```Business Data Communications,
Fourth Edition
Chapter 2: Fundamentals of Data
Communications
Here, you’ll insert a graphic
from the cover. This will
come much closer to the
BBD.
Learning Objectives
• Explain the concepts of bit rate, baud rate,
frequency, and bandwidth
• Distinguish between digital and analog
signals
• Describe the purpose of a modem and
define three types of modems
• Define the data codes used in data
communications
Chapter 2: Fundamentals of Data Communications
2
Learning Objectives
• Describe how a telephone works
• Describe the structure of the telephone
network
• Describe the telephone numbering system
in the United States
Chapter 2: Fundamentals of Data Communications
3
Introduction
• Data is transmitted from one point to
another in data communications
• Data must be in an acceptable format
• Various forms of signals are used to
transmit the data
• Telephone system is examined in this
chapter
Chapter 2: Fundamentals of Data Communications
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Signal Representation
• Signal – electrical charges or pulses of
light
• Bit rate
– Bit – smallest unit of information
– Binary notation (1 or 0) or (on or off)
– Data codes (ways to represent characters)
Chapter 2: Fundamentals of Data Communications
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Signal Representation
• Bit rate
– Byte (a character)
– Bit rate (speed at which data is transmitted)
– Bits per second (used to describe bit rate)
Chapter 2: Fundamentals of Data Communications
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Figure 2-1. Frequency spectrum.
Chapter 2: Fundamentals of Data Communications
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Signal Representation
• Baud Rate
– Baud (change in signal)
– Baud rate (number of changes per second)
– Voltage (+ and – charges)
– Current (flow of electric charge)
Chapter 2: Fundamentals of Data Communications
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Chapter 2: Fundamentals of Data Communications
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Signal Representation
• Baud Rate
– Alternating current (AC) (electrical outlets)
– Direct current (DC) (batteries)
– Signals made up of more than 1 bit
• Dibit (signal made up of 2 bits)
• Tribit (signal made up of 3 bits)
• Used for transmission of large files
Chapter 2: Fundamentals of Data Communications
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Signal Representation
• Frequency
– Number of times the current goes through a
cycle
– Hertz (Hz) (measure of frequency)
– Kilohertz (kHz) (1,000)
– Megahertz (MHz) (1,000,000)
– Gigahertz (GHz) (1,000,000,000)
– Audio frequencies (lowest frequencies)
– See Table 2-1 for list of frequencies
Chapter 2: Fundamentals of Data Communications
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Signal Representation
• Bandwidth
– Range of frequencies
– BW = High frequency - Low frequency
– Example:
• 2,500 Hz – 200 Hz = 2,300 Hz BW
– Guardbands (prevents frequencies from
interfering with each other)
– Wider bandwidth means more data can be
transmitted
Chapter 2: Fundamentals of Data Communications
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Chapter 2: Fundamentals of Data Communications
13
Digital Signals Versus Analog
Signals
• Digital data
– Discrete items (text, integers)
• Analog data
– Continuous data (light, voice)
• Frequency modulation
– Signal is changed based on the number of waves
• Process control computers
– Process continuous (analog) data
Chapter 2: Fundamentals of Data Communications
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Chapter 2: Fundamentals of Data Communications
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Digital Signals Versus Analog
Signals
• Modems
– Convert digital to analog and analog to digital
– MOdulator/DEModulator
– Internal
• Called a “card”, PC cards for laptops
– External
• Sits on the desk next to the computer
• Connected by a cable
Chapter 2: Fundamentals of Data Communications
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Chapter 2: Fundamentals of Data Communications
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Digital Signals Versus Analog
Signals
• Modems
– Modem speeds
• 9600 to 56,000 bps
• Table 2-2 shows modem costs
– Data compression
• Transmits fewer characters, resulting in faster
transmission speeds
• Example: V.42bis (32 chars. to 11 chars.)
