Amateur Radio Technician Class
Element 2 Course Presentation
• ELEMENT 2 SUBELEMENTS
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•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
T1
T2
T3
T4
T5
T6
T7
T8
T9
T0
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FCC Rules, station license responsibilities
Control operator duties
Operating practices
Radio and electronic fundamentals
Station se11tup and operation
Communications modes and methods
Special operations
Emergency and Public Service Communications
Radio waves, propagation, and antennas
Electrical and RF Safety
Operating practices
T3A
 Choosing an operating frequency
 You should listen to determine if the frequency is busy
when selecting a frequency on which to transmit.
• Calling CQ
 You indicate you are looking for any station with which
to make contact by calling CQ followed by your
callsign.
 The meaning of the procedural signal "CQ" is: Calling
any station.
 The brief statement, simply saying your call sign, is
often used in place of "CQ" to indicate that you are
listening for calls on a repeater. Don’t call CQ on the
repeater.
Operating practices
T3A
 Calling another station
• If you know the station's call sign, say the station's call sign
then identify your own station when calling another station
on a repeater.
• You should transmit the other station’s callsign followed by
your callsign when responding to a call of CQ.
• You should avoid using cute phrases or word combinations
to identify your station because they are not easily
understood by some operators.
• You should use the International Telecommunication Union
(ITU) phonetic alphabet when identifying your station
because the words are internationally recognized
substitutes for letters.
ITU Phonetic Alphabet
A Alpha
H Hotel
O Oscar
V Victor
B Bravo
I India
P Papa
W Whiskey
C Charlie
J Juliet
Q Quebec
X X-ray
D Delta
K Kilo
R Romeo
Y Yankee
E Echo
L Lima
S Sierra
Z Zulu
F Foxtrot
M Mike
T Tango
G Golf
N November
U Uniform
Operating practices
T3A
 Test transmissions
• An illegal unidentified transmission includes a brief
test transmission that does not include any station
identification.
• An amateur must properly identify the station when
making a transmission to test equipment or antennas.
• Station identification is required at least every ten
minutes and at the end of every transmission – even
test transmissions
Operating practices
T3B
 Use of minimum power
• An amateur must use the minimum transmitter power
necessary to carry out the desired communication.
• This is the rule for:
 Repeaters
 Simplex
 HF
 ANYTHING ELSE
Operating practices
T3B
 Band plans
• A band plan is a voluntary guideline, beyond the
divisions established by the FCC for using different
operating modes within an amateur band.
• Band Plans are voluntary guidelines for efficient use of
the radio spectrum.
• The amateur community developed the band plans
used by amateur radio operators.
A Band Plan is a voluntary guideline for using different
operating modes within an amateur band.
50.000-50.100: CW - No voice modes allowed per FCC section
§97.305
50.060-50.080: CW/Beacon Subband
50.100-50.300: Phone (SSB), etc. (no FM voice)
50.100-50.125: DX Window
50.300-50.600: All modes (simplex)
50.600-50.800: Digital modes (e.g. Packet)
50.800-51.000: Radio Control (R/C)
51.000-51.100: "Pacific DX window" (SSB/CW)
51.120-51.480: 6 Meter FM Repeater Inputs (areas w/500 KHz
split)
51.500-51.600: Simplex FM, 6 channels: 51.500, 51.520, 51.540,
51.560, 51.580, and 51.600
51.620-51.980: 6 Meter FM Repeater Outputs (areas w/500 KHz
split)
52.000-52.480: 6 Meter FM Repeater Inputs (for 500 KHz and 1
MHz split)
Note: 52.525, 52.400, 52.040, and 52.020 are widely used for
simplex operation with 52.525 being the "national simplex"
frequency.
52.500-52.980: 6 Meter FM Repeater Outputs
53.000-53.480: 6 Meter FM Repeater Inputs and Repeater
Outputs
53.500-53.980: 6 Meter FM Repeater Outputs
Operating practices
T3B
 Repeater coordination
• The recognized frequency coordination body is in
charge of the repeater frequency band plan in your
local area.
• The main purpose of repeater coordination is to
reduce interference and promote proper use of
spectrum.
Operating practices
T3B
 Mode restricted sub-bands
• The 6-meter, 2-meter, and 1-1/4-meter bands available to
Technician class licensees have mode restricted sub-bands.
 The only emission mode that is permitted in the restricted sub-band
at 50.0-50.1 MHz is CW.
 The only emission mode that is permitted in the restricted sub-band
at 144.0-144.1 MHz is CW.
 The emission modes that are permitted in the restricted portion of the
1-1/4-meter band are CW and Data.
