Introductory Professional Development for
Bilingual
Teacher Certification
Introductory
Training
Course for
Bilingual Teacher Certification
Prepared by:
Carmen Tejeda-Delgado, Ed.D.
Texas A&M University – Corpus Christi
Guaranteed and viable
instructional strategies coupled
with classroom curricular design
have the single most impact on
student achievement than any
other contributing factor
(Marzano, 2001; “Classroom
Instruction That Works”).
Action steps toward successful
mathematics instruction
Step 1:
Identify, understand, and communicate the content
considered essential to provide quality and engaging
mathematical instruction.
Step 2:
Sequence and organize the essential content so that
students have necessary time to learn it.
Step 3:
Ensure teachers can articulate proven and effective Bilingual
and English Language Learners (ELL) instructional
strategies that will impact student achievement for all
students.
Step 1:
Identify, understand, and communicate the content
considered essential to provide quality and engaging
mathematical instruction.
1.A
1.B
1.C
1.D
Analyze The Texas Essential Knowledge
and Skills (TEKS).
Provide an example of an activity that will assist
students in meeting the particular TEKS
statement being taught.
Understand the terminology (verbs and nouns)
included in each TEKS -- they are
intentional and literal.
Determine what resources are available to
help understand the TEKS and the student
expectations.
Step 1A.
Analyze The Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills
Analyzing the TEKS is a critical practice for
any educator; it is essential for a novice
teacher.
Bilingual teachers must familiarize themselves
with the TEKS to lay a strong foundation for
curriculum planning. Curriculum planning
often takes the form of a Scope and
Sequence.
Step 1A: Analyze The Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills
(continued)
● Texas public schools use a legislatively mandated curriculum: The
Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS).
http://www.tea.state.tx.us
● As stipulated in Texas Education Code (TEC), Chapter 28, the
required curriculum consists of foundation and enrichment subjects.
● The foundation TEKS are English Language Arts and Reading,
Mathematics, Science, Social Studies, Spanish Language Arts and
English as a Second Language.
● The enrichment TEKS are: Languages Other Than English, Fine
Arts, Health, Physical Education, and Technology Applications
● Texas school districts are required to provide instruction in the
essential knowledge and skills in both the foundation and
enrichment curriculum.
Step 1A: Analyze The Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills
(continued)
Grade 3 Strand: Number, Operation, and Quantitative Reasoning
The TEKS illustrated above are 3.1A, 3.1B, and 3.1C. The 3
represents the grade level, the (1) represents the TEKS and the
order in which it is listed in the Third Grade TEKS document, and
the letter (A,B,C,etc.) represents student expectations necessary to
fulfill the requirements of any specific TEKS.
Step 1 B: Provide an example of an activity to assist students
to meet this student expectation.
A Product of the Charles A. Dana Center at the University of Texas
The student is expected to:
● (3.1.A) use place value to read, write (in symbols and
words), and describe the value of whole numbers through
999,999
~ Students play a game in which they try to
build
the largest number possible. Each
player draws a game
board as shown:
~ ____ ____ ____, ____ ____ ____
~ Players take turns rolling a ten-sided number
polyhedron or spinning a spinner labeled with numbers
zero through nine. After each roll or spin, every player
writes that number as a digit in one space on his or her
game board. Once written, that digit cannot be moved.
The winner has the largest number and can read it.
Step 1.B: Questioning
● Open with...
~ Do you think you have made the greatest
number and will win?
~ Why or why not?
Step 1.B: Questioning
● Probe further with...
~What is your number?
~ How can you write your number with words?
~ Who has made the greatest number? What is it? How did you
decide this is the greatest number?
~ Who has a 3 in the thousands place?
~ Whose number is closest to your number? How did you decide
this is the closest number to yours?
~ Order all the numbers. How did you go about putting these
numbers in order?
~ What strategy did you use to make your number?
~ What is the greatest number you can create by moving the digits
of your number?