• Maximum transmission rate is called the
throughput
Chapter 2: Fundamentals of Data Communications
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Digital Signals Versus Analog
Signals
• Modems
– Always used in pairs
– Internet Service Providers
• Provide connection to users
• Has a permanent Internet connection
– On-line services
• America OnLine, Microsoft Network, Yahoo
• Connection to Internet & other services
Chapter 2: Fundamentals of Data Communications
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Chapter 2: Fundamentals of Data Communications
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Digital Signals Versus Analog
Signals
• Modems
– Bulletin Board System – for leaving messages
– Cable Modem
• Maximum speeds of 40 Mbps (compare to 56Kbps)
• Higher speeds but at a higher cost than ISP
– Modem eliminator (null modem)
• 50 feet or less
• 1,200 to 38,400 bps
– Short-haul modem
• Up to 20 miles
• 1,200 to 9,600 bps depending on distance
– Fax modem
• Sends fax through a computer
Chapter 2: Fundamentals of Data Communications
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Data Codes
• General
Description
– Data codes represent
characters
– Rules for converting bits to
characters
– ASCII, EBCDIC, Unicode
Chapter 2: Fundamentals of Data Communications
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Data Codes
• American Standard Code for Information
Interchange (ASCII)
– Standard ASCII – 7 bit code
– Extended ASCII – 8 bit code
– Special ASCII characters for data
communications – Table 2-4
Chapter 2: Fundamentals of Data Communications
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Chapter 2: Fundamentals of Data Communications
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Chapter 2: Fundamentals of Data Communications
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Data Codes
• Extended Binary-Coded Decimal
Interchange Code (EBCDIC)
– 8-bit code
Chapter 2: Fundamentals of Data Communications
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Chapter 2: Fundamentals of Data Communications
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Data Codes
• UNICODE
– 16-bit code
– Supports up to 65,536 characters
– Used for languages such as Chinese,
Japanese, Korean
– Includes mathematical, geometric and other
symbols
– Only used with OS that can display the codes
Chapter 2: Fundamentals of Data Communications
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Telecommunications – Voice
Communications
• Introduction
– Good quality transmission medium
– Telephone network components
• The Telephone
–
–
–
–
Converts human voice to electrical signal
Converters (does the conversion)
Transmitter and Receiver (both are converters)
Diaphragm vibrates to convert sound to electricity
• Telephone network supports many features
Chapter 2: Fundamentals of Data Communications
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Chapter 2: Fundamentals of Data Communications
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Chapter 2: Fundamentals of Data Communications
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Telecommunications – Voice
Communications
• The Telephone Network
–
–
–
–
End office (aka central office, exchange office)
Local loop (connects home to end office)
Local exchange carrier (provides dial tone)
T-Carrier Circuits (1.5Mbps rate)
Chapter 2: Fundamentals of Data Communications
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Telecommunications – Voice
Communications
• Telephone calls
–Local call (made within local end offices)
• Intraoffice call (same prefix)
• Interoffice call (different prefix)
–Tandem office (handles calls within an area
code, unit calls)
–Toll offices (handles calls to a different area
code)
Chapter 2: Fundamentals of Data Communications
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Chapter 2: Fundamentals of Data Communications
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Chapter 2: Fundamentals of Data Communications
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Telecommunications – Voice
Communications
• The Telephone Network
– Telephone lines
• Voice-grade circuits
• Multiplexing used to combine many calls on a
single line (uses guardbands to separate calls)
– Used by cable TV as well
– Telephone signals
• Dial tone, ringing, busy, etc.
• Table 2-5 shows types of signals
Chapter 2: Fundamentals of Data Communications
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Telecommunications – Voice
Communications
• Telephone Numbering Systems
–
–
–
–
–
Direct distance dialing (DDD)
Area codes (expansion in 1995)
Exchange codes (prefix in phone number)
Country codes (identifies other country)
800 service (WATS, toll free)
• 888, 877, 866 are now also toll free
– 900 service (caller charged)
– Dial around services (10-10-xxx numbers)
Chapter 2: Fundamentals of Data Communications
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Summary
•
•
•
•
•
•
Signals transmit information
Data codes convert information
Transmission speed
Transmission capacity
Digital versus analog data
ASCII code, EBCDIC code, UNICODE
Chapter 2: Fundamentals of Data Communications
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Summary
• Telephone network
• Quality of telephone lines
• Telephone numbering system
Chapter 2: Fundamentals of Data Communications
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Communications Trailblazer
• John T. Chambers, Cisco Systems
– Cisco sells routers & switches
– Cisco is successful even when the economy
is on a downturn
– Chambers has received many awards
– Previously at Wang labs and IBM
– Has open communication with employees
– Promotes tremendous loyalty among
employees
Chapter 2: Fundamentals of Data Communications
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Spotlight On
• Wireless Technology in Schools
– Wireless technology now in grade and high
schools as well as universities
– Uses
• In classroom to do research
• Accessing courses on the Web
• PDAs to access e-mail, Internet, other users, to
take notes
– Higher Ed – Classroom on a cart
Chapter 2: Fundamentals of Data Communications
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Chapter 2 Complete
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