4200-SCS TRAINING COURSE
“DEVICE CHARACTERIZATION
MADE EASY”
AGENDA
Part I
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4.
OVERVIEW
Introduction
System Architecture
Connections and Configuration
KCON – Configuration Utility
Configuration Navigator
Menus Overview
BASIC SOURCE-MEASURE CONCEPTS
SMU source-measure configurations
Sweep concepts
Sourcing versus Sinking
Local Sense versus Remote Sense
ESSENTIAL KITE
KITE Overview
Getting started
Configuring ITMs
Configuring UTMs
Displaying Test Results
Using Device and Test Libraries
Executing Test Plans
Creating a New Project
Part II
5.
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8.
ADVANCED MEASUREMENTS
Making Stable Measurements
Low Current Measurements
Guarding and Shielding
ADVANCED KITE
Configuring Timing settings
Optimizing speed versus noise
Graphical and numeric data analysis
Managing KITE application files
Creating custom devices in KITE
KULT
Overview
Understanding KULT window
Creating /modifying KULT user modules
LPT library function overview
LPTlib – KITE interaction via UTM’s
KXCI overview
Overview
KXCI console
Introduction
• 4200-SCS is a powerful and
versatile system for DC
characterization of
semiconductor devices and test
structures
• Combines fast and accurate
SMUs, embedded Windows NTbased PC, and friendly Keithley
Test Environment
• This course will provide
essential user skills to work with
4200-SCS
• User Manual and Reference
Manual can be found on every
4200-SCS desktop
SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE
CONNECTIONS AND CONFIGURATION
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Use supplied 3-lug
triaxial cables
Connect SMU
Force to DUT HI
Connect SMU
Common to DUT
Common Shield
and DUT LO
Connect SMU
Guard to DUT
Guard Shield
CONNECTIONS AND CONFIGURATION (cont)
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Example of 3-terminal
connection
Ground Unit (GNDU)
should be used for
COMMON
connections, whenever
possible
CONNECTIONS AND CONFIGURATION (cont)
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Alternative
connection possible
using all Force
terminals
Any of the SMUs
can be
programmed to
serve as circuit
COMMON
Use same
connections on
units with
PreAmps
CONNECTIONS AND CONFIGURATION (cont)
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Example of switch
matrix connection
Recommended cables:
4200-MTRX-X or 4200TRX-X
Same connection scheme
when using system with
PreAmps
Recommended switch
mainframes: KI 707(A),
KI 708(A)
Recommended matrix
cards: KI 7071, 7072,
7172, 7174A
Fully supported by KITE
software
CONNECTIONS AND CONFIGURATION (cont)
Control and Data connections – rear panel view
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Fan
Power receptacle
LAN (network) connector
Keyboard /mouse connector
IEEE-488 (GPIB) connector
Trigger link (not supported)
Interlock connector
Instrument slots 1 through 8
Ground unit
Serial Port
Parallel Port
SVGA (video monitor) port
CONNECTIONS AND CONFIGURATION (cont)
Interlock connection
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Without interlock, SMU
output is limited to +/-20 V
Interlock will engage the
200V range
Use supplied interlock
cable to connect to safety
switch on test fixture or
probe station dark box
Safety switch closes circuit
between pins 1 and 2 of the
interlock cable
Yellow Interlock LED on
4200-SCS front panel will
be lit when interlock is
engaged
CONNECTIONS AND CONFIGURATION (cont)
KCON Utility Overview
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KCON is used to manage
configuration of the
internal 4200-SCS
instruments (SMUs) and
external system
components
KCON supports switch
matrices, CV analyzers,
Pulse Generators,
Probers, other GPIB
instruments
KCON main window
contains Configuration
Navigator and KCON
Work Area
CONNECTIONS AND CONFIGURATION
KCON Utility Overview (cont)
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Click on any internal
or external instrument
in Navigator window
to see its Properties
SMUs and PreAmps
also have Self Test
button on their
Properties window
Self Test utility
allows user to run
internal hardware
checks – report
appears in Pass/Fail
window
CONNECTIONS AND CONFIGURATION
KCON Utility Overview (cont)
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Switch matrix card
Properties window
allows easy connections
configuration
Rows are typically
connected to instruments
Columns are typically
connected to DUT
This configuration is
referenced by KITE
software to close matrix
connections
BASIC SOURCE-MEASURE CONCEPTS
Basic SMU Block-diagram
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A basic SMU is a voltage or current
source (depending on chosen force
function) in series with I-meter, and
in parallel with V-meter
I-limit or V-limit circuitry allows to
maintain compliance limits
Guard circuit follows the Force
potential to prevent current leakage
Sense circuitry allows remote
voltage sensing bypassing currentcarrying Force circuit
Ground Unit provides full Kelvin
connection to instrument
COMMON, but does not have
source-measure capability
BASIC SOURCE-MEASURE CONCEPTS
Source-Measure Configurations
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Source I – Measure V configuration turns SMU
into high-impedance CURRENT SOURCE
Current is limited by compliance setting
If I=0, SMU becomes VOLTMETER
Source V – Measure I configuration turns SMU
into low-impedance VOLTAGE SOURCE
Voltage is limited by compliance setting
If V=0, SMU becomes AMMETER
BASIC SOURCE-MEASURE CONCEPTS
Sourcing and Sinking – Operating Boundaries
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SMUs can operate in four quadrants
Quadrants I and III are sourcing (I
and V have same polarity)
Sourcing SMUs deliver power to load
Quadrants II and IV are sinking (I and
V have different polarity)
Sinking SMUs dissipate power
Power boundaries of the SMUs are
limited to 2 W (medium-power 4200SMU) or 20 W (high-power 4210SMU).