~ What is the lowest number you can create by moving the digits of
your number? What strategy would you try the next time you
play this game?
Step1B: Listen for…
• Does the student accurately read the six-digit
numbers using patterns to name the
numbers? (Caution: Students should use
“and” only to indicate a decimal point.)
• Does the student clearly describe the strategy
used to create large numbers?
• Does the student clearly describe the strategy
used to compare and order numbers?
• Does the student use ideas of place value to
explain and justify strategies and responses?
Step 1B: Look for…
• Does the student use place value and patterns in number
relationships to compare and order six-digit numbers?
● Does the student demonstrate an understanding of place value
in strategies for the game?
● Can the student identify the different values of the different
places in a number?
● Does the student recognize the relative values of the places in
a number?
● Can the student write the number in words?
Clarifying Activities (n.d.) Retrieved June 2, 2006
from UT Dana Center:
http://www.utdanacenter.org/mathtoolkit/instruction/3.php
Step 1C: Understand the terminology of the
Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS)
• TEKS 4.8.C: Use essential attributes to define
two- and three-dimensional geometric figures.
● Notice the word define. The students are
expected to demonstrate their understanding as
part of the assessment.
● Notice the words used in each TAKS question
● Refer to the script for a detailed description of
Grade 4 Math, Obj. VIII.
Activity 1
Study the objectives and complete Form 1A in your script for questions 3 (example
shown), 6, 11, 14, 17, and 36.
Step1.D: TEKS Resources
● Refined TEKS for 2006 – 2007
http://www.tea.state.tx.us/curriculum/math/index.html
● Texas Education Agency: http://www.tea.state.tx.us
This site will allow you to browse through a multitude of
websites, links, resources; particularly the TAKS Blueprints.
The TAKS blueprints establish the length of each test and the
number of test items measuring each objective. These
blueprints provide consistency from one test administration to
the next. They have been developed to ensure that each
subject-area/grade-level test includes a variety of the Texas
Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) student expectations
eligible for assessment. In addition, each subject-area
blueprint reflects an appropriate distribution of the TEKS
across objectives for that grade level. (refer to the script for
examples of the blueprint)
Step 2: Sequence and organize the essential
content so that students have necessary time to
learn it.
A. Know the student expectations for your grade level.
B. Administer diagnostics (beginning, middle, and end of
year) to determine the level of mathematical numeracy
of each student.
C. Incorporate a data-driven instructional continuum:
diagnose, teach, assess; diagnose, teach, assess;
diagnose, teach, assess.
Activity 2
Refer to the University of Texas Dana Center website:
http://www.utdanacenter.org/mathtoolkit/teks/overview.php
Using Form 1-B in your script, answer the questions related
to understanding the TEKS. (Use additional paper as
necessary.)
Step 2.A: Know the student expectations for
your grade level...
Developing a solid mathematical foundation is essential
for every child. In the elementary grades students are
building beliefs concerning
~ what mathematics is
~ what it means to know and do mathematics
~ what it means to be a mathematical learner.
These beliefs influence their thinking about performance
in and attitudes toward mathematics.
These beliefs affect their attitudes and beliefs related to
studying mathematics in later years.
Step 2.A: Know the student expectations for
your grade level..
K-8 Mathematics has six strands
~ Number, operations, and quantitative reasoning
~ Patterns, relationships, and algebraic thinking
~ Geometry and spatial reasoning
~ Measurement
~Probability and statistics
~Underlying processes and mathematical tools
9-12 Mathematics TEKS are defined by the specific
course
http://www.tea.state.tx.us/curriculum/math/index.html
Step 2.A: Know the student expectations for
your grade level…
The Mathematics TEKS are designed
to complement the mathematics standards
of the National Council of Teachers of
Mathematics (NCTM). The standards of
NCTM serve as an umbrella for the TEKS.
