to Howard Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences, determining the English Language Learners’ level of listening skills is also critical. Making this assessment will allow the bilingual teacher to better address the students’ academic needs. The Proficiency Level Descriptors (PLDs) (Figure 3.4 on next slide) should be used to help determine students’ English Language Proficiency Level (Texas Observation Protocols TOPTexas Education Agency TEA, 2005) Figure 3.4 TOP Proficiency Level Descriptors Grades K-12 Listening ACTIVITY 5 1.Complete The Checklist for Assessing Students' Multiple Intelligences with one of your current or former students (script: FIGURE 3.1). Note that some items on the checklist may not be applicable or able to be answered during assessment period. 2.With the results of the checklist, determine what strategies and resources are suggested to best suit that particular student using Howard Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences (script: Figure 3.2). 3. Identify and support which instructional strategies, provided in this module, you would employ to meet the needs of the student (script: Figure 3.3) Step 3.C: Employ proven and effective bilingual and mathematical instructional strategies ● The following slides will illustrate specific Bilingual Education strategies as well as additional mathematics strategies ● The slides will demonstrate a brief description while the accompanying script will convey each strategy with more depth and detail. Instructional Integrated Graphic Organizers Instructional Practice: Graphic Organizers Graphic organizers are maps that represent relationships and encourage organizing knowledge. Ideal as a primary mode of intake for visual learners and especially helpful for the ELL student, graphic organizers can be used effectively to make abstract ideas concrete and visible. Example Lesson: Objective: The teacher will use a graphic organizer (see Figure 3.5) to help students map out and share characteristics of two languages integrating Mathematics and Language Arts. The organizer will help the students increase their awareness of the relationships between, Ex. the English and Spanish Languages . Figure 3.5 Communication tool Not always phonetic German Latin, Greek origins Phonetic Spoken world wide SPANISH ENGLISH cognates Can be acquired through consistent practice Spanish and Mexican Origins Instructional Integrated Graphic Organizers (continued) ● The lesson is a way of getting students to talk about their language and what they know, thought they knew, and would like to know about both their own native language and a second language. ● Once the students complete the graphic organizers within their pre-selected groups, the bilingual teacher asks the students to collectively decide who will conduct each part of the research. The teacher explains that each bubble in the graphic organizer can be assigned to one of them, and that they will be expected to write a short research paper on each topic. Instructional Integrated Graphic Organizers (continued) Activity ● The following week, the groups reconvene and share each other’s findings. The graphic organizer will now become more comprehensive and detailed. Each student will insert their paper in the appropriate bubble. Note: The teacher allows the students to elaborate the graphic organizers as they wish. They are allowed to blow up the organizer and use colored paper and card stock to define each bubble. ● The bilingual teacher realizes the necessity for students to share within a small group before presenting to larger groups, thereby allowing the groups to dialogue and discuss their research among themselves. To facilitate the group discussions, each group is given the following self-assessment questions: ● Are the isolated attributes described correctly? ● Are the similar or shared attributes described correctly? Instructional Integrated Graphic Organizers (continued) Assessment ● Once the students have discussed the information and have decided who will speak on behalf of each component, they are asked to present their findings to the entire class. The students are allowed to ask questions about the information and contribute to the research with personal data, etc. ● Employing graphic organizers allows the students to organize their thoughts and to visualize concepts, ideas and processes that are often times too abstract making it difficult for mastery learning to take place. In particular, using a graphic organizer to help determine the similarities and differences between two languages can help the students’ lower their inhibitions about an “unknown” language as well as enhance their own knowledge about their native idioma. ● Finally, using graphic organizers to help illustrate the characteristics of a language is a fantastic way to springboard into the acquisition of a second language or to continue to foster that acquisition. A deeper and more concrete knowledge base of any particular concept, idea, language, etc. can only serve to support its development and mastery. Instructional Practice: Multiple Intelligence Strategies Integrated into Instruction Objective: To utilize Multiple Intelligence strategies in a fifth grade class