An Introduction
Various Robot Fields:
Aerospace (air travel, space
Exploration (underwater, space,
Robot Fields: Medical
Robot Fields: Military
Robot Fields: Service
Robot Fields: Exploration
Robot Fields: Manufacturing
Definition (4 distinctions)
A robot is an automatically controlled,
reprogrammable, multipurpose,
manipulative machine with several
reprogrammable axis, which may be
either fixed in place or mobile for use in
industrial automation applications.
Industrial Robot
Applications (1 distinction)
AKA Multi-functional / Multipurpose
May perform many operations such as
welding, bending, moving, breaking, etc.
Robot Applications:
Robot Applications:
Robot Applications: Arc Welding
Robot Applications: Arc
Robot Applications:
Plasma Arc Welding
Robot Applications:
Spot Welding
Robot Applications:
Robot Applications:
Grinding / Deburring
Robot Applications:
Pick and Place / Palletizing
Robot Applications:
Plasma Arc Cutting
Robot Applications:
Plasma Arc Cutting
Robot Applications:
Plasma Arc Cutting
Robot Applications :
Spray Painting
Robot Applications:
Spray Painting
Robot Applications:
Adhesive Application
Robot Applications:
Other Common
Robot Applications:
 Deflashing
 Measuring
 Waterjet Cutting
Manufacturing Robots are
Reprogrammable: (2nd distinction)
1. Robot’s motion is controlled by written
program, on or off-line
2. The program may be modified change
Robotic Controller:
1. Central processing unit (CPU)microprocessor, performs calculations
2. Memory- stores data, regulates
computation time
3. I/O devices- keyboard, outside
computer, teach pendant, recorders,
printers, screen
4. Software- AML, RAIL, Karel, APT, VAL,
Teaching Robots –
Accomplished through:
Teach pendants
Teach terminals
Controller front panels
Teaching Activities:
1. Robot power-up and preparation for
2. Entry and editing of programs
3. Program Compilation (error check and post
4. Program execution
*NOTE: not a sequence of steps for all robots
Programming Methods
On-line – realtime connection of programming
manipulator movements (downtime
associated. Robot cannot produce value
during on-line programming. However, what
you see is what you get.
Off-line- no physical connection of
programmer with manipulator. Downtime
Offline Programming
Utilized feature of Simulation software
Allows cell to continue operations during
Check for trouble areas and Suggest optimum
path, tools (with simulation)
Upload existing programs to be
evaluated/changed (while robot is operating)
Allows complex tool paths to be programmed
easily (particularly with simulation)
Minimize joint wear
Very little time needed to refine operation
Three Types of Programming:
1. Simulation
2. Structured Languages
3. Manual real-time or lead through
1) Robot Programming :
Simulation Tasks
Offline Programming (OLP)
Robot Evaluation and Set-up
Evaluation and Set-Up
Test “What-If” scenarios
Changes in robot position
 Selection of robot model
 Part entry/movement/exit in cell
 Conveyor positioning
 Cell layout interferences with plant layout
All can be modeled and virtually “Walked
Through” using simulation.
Ergonomics & Safety
Eliminates need for Programmer to be
in work envelope during programming
Evaluate Machine-Human interactions
Operator/Laborer can be modeled along
with equipment
Safety features can be tested
Cell and safety devices can be viewed
from all angles before the actual
building of the cell
2) Robot Programming :
Structured Languages
Typically offline programming
Multiple scenarios can be scripted in very
little time (for testing)
Complex routines are made possible
Typical capability with many of today’s
simulation softwares.
Robot Programming :
Structured Languages
3) Robot Programming :
Manual Real-time (online)
AKA Lead-Through Programming
On-line programming – dedicated link
between operator and manipulator
Limited capability in testing multiple scenarios
Robot Programming :
Manual Real-time
Why do we have robots?
1. Robots can work in hazardous
2. Robots can work 24 hours/day, 7
3. Robots can handle repetitious tasks
4. Robots can work in sterile
environments eliminating any risk of
Why do we have robots?
5. Robots can be more precise than
humans in some applications
6. Reprogrammable (flexible)
7. Variable sizes
8. Fast
9. Low hourly cost to operate
Problems with robots:
1. Limited applications (movement
restrictions) – limited capability
2. Can be costly (end-effectors, ROI)
3. Payload restrictions
4. Programming can take time
5. Repeatability can be lacking for some
6. Must be continuously maintained
Robot System
1. Robot Arm(s)
2. Hardware- power supply and controller
(communication interface which monitors and
operates the equipment and sensors)
3. Equipment, devices, and sensors required for
the robot to perform its task (electrical and
fluid support systems)
4. The end-effector(s) – tooling performing
work, grippers
5. Software- language used to communicate
action of the manipulator
Manipulator Power
Control through electric-drive motors,
pneumatic / hydraulic actuators.
AKA End-of-arm tooling
Describes tooling (welders, adhesive
applicators, hooking mechanisms)
Gripper- open and closing mechanism
designed to grasp parts, most grippers
activated by compressed air
Accuracy- degree to which a robot arm is
able to move to a specific position, Robot
accuracy is usually one or two magnitudes
greater than the arms repeatability.
Repeatability- Repeatability is the degree to
which a robot system is able to return to a
specific point, the best in terms of
repeatability on assembly robots is within
.0005 inches.
Work Envelope- Space which the robot
gripper can move
Axis numbering- method used to describe
the axes of motion of a robot when
programming (base to end-effector)
Coordinate systems- XYZ, ABC, number of
coordinates required to define a point is
determined by the number of degrees of
freedom present on the robot
Degree of freedom- [typical industrial
robots have four to seven degrees of
freedom] each axis has a degree of
freedom within the work envelope
Duty cycle- the ratio of run time to the total
operational time that a robot can
continuously work with the rated payload at
rated conditions (e.g., speed, acceleration,
and temperature) without overheating or
degrading the robot specifications
Payload- load capacity of a robot
Payload = Tooling Weight [EOA] + Part
 Rated payload
 Maximum payload