Activity 3
● Access Clarifying Activities with Assessment
Connections, Grade 4 at
http://www.utdanacenter.org/mathtoolkit/instruction/acti
vities/4.php
● Locate the clarifying activity concerning the following
student expectation:
Understand the place-value structure of the baseten number system and be able to represent and
compare whole numbers and decimals.
● Complete forms 2-A and 2-B in your script for this
activity.
Step 2.B: Administer diagnostics (beginning, middle
and end of year) to determine students’ levels of
mathematical numeracy.
● Administering mathematical diagnostics is a
conventional and smart way to determine the
mathematical abilities of your students.
● Diagnostics will inform the teacher as to the specific
needs of each student as well as the strengths of
each student.
● The results of diagnostic assessments should guide
lesson plans, scope and sequence, and long range
goals.
Step 2.B: Administer diagnostics (beginning, middle
and end of year) to determine students’ levels of
mathematical numeracy.
● Grades K-2: mClass Wireless Generation
Assessment is supported by the Texas Education
Agency
● Grades 3-12: Texas Mathematics Diagnostic System
(TMDS) is a product of the Governor’s Mathematics
Initiative and is free to all school districts.
Activity 4
● Access the Texas Education Agency website:
http://www.tea.state.tx.us/
● Locate The Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills
(TEKS)
● Locate TEKS by grade level
● Locate Grade 4
● Use Grade 4 Mathematics TEKS and Fourth Grade
Math Diagnostic Instrument (1-15 only) to complete
form 2-C. This instrument is found in your
accompanying script.
Step 3: Ensure teachers can articulate proven and
effective Bilingual and English Language Learners
(ELL) instructional strategies that will impact student
achievement for all students.
3.A
3.B
3.C
Understand that not all students are the
same and that differentiated strategies
must be a part of our daily instruction.
Identify students’ different multiple
intelligences as described by Howard
Gardner
Employ proven and effective bilingual and
mathematical instructional strategies.
Step 3.A: Understand that not all students are the same and
that differentiated strategies must be a part of our daily
instruction.
Research has shown nine categories of strategies that have a
strong effect on student achievement for all students in
mathematics at all grade levels (Marzano, Pickering, Pollock,
2001). The following reflect the articulated strategies:
• Identifying similarities and differences
• Summarizing and note taking
• Reinforcing effort and providing recognition
• Homework and practice
• Nonlinguistic representations
• Cooperative learning
• Setting objectives and providing feedback
• Generating and testing hypotheses
• Question, cues, and advanced organizers
Step 3.A: Understand that not all students are the
same and that differentiated strategies must
be a part of our daily instruction
(continued)
This section of the module will focus on proven
and effective strategies focused on enhancing
academic achievement for all students.
Teachers should recognize that for any strategy to
be effective, the students’ learning styles must be
identified. Teachers should utilize that knowledge
as the catalyst between the student and the
strategy.
Step 3.B: Identify students’ different multiple
intelligences as described by Howard Gardner
Examining how to identify the bilingual students’ most developed
intelligences and learning styles is critical. As a result, more of their
learning in school can take place through their preferred intelligences
while other intelligences are being further developed.
Applying the appropriate instructional strategy that best matches that
child’s way of learning ensures an enhanced level of academic
achievement (Gardner, 2002).
Since no single instructional strategy works best for everyone,
identifying the differences and similarities in our students’ learning
styles and multiple intelligences can provide us with excellent data
that can be used to help guide our instruction.