FCC Rules and Station Licensee Responsibilities
T1C
 Authorized frequencies (Technician)
• The frequency, 52.525 MHz, is within the 6-meter band.
• The frequency, 146.52 MHz, is within the 2-meter band
• The frequency, 223.50 MHz is within the 1.25 meter band.
• The frequency, 443.350 MHz, is within 70-centimeter band
• The frequency, 1296 MHz, is within the 23 Centimeter band
• A good way to figure this out is 300/f=Band
Operating practices
T3B
 Accountability
• The transmitting station is accountable if a repeater
station inadvertently retransmits communications that
violate FCC rules.
 Obscene
 Ciphers not permitted
 Unidentified communications
Operating practices
T3C
 Courtesy and respect for others
• The proper way to break into a conversation between two stations
that are using the frequency is to say your call sign between their
transmissions.
• Proper repeater operating practice:
 Monitor before transmitting and keep transmissions short
 Identify legally
 Use the minimum amount of transmitter power necessary
Operating practices
T3C
 Courtesy and respect for others (cont)
• Before responding to another stations call, make sure you are
operating on a permissible frequency for your license class.
• No frequency will be assigned for the exclusive use of any station
and neither has priority. This rule applies when two amateur
stations want to use the same frequency.
• If you hear a newly licensed operator that is having trouble with
their station you should contact them and offer to help with the
problem.
• When circumstances are not specifically covered by FCC rules
the general operating standard of good engineering and good
amateur practices must be applied to amateur station operation.
Operating practices
T3A
 Sensitive subject areas
• Amateur radio operators should avoid the use of racial
or ethnic slurs when talking to other stations because it
is offensive to some people and reflects a poor public
image on all amateur radio operators.
• These types of subjects are not prohibited
communications while using amateur radio:
 Political discussions
 Jokes and stories
 Religious preferences
Operating practices
T3A
 Obscene and indecent language
• Indecent and obscene language is prohibited in the Amateur
Service.
 Because it is offensive to some individuals
 Because young children may intercept amateur
communications with readily available receiving equipment
 Because such language is specifically prohibited by FCC
Rules
• There is no official list of prohibited obscene and indecent words
that should not be used in amateur radio.
Operating practices
T3D
 Interference to and from consumer devices
• Receiver front-end overload is the result of interference caused
by strong signals from a nearby source.
• The owner of the television receiver is responsible for taking care
of the interference if signals from your transmitter are causing
front end overload in your neighbor's television receiver.
• A break in (or bad connection to) a cable television transmission
line may result in TV interference when the amateur station is
transmitting, or interference may occur to the amateur receiver.
• The major cause of telephone interference is the telephone was
not equipped with adequate interference protection when
manufactured.
Operating practices
T3D
 Interference to and from consumer devices (cont)
• Receiver front-end overload is the result of interference caused by
strong signals from a nearby source.
Operating practices
T3D
 Intentional and unintentional interference
• You should check your transmitter for off frequency
operation or spurious emissions if you receive a report
that your transmissions are causing splatter or
interference on nearby frequencies.
• The proper course of action if you unintentionally
interfere with another station is to properly identify
your station and move to a different frequency.
Operating practices
T3D
 Intentional and unintentional interference (cont)
• You may never deliberately interfere with another station's
communications.
• No station has exclusive use of any specific frequency when the
FCC has not declared a communication emergency.
• The best way to reduce on the air
interference when testing your transmitter
is to use a dummy load when testing.
Operating practices
 Public relations
• RACES and ARES have in
common the fact that both
organizations provide
communications during
emergencies.
• FCC rules apply to your station when using
amateur radio at the request of public service
officials or at the scene of an emergency.
T3D
Amateur Radio Technician Class
Element 2Course Presentation
• ELEMENT 2 SUBELEMENTS
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
T1
T2
T3
T4
T5
T6
T7
T8
T9
T0
-
FCC Rules, station license responsibilities
Control operator duties
Operating practices
Radio and electronic fundamentals
Station setup and operation
Communications modes and methods
Special operations
Emergency and Public Service Communications
Radio waves, propagation, and antennas
Electrical and RF Safety
Radio and electronic fundamentals
T4A
 Names of electrical units: DC and AC
• Electrical current is measured in the following units:
 Amperes
• The name for the flow of electrons in an electric
circuit is:
 Current
• The name for a current that flows only in one
direction is:
 Direct Current (DC)
Radio and electronic fundamentals
T4A
 Names of electrical units: DC and AC
• Electrical Power is measured in the following units:
 Watt
• The standard unit of frequency is:
 Hertz
• The basic unit of resistance is:
 Ohm
• The name for current that reverses direction on a regular basis is:
 Alternating Current (AC)
Multimeter(s)
Multimeters will measure
Voltage, Current and
Resistance.