to study the use of figurative language in poetry. ● The bilingual teacher begins by showing the CD, "The New Kid on the Block." She shows the poem for which the CD is named. ● Before showing the last frame, allow the kids take out paper and pencil and draw a picture of what they imagine the new kid to be or look like. ● Next, move to the unit of study by asking the students to reflect for an extended period of time on a poem that they most remember and enjoyed as children. ● Once the students have identified the poem in their minds, they are encouraged to write or transcribe the poem, and list a few reasons why they think that particular poem stood out among the rest and caused them to remember it. Instructional Practice: Multiple Intelligence Strategies Integrated into Instruction (continued) ● Ask the students to form groups of four and share their thoughts through dialogue and discussion. ● Share a favorite poem of your own and tell the students that instead of reciting the poem, you will reenact it through movement. ● The students may become intrigued and anxious to see the performance. ● Ask the students to interpret your motions into words to try and put the poem to lyrics. ● After the performance, the students are allowed the opportunity to discuss their results and the teacher solicits volunteers to reenact their poem as well. ● Refer back to the students’ reflections and facilitate a discussion in the classroom. Pull information from the students by asking: ● What did you like best about your poem? ● Did you find it fairly easy or complicated to understand? ● Why do you think the poem appealed to you while other poems do not or did not? Instructional Practice: Multiple Intelligence Strategies Integrated into Instruction (continued) ● The Bilingual Teacher explains that some poets write their poetry using what we term as “figurative language, which helps us understand and visualize what the author of the poem is trying to say through the use of similes and metaphors ● Ask, “You have all expressed today that one of the major reasons you enjoyed your poems so much is because you understood them and you could almost visualize them and make sense of them; that was perhaps one of the author’s objectives.” ● Next, the instructor writes the words simile and metaphor on the board and clearly defines each one incorporating student feedback and input. Instructional Practice: Multiple Intelligence Strategies Integrated into Instruction (continued) Activity The students are asked to work in groups and use a T-chart to demonstrate the characteristics of each as well as give examples of poets utilizing this method using the set of poems the teacher has previously provided them. The poems are in both English and Spanish and the students have the option of utilizing either idiom. Assessment As part of the final assessment, students will submit an original poem representing similes and metaphors. The poem (English or Spanish) will be presented to the class, and students will have the option of either orally presenting the poem or acting it out. Instructional Practice: Manipulatives/Hands-On Math Instruction Objective: Use hands-on learning at math stations to introduce the concept of area. ● Students use geoboards and potholder loops to create shapes with a predefined area. They can use these loops to experiment and design their own answers to the questions provided by the bilingual teacher. They are encouraged to devise many different answers to one question. ● Generally, students will have previous practice working in small groups and will understand their respective roles. Students are given the opportunity to learn from each other through dialogue and inquiry about their different shapes. The teacher walks around the room observing and commenting with questions such as “How did you do that?”; “How is your shape different/similar to Emilio’s shape?”; “Could you explain how you can find the area of your shape using your geoboard?” etc. The students may respond in either their home language or English. The discourse between the students is also done in either languages Instructional Practice: Manipulatives/Hands-On Math Instruction (continued) Finally, the teacher passes out colorful cards with each of the following words and an illustration of the word on each card: ●Area ●Geoboards ●Loops ●Square ●Triangle ●Hexagon ●Octagon ●Pentagon Instructional Practice: Manipulatives/Hands-On Math Instruction (continued) ● The students form groups of two to discuss and demonstrate how each of these words can be manifested using the geoboards. ● The bilingual teacher asks, “Would anyone like to volunteer and demonstrate to the class how their design corresponds with one of our mathematics words today?” ● The students are eager to demonstrate after having explored, questioned, dialogued and created the shapes both together and individually. ● Praising each response and reinforcing the word to the handson shape is critical to all learners, especially an English Language Learners. ● The students go from the concrete geoboards to the more abstract by explaining and supporting that their particular shape corresponded with one of the math vocabulary words. ● This lesson encourages the