Describing Intelligences in Students
Arnstrong(2000): Eight Ways of Learning
Children who are highly:
Think
Love
Need
Linguistic
in words
reading, writing, telling
stories, playing word games
books, tapes, writing tools,
paper, diaries, dialogue,
discussion, debate, stories
Logical-Mathematical
by reasoning
experimenting, questioning,
figuring out logical puzzles,
calculating
materials to experiment with,
science materials, manipulatives,
trips to the planetarium and
science museum
Describing Intelligences in Students
Spatial
in images and pictures
designing, drawing,
visualizing, doodling
art, LEGOs, video, movies, slides,
imagination games, mazes,
puzzles, illustrated books, trips
to art museums
Bodily-Kinesthetic
through somatic sensations
dancing, running, jumping,
building, touching, gesturing
role play, drama, movement,
things to build, sports and
physical games, tactile
experiences, hands-on learning
Musical
via rhythms and melodies
singing, whistling, humming,
tapping feet and hands,
listening
sing-along time, trips to
concerts, music playing at home
and school, musical instruments
Interpersonal
by bouncing ideas off other
people
leading, organizing, relating,
manipulating, mediating,
partying
friends, group games, social
gatherings, community events,
clubs, mentors/apprenticeships
Intrapersonal
in relation to their needs,
feelings, and goals
setting goals, meditating,
dreaming, planning,
reflecting
secret places, time alone, selfpaced projects, choices
Naturalist
through nature and natural
forms
playing with pets, gardening,
investigating nature, raising
animals, caring for planet
earth
access to nature, opportunities
for interacting with animals, tools
for investigating nature (e.g.,
magnifying glass, binoculars)
Step 3.B: How to identify Students' Multiple
Intelligences or learning styles
To organize observations of a student's multiple
intelligences, the bilingual teacher may employ a
checklist like the one in Script Figure 3.1.
This checklist has not been subjected to any protocols
necessary to establish reliability and validity and should
only be used informally in combination or conjunction with
other sources of assessment information when describing
students' multiple intelligences (Armstrong, 2000).
Step 3.B: How to identify Students' Multiple
Intelligences or learning styles
In addition to Howard Gardner’s Multiple
Intelligences, determining the English Language
Learners’ level of listening skills is also critical.
Making this assessment will allow the bilingual
teacher to better address the students’
academic needs.
The Proficiency Level Descriptors (PLDs)
(Figure 3.4 on next slide) should be used to help
determine students’ English Language
Proficiency Level (Texas Observation Protocols TOPTexas Education Agency TEA, 2005)
Figure 3.4
TOP Proficiency Level Descriptors Grades K-12 Listening
ACTIVITY 5
1.Complete The Checklist for Assessing Students'
Multiple Intelligences with one of your current or
former students (script: FIGURE 3.1). Note that
some items on the checklist may not be applicable
or able to be answered during assessment period.
2.With the results of the checklist, determine what
strategies and resources are suggested to best suit
that particular student using Howard Gardner’s
Multiple Intelligences (script: Figure 3.2).
3. Identify and support which instructional
strategies, provided in this module, you would
employ to meet the needs of the student (script:
Figure 3.3)
Step 3.C: Employ proven and effective
bilingual and mathematical instructional
strategies
● The following slides will illustrate specific
Bilingual Education strategies as well as
additional mathematics strategies
● The slides will demonstrate a brief
description while the accompanying script
will convey each strategy with more depth
and detail.
Instructional Integrated Graphic
Organizers
Instructional Practice: Graphic Organizers
Graphic organizers are maps that represent
relationships and encourage organizing knowledge. Ideal as a
primary mode of intake for visual learners and especially
helpful for the ELL student, graphic organizers can be used
effectively to make abstract ideas concrete and visible.
Example Lesson:
Objective: The teacher will use a graphic organizer (see
Figure 3.5) to help students map out and share characteristics
of two languages integrating Mathematics and Language Arts.
The organizer will help the students increase their
awareness of the relationships between, Ex. the English
and Spanish Languages
.
Figure
3.5
Communication
tool
Not always
phonetic
German
Latin,
Greek
origins
Phonetic
Spoken world
wide
SPANISH
ENGLISH
cognates
Can be acquired
through consistent
practice
Spanish
and
Mexican
Origins
Instructional Integrated Graphic
Organizers
(continued)
● The lesson is a way of getting students to talk about
their language and what they know, thought they
knew, and would like to know about both their own
native language and a second language.