BASIC SOURCE-MEASURE CONCEPTS
Local and Remote Sensing
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Local sensing is done on high-impedance devices (above 1 kΩ)
SMU uses Force connections to make measurements
When current is high enough to generate voltage drop across cable, use remote sense
Remote sense allows to measure voltage directly across DUT, since current drop
across sense lines is negligible
BASIC SOURCE-MEASURE CONCEPTS
Understanding Sweep
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SDM (Source-DelayMeasure) cycle:
Set source output level
Wait for the source delay
Make the measurement
Delay and Measure times can
be controlled from KITE
Three sweep types: Linear,
Logarithmic, Custom
Each step (sweep point) is an
SDM cycle
Additional timing variable in
sweep – Hold Time (initial
delay before sweep starts)
ESSENTIAL KITE
Power-up and log-on
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Power-up: disconnect DUTs, stay clear of SMU output connectors / probes
Log-on: KIUSER (no password) or KIADMIN (password: KIADMIN1)
If KITE doesn’t load by default, use Windows START->PROGRAMS menu
ESSENTIAL KITE
Overview
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KITE is the main
software component and
primary user interface for
the 4200-SCS
KITE interface contains:
Menu area
Toolbar area
Site Navigator
Project Navigator
KITE workspace
Message area
Status bar
ESSENTIAL KITE
Getting started: “vds-id” test
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In KITE, select: File -> Open Project
In the Open KITE Project File dialog, open Default folder, then click on
default.kpr file, and click Open
Enable Project Navigator by selecting View -> Project Navigator
Open “vds-id” ITM by double-clicking it in the Project Navigator
ESSENTIAL KITE
Getting started: “vds-id” test
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Make physical connections to the MOSFET using triax cables
Modify test definition: select different instrument for the Bulk terminal (GNDU-SMU4)
Modify force-measure settings for the Gate terminal (SMU3) – change stepping to 2.1-5.1 v
Display the “vds-id” graph (Graph tab)
Execute the “vds-id” test (Run button on the Toolbar)
View graph and data update real-time
Save results (Save button on the Toolbar)
Export the data (Sheet -> Save As…)
Export the graph (Graph -> right-click -> Save As…)
Modify force-measure settings for the Gate terminal (SMU3) back to 2-5 v
Execute the test using Append button
View new data appended to the old graph, and also on the Append1 sheet of the Data tab
ESSENTIAL KITE
Introducing a User Test Module (UTM)
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Add a new UTM to the 4terminal-n-fet Device Plan, give it a name
Open the UTM by double-clicking it in the Project Navigator
Under User Libraries, select KI42xxulib
Under User Modules, select Rdson42xx
Enter / modify user parameters
Save module
Execute the UTM by clicking the Run button
View the results in the Data tab
Create another UTM using the Matrixulib library and the ConnectPins module
ESSENTIAL KITE
Sequencing tests
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Open the first four ITMs under 4-terminal MOSFET Device Plan in Default project
Select Window ->Tile from the Menu Area to view all four ITMs at once
Click on the Graph tab of each ITM to view all graphs simultaneously
In the Project Navigator, click on 4terminal-n-fet Device Plan
Click Run and watch the tests execute sequentially, per Device Plan
Execution can be aborted at any time
Change the execution sequence: open Device Plan window
Select a test and move it using Move Up or Move Down buttons
Click Apply to save changes to the Test Sequence Table
Same techniques apply to sequencing Device Plans within a Subsite, and Subsites within a
Site
A Site plan can be executed multiple times (up to 999)
Multiple site execution settings can be modified by double-clicking on the project name in
the Project Navigator
ESSENTIAL KITE
Creating a new project
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In KITE, select File -> New Project. A “Define New Project” window will open
Name the project (up to 260 characters including directory path, no spaces)
Specify location (or accept default location C:\S4200\kiuser\Projects\)
Specify number of sites (up to 999)
Turn ON or OFF the Project Plan Initialization and Termination Steps, click OK to accept
Insert new Subsite Plan(s)
Insert new Device Plan(s) – from a toolbar menu, or using Device Library
To use Device Library, double-click on the Subsite Plan, then use Copy and Submit buttons
