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WHAT IS CLOSE READING?
Standard 1
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Read closely to determine what the text says explicitly, and to make
logical inferences from it; cite specific textual evidence when writing or
speaking to support conclusions drawn from the text.
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Close reading of complex texts involves engaging with and examining
facts and details about the text.
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The purpose is to notice features and language used.
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Students should think thoroughly and methodically about what the
details mean.
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WHAT DOES CLOSE READING LOOK LIKE IN
THE CLASSROOM?
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Students
Students should slow down
when reading and become
“text detectives”.
They should be more
attentive to the texts.
Students should read and
reread deliberately.
Focus on Tier II words
and/or particular phrases or
sentences the author uses.
Students present their
thinking, observations, and
analyses through writing,
technology or speaking
Teachers
Teachers can use text exemplars
from the appendices of the
CCSS.
(http://elaccss.ncdpi.wikispaces.n
et/Resources)
Teachers need to select text
that is rich enough for students
to draw good evidences from
them.
Teachers will provide students
with a purpose or focus for
reading.
Strategies should be provided
for reading different genres and
text types
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1.
HOW TEACHERS MIGHT IMPLEMENT CLOSE READING
Select shorter texts
2. Model several readings of short texts
3. Read and re-read deliberately, slowly examining and thinking about
• the meanings of individual words,
• the order of sentences
• the development of ideas
4.
Read with a pencil in hand, annotate the text while marking the big ideas and skills.
5.
Look for patterns in things you noticed about the text – repetition, contradictions,
similarities. commonalities.
6.
Identify unfamiliar vocabulary words (Tier II Words)
7.
Teacher-led discussions of the text
8. Write about the text using evidence to support student responses
The major difference between this framework and guided reading, shared reading, or
read-aloud frameworks is that the teacher does not provide a lot of background
information for the reader other than an initial purpose for the first reading.
The rationale is that teachers need to give children the opportunity to focus on the
text alone during the first reading instead of relying on pre-reading information from
the teacher.
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DEMONSTRATION CLOSE READING
(Modeling)
Demonstration
1. Choose the text. Use material that relates to your content-area
curriculum or text that reflects a topic in which your students have
expressed interest. If you use a textbook, be sure to supplement your
instruction in the area of close reading with a variety of engaging
informational books, articles, and Web-based information. This will
help your students see the many different contexts in which close
reading is warranted.
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2. Introduce the text and the
concept. Let students know that you
will be showing them ways of
engaging in a process of reading
closely to meet your purpose and
that they will then be expected to
do this on their own and in groups.
Clearly articulate the purpose of
the reading event. Show how you
preview the text features such as
tables of contents, illustrations,
subheads, and the index to locate
the parts you want to read.
Is the purpose to gain broad
knowledge on a topic?
Is it to answer a specific question?
Is it to learn how to do something?
Is it to learn about a story from
the past?
For example:
“This website has all kinds of
information about dinosaurs, but
our focus is on learning about the
fossil record. So I’m going to use
fossil record as a search term and
then read that part closely.”
“There is a lot of information about
moths in this article, but we are
focused on learning how physical
characteristics help an organism
survive. We’ll use the subheadings
to find that section and
discuss/take notes about that
part.”
“We have been learning about
stories from the past. This is a
biography. We want to learn all we
can about this story so it makes
sense to closely read the whole
text, knowing that some parts will
be more important than others.”
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3. Demonstrate and discuss the concept.
Read the text aloud, showing students how you stay focused on your
purpose. Demonstrate how you track meaning, monitor your understandings,
and think through any questions you may have, all in light of your purpose. Let
them “see” your thinking processes, and encourage them to do the same
types of deep thinking as they read independently.
Figure RIT 1.1 offers some prompts to support the process. (see handout p.
155)
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Collaborative Engagement
(Read to Someone or Read to Self)
1. Choose the literature and the reading context. Choose a piece of
informational text, or a text set, that is relevant to a current content
area of study in your classroom. Determine whether to read aloud or
provide copies for students to read independently. Different discussion
groups may use different texts as long as the class is focused on the
same general content (such as water, endangered species, females in
history, celebrations).
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2. Arrange for students to read or listen to the text. Before reading,
help students articulate the purpose. Are they seeking to collect
information on a specific topic; answer a set of questions; learn how
to do something; enjoy a good historical account of an event? They
should focus their attention accordingly and prepare to come to the
group with ideas for discussion. If you are having students do the reading,
be sure to provide support for those who may struggle with the material.