● Once the students complete the graphic organizers
within their pre-selected groups, the bilingual
teacher asks the students to collectively decide who
will conduct each part of the research. The teacher
explains that each bubble in the graphic organizer
can be assigned to one of them, and that they will
be expected to write a short research paper on each
topic.
Instructional Integrated Graphic Organizers
(continued)
Activity
● The following week, the groups reconvene and share each other’s
findings. The graphic organizer will now become more
comprehensive and detailed. Each student will insert their paper in
the appropriate bubble. Note: The teacher allows the students to
elaborate the graphic organizers as they wish. They are allowed to
blow up the organizer and use colored paper and card stock to
define each bubble.
● The bilingual teacher realizes the necessity for students to share
within a small group before presenting to larger groups, thereby
allowing the groups to dialogue and discuss their research among
themselves. To facilitate the group discussions, each group is
given the following self-assessment questions:
● Are the isolated attributes described correctly?
● Are the similar or shared attributes described correctly?
Instructional Integrated Graphic Organizers
(continued)
Assessment
● Once the students have discussed the information and have decided
who will speak on behalf of each component, they are asked to
present their findings to the entire class. The students are allowed to
ask questions about the information and contribute to the research
with personal data, etc.
● Employing graphic organizers allows the students to organize their
thoughts and to visualize concepts, ideas and processes that are
often times too abstract making it difficult for mastery learning to take
place. In particular, using a graphic organizer to help determine the
similarities and differences between two languages can help the
students’ lower their inhibitions about an “unknown” language as well
as enhance their own knowledge about their native idioma.
● Finally, using graphic organizers to help illustrate the characteristics
of a language is a fantastic way to springboard into the acquisition of
a second language or to continue to foster that acquisition. A deeper
and more concrete knowledge base of any particular concept, idea,
language, etc. can only serve to support its development and
mastery.
Instructional Practice: Multiple Intelligence Strategies
Integrated into Instruction
Objective: To utilize Multiple Intelligence strategies in a fifth grade
class to study the use of figurative language in poetry.
● The bilingual teacher begins by showing the CD, "The New
Kid on the Block." She shows the poem for which the CD is
named.
● Before showing the last frame, allow the kids take out paper
and pencil and draw a picture of what they imagine the new
kid to be or look like.
● Next, move to the unit of study by asking the students to
reflect for an extended period of time on a poem that they
most remember and enjoyed as children.
● Once the students have identified the poem in their minds,
they are encouraged to write or transcribe the poem, and list
a few reasons why they think that particular poem stood out
among the rest and caused them to remember it.
Instructional Practice: Multiple Intelligence Strategies
Integrated into Instruction (continued)
● Ask the students to form groups of four and share their thoughts
through dialogue and discussion.
● Share a favorite poem of your own and tell the students that instead of
reciting the poem, you will reenact it through movement.
● The students may become intrigued and anxious to see the
performance.
● Ask the students to interpret your motions into words to try and put the
poem to lyrics.
● After the performance, the students are allowed the opportunity to
discuss their results and the teacher solicits volunteers to reenact their
poem as well.
● Refer back to the students’ reflections and facilitate a discussion in the
classroom. Pull information from the students by asking:
● What did you like best about your poem?
● Did you find it fairly easy or complicated to understand?
● Why do you think the poem appealed to you while other poems do
not or did not?
Instructional Practice: Multiple Intelligence Strategies
Integrated into Instruction
(continued)
● The Bilingual Teacher explains that some poets write
their poetry using what we term as “figurative language,
which helps us understand and visualize what the author
of the poem is trying to say through the use of similes
and metaphors
● Ask, “You have all expressed today that one of the major
reasons you enjoyed your poems so much is because
you understood them and you could almost visualize
them and make sense of them; that was perhaps one of
the author’s objectives.”