Be sure it is set properly to
read what is being
measured.
If it is set to the ohms
setting and voltage is
measured the meter could
be damaged!
Radio and electronic fundamentals
 Conductors and insulators (cont)
• Copper is a good electrical
conductor.
• Glass is a good electrical
insulator.
• The term used to describe
opposition to current flow in
ordinary conductors such as wires
is: Resistance.
T4A
Radio and electronic fundamentals
Conductors and insulators
• Conductors





Gold
Silver
Copper
Aluminum
(Most Metals)
• Insulators




Air
Rubber
Plastic
Ceramic
T4A
Radio and electronic fundamentals
T4A
Two types of electricity:
• Direct Current - flows in 1 direction
 Battery
 1.5 to 2.5 volts per cell
 Car battery nominally 12 volts
 Measured strictly by amplitude
• Alternating Current - alternates direction
 Household
 Measured by
 Average Amplitude
 Frequency (cycles per second)(Hertz)
Alternating & Direct Current
V+
DC
0V
AC
Vtime
Radio and electronic fundamentals
T4A
 Electrical components
• An automobile battery usually supplies about
12 volts [DC].
• An Ammeter is an instrument used to measure
the flow of current in an electrical circuit.
• A Voltmeter is an instrument used to measure
Electromotive Force (EMF)
 between two points such as the poles of a battery.
Radio and electronic fundamentals
T4A
Ammeter
Power
Supply
Transceiver
Radio and electronic fundamentals
Ohmmeter
T4A
Radio and electronic fundamentals
Voltmeter
Power
Supply
Transceiver
T4A
Meter Excercise
What circuit quantity
would meter A indicate?
+
Battery voltage
What circuit quantity
would meter B indicate?
The current flowing through
the resistor
Meter B
Meter A
R
Radio and electronic fundamentals
T4B
 Relationship between frequency and wavelength
• Wavelength is the term used for the distance a radio
wave travels during one complete cycle.
• The term Frequency describes the number of times
that an alternating current flows back and forth per
second.
• Hertz is the unit of Frequency
• Sixty (60) hertz (Hz) means 60 cycles per second.
The Relationship of Frequency
and Wavelength
The distance a radio wave travels in
one cycle is called wavelength.
V+
One Cycle
0V
time
V-
One Wavelength
Radio and electronic fundamentals
T4B
 Relationship between frequency and wavelength
• The wavelength gets shorter as the frequency
increases.
• Wavelength in meters equals 300 divided by
frequency in megahertz.
• A radio wave travels through space at the speed of
light.
Radio and electronic fundamentals
T4B
 Identification of bands
• The property of a radio wave often used to identify the
different bands amateur radio operators use is the
physical length of the wave.
• The frequency range of the 2-meter band in the
United States is 144 to 148 MHz.
• The frequency range of the 6-meter band in the
United States is 50 to 54 MHz.
• The frequency range of the 70-centimeter band in the
United States is 420 to 450 MHz.
Radio and electronic fundamentals
T4B
 Names of frequency ranges, types of waves
• Voice frequencies are sound waves in the
range between 300 and 3000 Hertz.
• Electromagnetic waves that oscillate more than
20,000 times per second as they travel through
space are generally referred to as Radio
waves.
Radio and electronic fundamentals
 How radio works: receivers, transmitters, transceivers,
amplifiers, power supplies, types of batteries, service life
A Receiver is used to convert
radio signals into sounds we can
hear.
A Transmitter is used to
convert sounds from our voice
into radio signals.
A Receiver and Transmitter are
two devices combined into one
unit in a transceiver.
T4C
Radio and electronic fundamentals
T4C
 How radio works: receivers, transmitters, transceivers,
amplifiers, power supplies, types of batteries, service life (cont)
A Power Supply is the device
used to convert the alternating
current from a wall outlet into
low-voltage direct current.
An Amplifier is a device used
to increase the output of a 10
watt radio to 100 watts.
Radio and electronic fundamentals
 How radio works: receivers, transmitters, transceivers,
amplifiers, power supplies, types of batteries, service life
A Lithium-ion battery offers the
longest life when used with a
hand-held radio, when comparing
battery types of the same physical
size.
The nominal voltage per cell of a
fully charged nickel-cadmium
battery is 1.2 volts.
A Carbon-zinc battery is not
designed to be re-charged.
