Automated Systems
Lesson 2: Robot Terminology
Lesson 2: Automated Systems
By the end of this lesson you will be able to:
1.
Name 6 pieces of anatomy a robot
2. Suggest suitable end effectors for a task
3. Suggest suitable actuator for a robot
4. Describe how a robot is told what to do.
5. Explain the term degrees of freedom
Lesson 2: Automated Systems
Anatomy of a Robots
Arm
Shoulder
Wrist
Hand
Waist
Elbow
Lesson 2: Automated Systems
End Effectors
An end-effector is the "hand" connected to the robot's arm that
helps it do its job.
End effectors can be tools such as: a gripper, a vacuum pump,
tweezers, scalpel, blowtorch.
De-Burrers
Vacuum Cups
Grippers
Nippers
Change the robot’s end-effectors, change its program and it can
do a complete new task instantaneously. This is adaptability.
Lesson 2: Automated Systems
Actuators
Actuator is the “power supply" that drive the robot parts to move.
Without an actuator a robot couldn’t move.
Robots are actuated by air, water pressure, or electricity.
pneumatic
hydraulic
Hydraulic actuators  very high power requirements, eg cutting
Pneumatic actuators
Electric actuators
 high power requirements eg gripping, moving robots parts.
 light power supplies, eg tightening a screw, welding.
Lesson 2: Automated Systems
Programming a Robot
Robots are control by a control program.
1)
Control programs can be created by a programmer writing a
control program using a control programming language.
Control languages have been created specifically for controlling systems.
Control languages commands include: forward, back, up, down, release, ie
words that would be useful when programming a system.
2)
Programming by Example
A person will have sensors attached to them, they then perform the
task, sensors monitor every movement and that becomes the program.
To change what a robot does you install a new control program.
Degrees of Freedom
The number of ways a robot can move is described as its degrees
of freedom.
Each direction a joint can go gives an arm 1 degree.
The greater the number of degrees of freedom the more ways a
robot can move, and so the more tasks can be done.
Questions
Lesson 2: Automated Systems
Answer the following questions in your jotter.
1.
Name the 6 pieces of anatomy of a robot.
2.
Suggest suitable end effectors for:
3.
a)
Picking up a windscreen.
b)
Cutting a piece of steel.
Suggest suitable actuator for a robot that:
a)
b)
c)
Lifts and moves a car engine into the engine bay of a car.
Tightens bolts on the car engine.
Tightens a screw into table.
4.
Describe how a robot is told what to do.
5.
Explain the term degrees of freedoms.
Fun Things To Do
Learn to design your own robot
http://www.bbc.co.uk/science/robots/techlab/sub_selector.shtml
Find out about the Mars Explorer
http://marsrovers.nasa.gov/home/
More end effectors:
http://www.columbiaokura.com/end_effectors.php
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Automated Systems