● Next, the instructor writes the words simile and metaphor
on the board and clearly defines each one incorporating
student feedback and input.
Instructional Practice: Multiple Intelligence Strategies
Integrated into Instruction (continued)
Activity
The students are asked to work in groups and use a
T-chart to demonstrate the characteristics of each as
well as give examples of poets utilizing this method
using the set of poems the teacher has previously
provided them. The poems are in both English and
Spanish and the students have the option of utilizing
either idiom.
Assessment
As part of the final assessment, students will submit
an original poem representing similes and
metaphors. The poem (English or Spanish) will be
presented to the class, and students will have the
option of either orally presenting the poem or acting
it out.
Instructional Practice: Manipulatives/Hands-On Math
Instruction
Objective: Use hands-on learning at math stations to introduce the
concept of area.
● Students use geoboards and potholder loops to create shapes with a
predefined area. They can use these loops to experiment and design
their own answers to the questions provided by the bilingual teacher.
They are encouraged to devise many different answers to one
question.
● Generally, students will have previous practice working in small
groups and will understand their respective roles. Students are given
the opportunity to learn from each other through dialogue and inquiry
about their different shapes. The teacher walks around the room
observing and commenting with questions such as “How did you do
that?”; “How is your shape different/similar to Emilio’s shape?”; “Could
you explain how you can find the area of your shape using your
geoboard?” etc. The students may respond in either their home
language or English. The discourse between the students is also
done in either languages
Instructional Practice: Manipulatives/Hands-On
Math Instruction (continued)
Finally, the teacher passes out colorful
cards with each of the following words and
an illustration of the word on each card:
●Area
●Geoboards
●Loops
●Square
●Triangle
●Hexagon
●Octagon
●Pentagon
Instructional Practice: Manipulatives/Hands-On
Math Instruction
(continued)
● The students form groups of two to discuss and demonstrate
how each of these words can be manifested using the
geoboards.
● The bilingual teacher asks, “Would anyone like to volunteer
and demonstrate to the class how their design corresponds
with one of our mathematics words today?”
● The students are eager to demonstrate after having explored,
questioned, dialogued and created the shapes both together
and individually.
● Praising each response and reinforcing the word to the handson shape is critical to all learners, especially an English
Language Learners.
● The students go from the concrete geoboards to the more
abstract by explaining and supporting that their particular
shape corresponded with one of the math vocabulary words.
● This lesson encourages the development of discourse around
topics in math, an important part of student learning. The use
of geoboards enables the students to experience a hands-on
approach to understanding area.
Instructional Practice: Multicultural Education:
Cultural Activities Integrated into the Curriculum
Objective: To utilize the use of a VIRTUAL FIELD
TRIP titled “Untold Stories, Baseball and the
Multicultural Experience” to teach multicultural
mathematics.
Begin by talking to the students about the
importance of celebrating all ethnic groups’
contributions to society. In this lesson, the focus is on
the “Untold Stories, Baseball and the Multicultural
Experience.” A virtual field trip will be the classroom
for the day.
Instructional Practice: Multicultural Education: Cultural
Activities Integrated into the Curriculum
The following short story could introduce the lesson:
“We tend to focus on segregation as a major part of
history, and although it definitely was, we should also
study the integration process as well.” In baseball,
integration became necessary since everyone wanted
the best players to playing the sport. This field trip will
take us through the celebration of baseball players in
ethnic groups including the Japanese players, the
African American players and the Latino baseball
players.
Instructional Practice: Multicultural Education: Cultural
Activities Integrated into the Curriculum (continued)
•Many students are familiar with the legendary feats of
Babe Ruth, Hank Aaron, and Mickey Mantle; but what
about the accomplishments of baseball stars, such as
Minnie Minoso, Sam Jethroe, and Masanori Murakami?