T4C
(cont)
Radio and electronic fundamentals
T4C
 How radio works: receivers, transmitters, transceivers,
amplifiers, power supplies, types of batteries, service life
(cont)
• In order to keep rechargeable batteries in good
condition and ready for emergencies:
 They must be inspected for physical damage and replaced if
necessary
 They should be stored in a cool and dry location
 They must be given a maintenance recharge at least every 6 months
All of these answers are correct
• The best way to get the most amount of energy from a
battery is to draw current from the battery at the
slowest rate needed.
Ohms Law
Electromotive Force, VOLTS
E
The flow of
Electrons,
AMPERES
I R
Resistance
to current flow,
OHMS
Radio and electronic fundamentals
 Ohms law relationships
• The formula, Voltage (E) equals current (I)
multiplied by resistance (R).
E = I*R
• The formula, Current (I) equals voltage (E)
divided by resistance (R).
I = E/R
• The formula, Resistance (R) equals voltage (E)
divided by current (I).
R = E/I
T4D
Radio and electronic fundamentals
 Ohms law relationships (cont)
• If I=3 amperes and E=90 volts.
 R = E/I = R = 90/3= 30
• If E=12 volts and I=1.5 amperes.
 R = E/I = R = 12/1.5= 8
• If E=120 volts and R=80 ohms.
 I = E/R = I = 120/80= 1.5
T4D
Radio and electronic fundamentals
 Ohms law relationships
T4D
(cont)
• If a current of 0.5 amperes flows through a 2 ohm resistor.
 E=I*R E = 0.5 * 2 = 1 volt
• If a current of 1 ampere flows through a 10 ohm resistor.
 E=I*R E = 1 * 10 = 10 volts
• If a current of 2 amperes flows through a 10 ohm resistor.
 E=I*R E = 2 * 10 = 20 volts
• Current through a 100 ohm resistor across 200 volts.
 I=E/R I = 200/100 = 2 amperes
• Current through a 24 ohm resistor across 240 volts.
 I=E/R I = 240/24 = 10 amperes
Radio and electronic fundamentals
 Ohms law relationships (cont)
• If a current of 0.5 amperes flows through a 2 ohm resistor.
 E=I*R
E = 0.5 * 2 = 1 volt
• If a current of 1 ampere flows through a 10 ohm resistor.
 E=I*R E = 1 * 10 = 10 volts
• If a current of 2 amperes flows through a 10 ohm resistor.
 E=I*R E = 2 * 10 = 20 volts
• Current through a 100 ohm resistor across 200 volts.
 I=E/R I = 200/100 = 2 amperes
• Current through a 24 ohm resistor across 240 volts.
 I=E/R I = 240/24 = 10 amperes
T4D
Power
Power is measured in
Watts
+
Meter B
P=ExI
Ohms law states E= I x R
Meter A
Substituting I x R for E in the power equation gives:
P = I x R x I = R x 2 x I = R x I2
So, for this circuit, the power consumed in the resistor
can be calculated by multiplying the value of the
resistor times the square of the reading of Meter B.
R
Radio and electronic fundamentals
Power calculations
• The unit used to describe
electrical power is the Watt.
• The formula: Power (P) equals
voltage (E) multiplied by current (I).
P=I*E
T4E
Radio and electronic fundamentals
• Power calculations
T4E
(cont)
• How much power is represented by a voltage of 13.8
volts DC and a current of 10 amperes.
 P = I * E P = 10 * 13.8 = 138 watts
• How much power is being used in a circuit when the
voltage is 120 volts DC and the current is 2.5 amperes.
 P = I * E P = 2.5 * 120 = 300 watts
Radio and electronic fundamentals
T4E
 Power calculations (cont)
• You can you determine how many watts are being
drawn [consumed] by your transceiver when you are
transmitting by measuring the DC voltage at the
transceiver and multiplying by the current drawn
when you transmit.
• How many amperes is flowing in a circuit when the
applied voltage is 120 volts DC and the load is 1200
watts.
• I = P/E I = 1200/120 = 10 amperes.
Metric Prefixes
Metric
Exponent
English
Tera
Giga
Mega
1012
109
106
Trillion
Billion
Million
Kilo
103
Thousand
Centi
Milli
Micro
Nano
Pico
10-2
10-3
10-6
10-9
10-12
Hundredth
Thousandth
Millionth
Billionth
Trillionth
Radio and electronic fundamentals
T4
 Units, kilo, mega, milli, micro
• One thousand volts is equal to one kilovolt.
• Another way to specify the frequency of a radio signal that is
oscillating at 1,500,000 Hertz is 1500 kHz
 [or 1.5 megahertz]
• 1500 milliamperes is the same as 1.5 amperes.
• A hand-held transceiver that has an output power of 500
milliwatts can otherwise be said to output 0.5 watts.
• One one-millionth of a volt is equal to one microvolt.
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Amateur Radio Technician Class Element 2 Course …