Principles and Learning Objectives
• Users must work closely with IS professionals to
define business needs, evaluate options, and
select the hardware and software that provide a
cost-effective solution to those needs.
– Identify and discuss the role of the essential
hardware components of a computer system.
– List and describe popular classes of computer
systems and discuss the role of each.
Fundamentals of Information Systems, Third Edition
2
Principles and Learning Objectives
(continued)
• When selecting an operating system, you must
consider the current and future requirements for
application software to meet the needs of the
organization. In addition, your choice of a
particular operating system must be consistent
with your choice of hardware.
– Identify and briefly describe the functions of the
two basic kinds of software.
– Outline the role of the operating system and
identify the features of several popular operating
systems.
Fundamentals of Information Systems, Third Edition
3
Principles and Learning Objectives
(continued)
• Do not develop proprietary application software
unless doing so will meet a compelling business
need that can provide a competitive advantage.
– Discuss how application software can support
personal, workgroup, and enterprise business
objectives.
– Identify three basic approaches to developing
application software and discuss the pros and cons of
each.
Fundamentals of Information Systems, Third Edition
4
Principles and Learning Objectives
(continued)
• Choose a programming language whose functional
characteristics are appropriate for the task at hand,
taking into consideration the skills and experience of
the programming staff.
– Outline the overall evolution of programming
languages and clearly differentiate among the five
generations of programming languages.
Fundamentals of Information Systems, Third Edition
5
Principles and Learning Objectives
(continued)
• The software industry continues to undergo constant
change; users need to be aware of recent trends
and issues to be effective in their business and
personal life.
– Identify several key issues and trends that have an
impact on organizations and individuals.
Fundamentals of Information Systems, Third Edition
6
Hardware Components
• Central processing unit (CPU)
– Arithmetic/logic unit (ALU)
– Control unit
• Input devices
• Output devices
Fundamentals of Information Systems, Third Edition
7
Hardware Components (continued)
• Communications devices
• Primary storage devices
• Secondary storage devices
Fundamentals of Information Systems, Third Edition
8
Hardware Components (continued)
Figure 2.1: Computer System Components
Fundamentals of Information Systems, Third Edition
9
Processing and Memory Devices:
Power, Speed, and Capacity
• System unit
– Houses CPU and memory
• All other devices are linked to the system unit
Fundamentals of Information Systems, Third Edition
10
Processing Characteristics and
Functions
• Machine cycle time: time to execute the instruction
phase and the execution phase
• Clock speed: electronic pulses produced at a
predetermined rate
• Wordlength: number of bits that can be processed
at one time
Fundamentals of Information Systems, Third Edition
11
Processing Characteristics and
Functions (continued)
• Physical characteristics of the CPU
– Digital circuits on chips
– Electrical current flows through silicon
Fundamentals of Information Systems, Third Edition
12
Memory Characteristics and Functions:
Storage Capacity
Table 2.1: Number of Bytes
Fundamentals of Information Systems, Third Edition
13
Types of Memory
• Random access memory (RAM)
– Temporary
– Volatile
• ROM (read-only memory)
– Usually nonvolatile
Fundamentals of Information Systems, Third Edition
14
Multiprocessing
• Multiprocessing: simultaneous execution of two
or more instructions
• Parallel processing: linking hundreds or
thousands of processors operating in parallel
• Grid computing: collection of computers
working to solve a common problem
Fundamentals of Information Systems, Third Edition
15
Secondary Storage and Input and
Output Devices
• Secondary storage
– Also called permanent storage
– Nonvolatile
– Greater capacity and greater economy than memory
Fundamentals of Information Systems, Third Edition
16
Secondary Storage Access Methods
• Sequential access: records must be retrieved in
order
– Sequential access storage devices (SASD)
• Direct access: records can be retrieved in any
order
– Direct access storage devices (DASDs)
Fundamentals of Information Systems, Third Edition
17
Secondary Storage Devices
• Magnetic tapes
• Magnetic disks
• Redundant array of independent/inexpensive disks
(RAID)
• Compact disc read-only memory (CD-ROM)
Fundamentals of Information Systems, Third Edition
18
SAN
• Storage area network
• Provides high-speed connections between datastorage devices and computers
Fundamentals of Information Systems, Third Edition
19
SAN (continued)
Figure 2.4: Storage Area Network
Fundamentals of Information Systems, Third Edition
20
Secondary Storage Devices
(continued)
•
•
•
•
•
CD-recordable (CD-R) discs
CD-rewritable (CD-RW) discs
Digital versatile disc (DVD)
Memory cards
Expandable storage
Fundamentals of Information Systems, Third Edition
21
Input Devices
• Personal computer input devices
– Keyboard
– Mouse
• Voice-recognition devices
• Terminals
Fundamentals of Information Systems, Third Edition
22
Input Devices (continued)
•
•
•
•
•
Touch-sensitive screens
Bar-code scanners
Optical data readers
Point-of-sale (POS) devices
Automatic teller machine (ATM) devices
Fundamentals of Information Systems, Third Edition
23
Input Devices (continued)
• Magnetic ink character recognition (MICR) devices
• Radio-frequency identification
Fundamentals of Information Systems, Third Edition
24
Output Devices
•
•
•
•
Display monitors
Liquid crystal displays (LCDs)
Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs)
Printers and plotters
Fundamentals of Information Systems, Third Edition
25
Output Devices (continued)
CRT monitors are large and bulky in comparison to LCD
monitors (flat displays).