•Their courage as Latino, African-American and Asian
athletes helped make baseball one of the first great
melting pots in professional sports. As a result, diversity
and athleticism remain time-tested teammates on the field
of excellence.
Instructional Practice: Multicultural Education: Cultural
Activities Integrated into the Curriculum (continued)
From the archives of the National Baseball Hall of Fame
and Museum in Cooperstown, NY, we learn untold
stories about Jackie Robinson, Larry Doby, Hank
Greenberg, and Roberto Clemente; men who defied
prejudice to challenge racial and ethnic barriers with a
pride and passion that continues to inspire.
•This electronic field trip will take you through the gallery
and exhibits of America's greatest baseball shrine and
reveals surprising lessons in math and science.
http://ali.apple.com/ali_sites/ali/exhibits/1000353/
Instructional Practice: Problem-based Learning/Inquiry
Strategies for Math and Science Integration (continued)
Objective: To apply problem-based inquiry to the concepts of
electromagnetism and the principles of ratios and proportions by
incorporating a three-phased approach to a problem-based learning
lesson:
•Phase 1 involves an initial discussion of a project topic,
including children's firsthand experiences related to the topic.
(Students are asked to reflect on a memory or memories involving
a kite.)
•Phase 2 involves fieldwork, sessions with experts, and various
aspects of gathering information, reading, writing, drawing, and
computing (internet and encyclopedia references).
•Phase 3 is the presentation of the project to an audience (kite
presentations).
Instructional Practice: Problem-based
Learning/Inquiry Strategies for Math and Science
Integration
(continued)
Activity
The teacher models how the use of an internet
site,
http://www.inquiry.net/outdoor/spring/kites/25ki
tes.htm, can help students design a kite on the
computer using ratios and proportions.
The students explore the many different ways of
making a kite and interact with one another
discussing similarities and differences.
Instructional Practice: Problem-based
Learning/Inquiry Strategies for Math and
Science Integration
(continued)
Provide the students with an array of kite making
materials such as:
● string
● tape (scotch and masking)
● construction paper
● tag board
● cardboard boxes
● scissors
● rulers
● markers
● glitter
Activity
(continued)
● The students are asked to form groups of four and begin
constructing a simple kite. They are encouraged to use
the following websites for assistance:
http://www.kitesonaroll.com/index2.asp
http://web.stclair.k12.il.us/splashd/kiteexp.htm#Traveling%
20Kite
● As a causal effect of kite making, the students learn
about electromagnetism and the principles of ratios and
proportions. The Bilingual Teacher writes the words
electromagnetism and principles of ratios and
proportions on the board. The students have already
come across both concepts through their exploration.
As the students are building the kites, model how these
concepts are part of kite making.
Activity
(continued)
● The teacher probes the students with questions such as:
●
●
●
●
How would adding a tail to the kite affect the stability?
If the tail is lengthened how will it affect the stability?
If the kite is a different shape, how will it affect the stability?
If the kite is a different size, how will it affect the stability?
● Encourage the students to create the kites similarly to
adults trying to solve a problem, she does not restrict
them to one type rather she suggest they construct a
kite reflective of culture or cultural celebrations.
Realizing the importance of allowing the students,
especially her ELLs to express themselves through
means other than language is a critical component to
ensuring academic achievement for all students.
Instructional Practice: Problem-based
Learning/Inquiry Strategies for Math and
Science Integration
(continued)
Assessment
● The students present the finished product to the
class and demonstrate why they believe their kite
will fly. They are encouraged to employ the
concepts being studied in their presentation and
incorporate the mathematical vocabulary
corresponding with the concept. Their peers may
be invited to ask questions.
● Through sharing with their classmates on the
rationale of their kite construction, the students
are more likely to retain what they learned and
apply it to a wide array of subjects
Instructional Practice: Total Physical
Response (TPR)
Objective: To use The Total Physical Response
(TPR) strategy in a mathematics lesson to
introduce students to the concept of patterns and
vocabulary building.