To use Test Library, double-click on the Device Plan, then use Copy and Submit buttons
When submitting two identical tests to the same project, they are assigned unique ID’s (UID)
When done building project, select File -> Save All
To create a copy of the project under a different name, select File -> Save Project As…
ADVANCED MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUES
Making Stable Measurements
Single SMU stability considerations
• Current source instability may be caused by driving large inductive loads, but is very rare
• Voltage source instability may be caused by driving large capacitive loads on low current
measurement ranges
Multiple SMU stability considerations
• Two categories: high-frequency (100kHz – 200MHz) and low-frequency (below 100kHz)
ADVANCED MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUES
Low Current Measurements
Leakage currents can be prevented by:
• Using good quality insulation in cables, test fixtures, and probe cards (Teflon, polyethylene,
ceramics)
• Reducing humidity to <50% RH
• Cleaning insulator surface from contaminants (skin oils and salts, solder flux, etc.)
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Signal guarding
ADVANCED MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUES
Low Current Measurements
Generated currents
•Offset currents
•Triboelectric effects
•Piezoelectric and stored charge effects
•Dielectric absorption
ADVANCED MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUES
Low Current Measurements
Voltage burden
Source impedance
Cable capacitance
Interference
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Electrostatic interference
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RF interference
Ground loops
ADVANCED KITE
Configuring Speed and Timing Settings
ADVANCED KITE
Graphical and Numeric Data Analysis
ADVANCED KITE
Graphical and Numeric Data Analysis
ADVANCED KITE
Managing KITE Application Files and Test Results
ADVANCED KITE
Creating Custom Devices in KITE
KULT – Keithley User Library Tool
Overview
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The Keithley User Library Tool (KULT) is a tool used to create and manage user
libraries.
A user library is a collection of one or more user modules.
User modules are C programming language subroutines (or functions).
User libraries are created to control instrumentation, analyze data, or perform any
other system automation task programmatically.
Once a user library has been built using KULT, its modules can be executed in KITE
as User Test Modules (UTMs).
KULT interface allows users to enter code, compile the module, build (link) the
library. It also has such user-library management features as Copy Module, Copy
Library, Delete Module, and Delete Library.
KITE dynamically loads the user module and the appropriate user library.
KITE passes the user-module parameters to the user module for execution.
Once module is executed, data is returned to KITE for interactive analysis and
plotting.
KULT – Keithley User Library Tool
Understanding the KULT Window
KULT – Keithley User Library Tool
Creating a KULT user module
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Open KULT window
Name a new user library
Name a new user module
Enter the function (module) return type
Enter the source code
Enter parameters
Enter / check header files
Document the module in the Description area
Save, compile, and build the module
Find compile / build errors and debug the code
Open KITE, create / name a new User Test Module (UTM)
Configure the new UTM by selecting the user library and user module
Enter user parameter value(s)
Save the module
Execute the module in KITE – view results
KULT – Keithley User Library Tool
LPT Library Overview
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The Keithley Linear Parametric Test Library (LPTlib) is a high-speed data acquisition and
instrument control software library. It is the programmer’s lowest level of command
interface to the system’s instrumentation.
By default, KULT automatically enters the keithley.h header file into the Includes tab area.
This header file includes all the necessary header files that allow linking to the LPT
libraries.
All LPTlib functions are case sensitive and must be entered as lower case when writing
program codes.
The LPTlib includes the following groups of functions:
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Instrument control
Matrix control
SMU ranging
SMU sourcing
SMU measuring
Combination
Timing
GPIB
RS232
General
Execution
Arithmetic
KXCI – Keithley External Control Interface
Overview
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4200-SCS TRAINING COURSE