development of discourse around topics in math, an important part of student learning. The use of geoboards enables the students to experience a hands-on approach to understanding area. Instructional Practice: Multicultural Education: Cultural Activities Integrated into the Curriculum Objective: To utilize the use of a VIRTUAL FIELD TRIP titled “Untold Stories, Baseball and the Multicultural Experience” to teach multicultural mathematics. Begin by talking to the students about the importance of celebrating all ethnic groups’ contributions to society. In this lesson, the focus is on the “Untold Stories, Baseball and the Multicultural Experience.” A virtual field trip will be the classroom for the day. Instructional Practice: Multicultural Education: Cultural Activities Integrated into the Curriculum The following short story could introduce the lesson: “We tend to focus on segregation as a major part of history, and although it definitely was, we should also study the integration process as well.” In baseball, integration became necessary since everyone wanted the best players to playing the sport. This field trip will take us through the celebration of baseball players in ethnic groups including the Japanese players, the African American players and the Latino baseball players. Instructional Practice: Multicultural Education: Cultural Activities Integrated into the Curriculum (continued) •Many students are familiar with the legendary feats of Babe Ruth, Hank Aaron, and Mickey Mantle; but what about the accomplishments of baseball stars, such as Minnie Minoso, Sam Jethroe, and Masanori Murakami? •Their courage as Latino, African-American and Asian athletes helped make baseball one of the first great melting pots in professional sports. As a result, diversity and athleticism remain time-tested teammates on the field of excellence. Instructional Practice: Multicultural Education: Cultural Activities Integrated into the Curriculum (continued) From the archives of the National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum in Cooperstown, NY, we learn untold stories about Jackie Robinson, Larry Doby, Hank Greenberg, and Roberto Clemente; men who defied prejudice to challenge racial and ethnic barriers with a pride and passion that continues to inspire. •This electronic field trip will take you through the gallery and exhibits of America's greatest baseball shrine and reveals surprising lessons in math and science. http://ali.apple.com/ali_sites/ali/exhibits/1000353/ Instructional Practice: Problem-based Learning/Inquiry Strategies for Math and Science Integration (continued) Objective: To apply problem-based inquiry to the concepts of electromagnetism and the principles of ratios and proportions by incorporating a three-phased approach to a problem-based learning lesson: •Phase 1 involves an initial discussion of a project topic, including children's firsthand experiences related to the topic. (Students are asked to reflect on a memory or memories involving a kite.) •Phase 2 involves fieldwork, sessions with experts, and various aspects of gathering information, reading, writing, drawing, and computing (internet and encyclopedia references). •Phase 3 is the presentation of the project to an audience (kite presentations). Instructional Practice: Problem-based Learning/Inquiry Strategies for Math and Science Integration (continued) Activity The teacher models how the use of an internet site, http://www.inquiry.net/outdoor/spring/kites/25ki tes.htm, can help students design a kite on the computer using ratios and proportions. The students explore the many different ways of making a kite and interact with one another discussing similarities and differences. Instructional Practice: Problem-based Learning/Inquiry Strategies for Math and Science Integration (continued) Provide the students with an array of kite making materials such as: ● string ● tape (scotch and masking) ● construction paper ● tag board ● cardboard boxes ● scissors ● rulers ● markers ● glitter Activity (continued) ● The students are asked to form groups of four and begin constructing a simple kite. They are encouraged to use the following websites for assistance: http://www.kitesonaroll.com/index2.asp http://web.stclair.k12.il.us/splashd/kiteexp.htm#Traveling% 20Kite ● As a causal effect of kite making, the students learn about electromagnetism and the principles of ratios and proportions. The Bilingual Teacher writes the words electromagnetism and principles of ratios and proportions on the board. The students have already come across both concepts through their exploration. As the students are building the kites, model how these concepts are part of kite making. Activity (continued) ● The teacher probes the students with questions such as: ● ● ● ● How would adding a tail to the kite affect the stability? If the tail is lengthened how will it affect the stability? If the kite is a different shape, how will it affect the stability? If the kite is a different size, how will it affect the stability? ● Encourage the students to create the kites similarly to adults trying to solve a problem, she does not restrict them to one type rather she suggest they construct a kite reflective of culture or cultural