Fundamentals of Information Systems, Third Edition
26
Computer System Types
•
•
•
•
Handheld computers
Portable computers
Thin client
Desktop computers
Fundamentals of Information Systems, Third Edition
27
Computer System Types (continued)
•
•
•
•
Workstations
Servers
Mainframe computers
Supercomputers
Fundamentals of Information Systems, Third Edition
28
Overview of Software
• Computer programs: sequences of instructions
• Documentation: describes program functions
• Systems software: coordinates the activities of
hardware and programs
• Application software: helps users solve
particular problems
Fundamentals of Information Systems, Third Edition
29
Supporting Individual, Group, and
Organizational Goals
• Sphere of influence: the scope of problems and
opportunities addressed by a particular organization
– Personal
– Workgroup
– Enterprise
Table 2.5: Classifying Software by Type and Sphere of Influence
Fundamentals of Information Systems, Third Edition
30
Systems Software: Operating Systems
• Operating system (OS): set of programs that
control the hardware and act as an interface with
applications
• Common hardware functions
– Get input (e.g., keyboard)
– Retrieve data from disks and store data on disks
– Display information on a monitor or printer
Fundamentals of Information Systems, Third Edition
31
Operating Systems (continued)
Figure 2.8: The role of the operating system and other systems
software is as an interface or buffer between application
software and hardware.
Fundamentals of Information Systems, Third Edition
32
Operating Systems (continued)
• User interface
– Allows individuals to access and command the
computer system
– Command-based user interface: uses text
commands
– Graphical user interface (GUI): uses icons and
menus to send commands to the computer system
Fundamentals of Information Systems, Third Edition
33
Operating Systems (continued)
• Hardware independence
– Application program interface (API): allows
applications to make use of the operating system
• Memory management
– Control how memory is accessed and maximize
available memory and storage
Fundamentals of Information Systems, Third Edition
34
Operating Systems (continued)
• Processing tasks
– Multitasking: more than one program running at the
same time
– Time-sharing: more than one person using a
computer system at the same time
– Scalability: ability to handle an increasing number of
concurrent users smoothly
• Networking capability: features that aid users in
connecting to a computer network
Fundamentals of Information Systems, Third Edition
35
Operating Systems (continued)
• Access to system resources
– Protection against unauthorized access
– Logons and passwords
• File management
– Ensures that files in secondary storage are
• Available when needed
• Protected from access by unauthorized users
Fundamentals of Information Systems, Third Edition
36
Current Operating Systems
Table 2.6: Popular Operating Systems Across All Three Spheres of
Influence
Fundamentals of Information Systems, Third Edition
37
Workgroup Operating Systems
•
•
•
•
•
Windows Server
UNIX
NetWare
Red Hat Linux
Mac OS X Server
Fundamentals of Information Systems, Third Edition
38
Enterprise Operating Systems
• z/OS
• MPE/iX and HP-UX
• Linux
Fundamentals of Information Systems, Third Edition
39
Operating Systems for Small
Computers and Special-Purpose
Devices
• Palm OS
• Windows Embedded
• Windows Mobile
Fundamentals of Information Systems, Third Edition
40
Application Software
• Gives users the ability to solve problems and
perform specific tasks
• Interacts with systems software; systems software
then directs the hardware to perform the tasks
Fundamentals of Information Systems, Third Edition
41
Types and Functions of Application
Software
• Proprietary software: unique program for a specific
application, usually developed and owned by a
single company
• Off-the-shelf software: purchased software
• Customized package
Fundamentals of Information Systems, Third Edition
42
Personal Application Software
Table 2.8: Examples of Personal Productivity Software
Fundamentals of Information Systems, Third Edition
43
Personal Application Software
(continued)
Table 2.8: Examples of Personal Productivity Software (continued)
Fundamentals of Information Systems, Third Edition
44
Workgroup Application Software
• Workgroup application software: supports
teamwork, whether people are in the same location
or dispersed around the world
• Groupware: software that helps groups of people
work together more efficiently and effectively
Fundamentals of Information Systems, Third Edition
45
Enterprise Application Software
• Software that benefits an entire organization
• Enterprise resource planning (ERP) software:
programs that manage a company’s vital business
operations for an entire multisite, global organization
Fundamentals of Information Systems, Third Edition
46
Programming Languages
• Sets of keywords, symbols, and a system of rules
for constructing statements
• Allow humans to communicate instructions to be
executed by a computer
• Syntax: a set of rules associated with a
programming language
• Different languages have characteristics that make
them appropriate for particular types of applications
Fundamentals of Information Systems, Third Edition
47
Software Issues and Trends
• Software bugs
– Program defects that keep it from performing correctly
• Copyrights and licenses
• Global software support
Fundamentals of Information Systems, Third Edition
48
Summary
• Hardware: central processing unit (CPU), input and
output devices, communications devices, primary
storage devices, and secondary storage devices
• Random access memory (RAM): temporary and
volatile
• ROM (read-only memory): usually nonvolatile
• Multiprocessing: simultaneous execution of two or
more instructions
Fundamentals of Information Systems, Third Edition
49
Summary (continued)
•
•
•
•
Sequential access: records retrieved in order
Direct access: records retrieved in any order
Computer programs: sequences of instructions
Systems software: coordinates the activities of
hardware and programs
• Application software: helps users solve problems
Fundamentals of Information Systems, Third Edition
50
Summary (continued)
• Operating system (OS): programs that control the
hardware and act as an interface with applications
• Graphical user interface (GUI): uses icons and
menus to send commands to the computer system
• Programming languages: allow humans to
communicate instructions to be executed by a
computer
Fundamentals of Information Systems, Third Edition
51
Descargar

Slide 1