Figure RIT 1.9 provides a suggested set of starter prompts and activities to
facilitate close reading.
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3. Arrange for the students to come together as partners or groups to
discuss the content as assigned.
4. Arrange a follow-up discussion. When all groups are working from
the same text, or focusing on similar content, organize for a whole class
discussion as a follow-up to the group activity.
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Independent Reading
(Read to Self)
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First, have an appropriate set of materials always ready for use.
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Second, make your expectations clear. Close reading can be encouraged
by familiarizing students with the general procedures you expect and
then monitoring their activity to be sure they are following through.
•Set a purpose.
• Preview.
• Read.
• Review your purpose.
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Third, plan for students to engage in brief forms of response to check for
understanding during or after each session. Having students write or orally
share their thinking has been found to help keep them on task. Along these
same lines, it can also be helpful to conference with students.
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How to Use Response Journals
Response journals are notebooks in which students record their thoughts
about a text that has been read or listened to.
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Write one word that was important to your reading today.
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Write one sentence that shows what was important in your reading today.
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Write a fact or piece of information about one part that would be interesting to
discuss with a partner or group.
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Sketch one part you found to be interesting. Use captions or labels to show what is
happening.
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Write your opinion about this book or section. Use ideas from the text to support
your thinking.
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Write down what you think are the main ideas.
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Write about a connection you made to the book. Write about a connection between
this book and another book.
Provide opportunities for students to share their journals with you or with a
partner.
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Stop and Chats
Stop-and-chats are a framework for students to read and then stop at a
designated point to discuss the content with a partner. They may be used
any time two or more (even thirty) students are reading the same text. The
process encourages close reading by setting up students to read with a
specific purpose in mind and fostering conversations related to that
purpose.
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How to Use Stop and Chat
1. Student teams place a marker at an agreed-upon stopping point. upon reaching this
point, they exchange their thoughts about what they have read so far and then
place the marker at the next agreed uponstopping point in preparation for another
chat. To get the conversations started, you and the students can brainstorm some
generic prompts, or you can offer your own. For example:
• Given our purpose, what have we learned so far?
• What is this part about?
• What did the author teach in this section?
• What do you think will happen next?
• Is there a word that is either important or confusing?
2. As students gain experience with stop-and-chats, follow up with lessons
based on observations of their performance.
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Interactive Journals
Interactive journals are notebooks in which students participate in short
written conversations about what they are reading. Interactive journals
encourage close reading involving students in a cycle of reading manageable
sections of text, generating questions together, and responding briefly
through writing. To introduce the process, provide each student with a
notebook, showing where to write or draw, and where to leave room for a
peer to respond. Let students know that the journals will be a place for
sharing ideas about their reading.
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How to Use Interactive Journals
1. Instruct student-teams to decide on a selected amount of text to read
closely and to then be prepared to exchange their thoughts in writing. To get
the written conversations started, the students can brainstorm some generic
prompts or you can offer your own.
For example:
• Choose one word that represents an important concept.
• Choose one sentence that represents what you think is the most
important concept in this section.
• Given our purpose, what have we learned so far?
• What did the author teach in this section?
• What do you think will happen next?
• What do the visuals on page ______ tell us?
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How to Use Interactive Journals
2. At the agreed-upon stopping point, students write their responses
and then trade journals to respond to the partner. They may exchange
journals two or three times during a reading session, deciding
on new prompts and stopping points as they go.
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Information Gathering
Information gathering involves inviting students to closely read a text or
its illustrations to meet a specific whole-class purpose.
1. Collect a text set on a topic you are exploring through your social studies
or science curriculum. Use one of the texts to show students how you
read for specific information the class needs. For example, the class may
be working to collect information on the ways individuals can conserve
resources or on an important person in history. Show how you read the
text and/or view the illustrations with this goal in mind.
2. Provide each student with a form for documenting information in relation
to the question at hand. Figure RIT 1.10 provides an example. Allow
students to work in teams to search for answers to the question.
3. As a follow-up, bring the class back together to use the information
that has been collected. For example, the class might web the
information
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Key Feature Illustrations
A key feature illustration is a visual representation of the who, what,
where, when, why, and how of an informational text. Such illustrations
may be created as a part of students’ independent reading (to encourage and
support close reading) or after you have read a text aloud to/with the class
(as a means for rethinking and discussing the content). Students may use any
combination of drawing, writing, colors, and symbols to represent the key
features.
Figure RIT 1.3 may be used as a template.
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Number One Sentence!