celebrations. Realizing the importance of allowing the students, especially her ELLs to express themselves through means other than language is a critical component to ensuring academic achievement for all students. Instructional Practice: Problem-based Learning/Inquiry Strategies for Math and Science Integration (continued) Assessment ● The students present the finished product to the class and demonstrate why they believe their kite will fly. They are encouraged to employ the concepts being studied in their presentation and incorporate the mathematical vocabulary corresponding with the concept. Their peers may be invited to ask questions. ● Through sharing with their classmates on the rationale of their kite construction, the students are more likely to retain what they learned and apply it to a wide array of subjects Instructional Practice: Total Physical Response (TPR) Objective: To use The Total Physical Response (TPR) strategy in a mathematics lesson to introduce students to the concept of patterns and vocabulary building. ● Begin by engaging the students in the lesson using their bodies as a vehicle of learning. The Bilingual Teacher may say, “We are going to be creating patterns using your bodies as part of our mathematics lesson.” This kind of activity encourages the kinesthetic learner to participate actively in the lesson. Activity ● Ask students to stand and form a circle. Once the students are in a circle, suggest that the pattern they will be working on today is going to be fun and exciting. Build the suspense so that the children become excited to see the pattern develop and guess the solution. ● Ask the students to come up one at a time, “Josh, please come here, Tabitha, please come here, Jake, please come here, Allison, please come here, Jennifer, oops, I mean Manuel please come here.” ● Encourage risk taking by letting the students know that they are in a safe and secure learning environment where it is acceptable to make mistakes from which we learn; even teachers make them. Activity ● Ask the students if they know who comes next in the pattern. The students raise their hands to respond. “Why do you think a girl should come next?” “What does it mean to create or make a pattern?” ● The students are asked to return to the circle. The bilingual teacher says, “Now, I’m going to clap and snap my hands and fingers, and you are going to try and figure out what the pattern is.” Begin the sequence of clapping and snapping and the students may begin to follow along. Ask the students to verbalize the pattern along with the action. Assessment ● Tell the students you will be giving a command, and they should demonstrate it using their bodies. Engage the students in another pattern involving their bodies and several patterns involving clapping and snapping. However, this time do not perform the motion with them; simply call out the command and the students respond with their actions. ● The students are also given a list of vocabulary words (on cut up sentence strips). The words are pattern, yourself, stand, come, clap, snap, and return. Model a game that will reinforce the students’ knowledge of the vocabulary and patterns. The students form pairs and hold up one card at a time (choose cardholder and take turns). The partner demonstrates the word through action. Assessment ● The use of movement learning and auditory cues addresses all learning styles and keeps the young students focused. ● Asking the students to name the pattern encourages the use of words to describe a pattern. ● Vocabulary comprehension can be assessed through the use of teacher commands and paired student games. References • Armstrong, Thomas. (2004). Multiple intelligences in the classroom, 2nd edition. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. ● Coleman, J.S., Campbell, E., Hobson, C., Mcpartland, J., Mood, A., Weinfeld, F., & York, R. (1966). Equality of educational opportunity. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. ● Marzano, R.J., Pickering, Debra J., & Pollock, Jane E. (2001). Classroom instruction that works. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum. ● National Clearing House for Bilingual Education (1999). K-12 and LEP enrollment trends. References ● Public Schools of North Carolina, (2003). Fourth grade observation profile for on-going assessment and end of the year evaluation. North Carolina State Board of Education Department of Instruction. ● TESOL.(1997). ESL Standards for pre-K-12 students. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum ● Texas Education Agency. (2006). Texas essential knowledge and skills. Retrieved May 20, 2006, from Texas Education: http://www.tea.state.tx.us. ● University of Texas Dana Center (UTOPIA), 2006. Mathematics toolkit. Retrieved May 20, 2006 from Charles A. Dana Center at the University of Texas: http://www.utdanacenter.org/mathtoolkit/ Introductory Training Course for Institute for Second Language Achievement Bilingual Teacher Certification Texas A&M University – Corpus Christi Dr. Frank Lucido, Director Prepared by: Carmen Tejeda-Delgado, Ed.D. Texas A&M University – Corpus Christi [email protected]

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# Slide 1 - Project Isla at Texas A&M University