● Begin by engaging the students in the lesson
using their bodies as a vehicle of learning. The
Bilingual Teacher may say, “We are going to be
creating patterns using your bodies as part of
our mathematics lesson.” This kind of activity
encourages the kinesthetic learner to
participate actively in the lesson.
Activity
● Ask students to stand and form a circle. Once the students
are in a circle, suggest that the pattern they will be working
on today is going to be fun and exciting. Build the suspense
so that the children become excited to see the pattern
develop and guess the solution.
● Ask the students to come up one at a time, “Josh, please
come here, Tabitha, please come here, Jake, please come
here, Allison, please come here, Jennifer, oops, I mean
Manuel please come here.”
● Encourage risk taking by letting the students know that they
are in a safe and secure learning environment where it is
acceptable to make mistakes from which we learn; even
teachers make them.
Activity
● Ask the students if they know who comes next in
the pattern. The students raise their hands to
respond.
 “Why do you think a girl should come next?”
 “What does it mean to create or make a
pattern?”
● The students are asked to return to the circle. The
bilingual teacher says, “Now, I’m going to clap and
snap my hands and fingers, and you are going to
try and figure out what the pattern is.” Begin the
sequence of clapping and snapping and the
students may begin to follow along. Ask the
students to verbalize the pattern along with the
action.
Assessment
● Tell the students you will be giving a command, and they
should demonstrate it using their bodies. Engage the
students in another pattern involving their bodies and
several patterns involving clapping and snapping.
However, this time do not perform the motion with them;
simply call out the command and the students respond
with their actions.
● The students are also given a list of vocabulary words (on
cut up sentence strips). The words are pattern, yourself,
stand, come, clap, snap, and return. Model a game that
will reinforce the students’ knowledge of the vocabulary
and patterns. The students form pairs and hold up one
card at a time (choose cardholder and take turns). The
partner demonstrates the word through action.
Assessment
● The use of movement learning and auditory
cues addresses all learning styles and keeps
the young students focused.
● Asking the students to name the pattern
encourages the use of words to describe a
pattern.
● Vocabulary comprehension can be assessed
through the use of teacher commands and
paired student games.
References
• Armstrong, Thomas. (2004). Multiple intelligences in the
classroom, 2nd edition. Alexandria, VA: Association for
Supervision and Curriculum Development.
● Coleman, J.S., Campbell, E., Hobson, C., Mcpartland, J.,
Mood, A., Weinfeld, F., & York, R. (1966). Equality of
educational opportunity. Washington, DC: U.S.
Government Printing Office.
● Marzano, R.J., Pickering, Debra J., & Pollock, Jane E.
(2001). Classroom instruction that works. Alexandria, VA:
Association for Supervision and Curriculum.
● National Clearing House for Bilingual Education (1999).
K-12 and LEP enrollment trends.
References
● Public Schools of North Carolina, (2003). Fourth
grade observation profile for on-going assessment
and end of the year evaluation. North Carolina State
Board of Education Department of Instruction.
● TESOL.(1997). ESL Standards for pre-K-12
students. Alexandria, VA: Association for
Supervision and Curriculum
● Texas Education Agency. (2006). Texas essential
knowledge and skills. Retrieved May 20, 2006, from
Texas Education: http://www.tea.state.tx.us.
● University of Texas Dana Center (UTOPIA), 2006.
Mathematics toolkit. Retrieved May 20, 2006 from
Charles A. Dana Center at the University of Texas:
http://www.utdanacenter.org/mathtoolkit/
Introductory Training Course for
Institute for Second Language Achievement
Bilingual Teacher Certification
Texas A&M University – Corpus Christi
Dr. Frank Lucido, Director
Prepared by:
Carmen Tejeda-Delgado, Ed.D.
Texas A&M University – Corpus Christi
[email protected]
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Slide 1 - Project Isla at Texas A&M University