Encourage close reading by giving students a sentence challenge. Students
use highlighting tape or an erasable highlighter to mark what they think is
the most important sentence in a designated section of text or in the
whole text. You can teach students to choose a sentence that signifies an
Important concept worth considering or one that best signifies the main
idea. After students have individually highlighted key sentences (or done so
in teams) allow discussion time with a small group or the whole class.
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Number One Word!
Encourage close reading by giving students a word challenge. Students use
highlighting tape or an erasable highlighter to mark what they think is the
most important word in a designated section of text or the whole text.
After students have individually highlighted key words (or done so in teams),
allow discussion time with a small group or the whole class.
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Notes to the Author
Students use sticky notes to comment to the author on what they are
thinking as they read. For example, they may comment on feelings: “This
part is so sad!” They might comment on the content: “So, whales migrate to
warm water to have their babies? That makes sense.” They may even have a
little advice for the author: “You could have written more about that. It
would have been interesting.” “I wish you would have defined echidna.” Close
reading is encouraged as students have an “audience” (albeit imagined) with
whom to share their thinking. Of course, it’s always fun for students to
share their notes with one another, and this can encourage creativity and a
desire to keep writing.
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Informational Text (Refer to handouts)
GIST
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Students use a graphic organizer to identify the 5 W’s and H
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Use the information to write a 20 word summary of the text – the “gist” of what
they have read
Somethings’ Purpose But Then So
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Students use a graphic organizer to identify the something in the passage, the
purpose of the something, but what happens is…, then what will happen, and so what
we need to do.
Literary Text
Someone Wanted But So
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Students use a graphic organizer to identify the someone in the story, what they
wanted, but the problem was, so it solved by …
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Use the information to write a summary statement
Graphic organizers help the students with interactions between schema (a structured
way to help us organize knowledge) and text.
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Text Dependent Questions
Text Dependent Questions: What Are They?
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specifically asks a question that can only be answered by referring
explicitly back to the text being read
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does not rely on any particular background information nor depend on
students having other experiences or knowledge
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uses the text and what students can extract from what is before them.
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Text dependent questions are not…
After reading Lincoln’s “Gettysburg Address”
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Why did the North fight the civil war?
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Have you ever been to a funeral or gravesite?
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Lincoln says that the nation is dedicated to the proposition that “all men are
created equal.” Why is equality an important value to promote?
The overarching problem with these questions is
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they require no familiarity at all with Lincoln’s speech in order to answer them
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they take students away from considering the actual point Lincoln is making.
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they seek to elicit a personal or general response that relies on individual
experience and opinion
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Text Dependent Questions
Text-dependent questions should ensure that readers remain faithful to
and come to understand the author’s views. Students don’t have to agree
with the author (in fact, we encourage them to challenge the text), but
rather that they understand the points the author has made so that they
can challenge it with evidence.
There are a number of different topics for which text-dependent questions
can be developed. There are questions that focus on parts of texts, and
there are questions that focus on whole texts.
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Simply asking text-dependent questions will not ensure that students
suddenly develop the ability to read and understand complex texts.
Students still need to be taught how to read deeply, and how to respond
with evidence from the text. Teachers should model for students how
they think about texts and how they look for evidence in the text when
responding to questions.
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Whole
Across Texts
Opinions,arguments,
intertextual connections
Entire Text
Inferences
Segments
Author’s purpose
Paragraph
Vocabulary and text structure
Sentence
Word
Part
Key details
General understandings
Progression of Text Dependent Questions
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General Understandings
These questions
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ensure that students grasp the overall view of the text
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are global questions
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require that students demonstrate an understanding of what the author
really said.
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may probe the sequence of information presented, the story arc, the
main claim and evidence presented, or the gist of a given passage.
“Jabberwocky”
“What is the progress of the hero?”
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Key Details
These text-dependent questions
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require that readers pay attention to the details
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respond to questions that ask who, what, when, where, why, how
much, or how many
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search for nuances in meaning
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determine importance of ideas
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find supporting details for the main ideas.
“What were the slithy toves doing in the wabe?”
“What does that mean?”
“How would you describe the condition of the borogoves?”
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Vocabulary and Text Structure
Text-dependent questions
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focus on the specific words and phrases the author uses as well as
the structure of the text
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requires that the reader bridge literal and inferential meanings, noting
both denotation (literal or primary word meanings) and connotation (the
idea or feeling that a word invokes) as well as the shades of meaning
elicited by the word choice.
For example, an author might use the words walk, stroll, amble, saunter,
meander, or wander. The shades of meaning are different, and readers
should take note of these choices.
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readers should notice figurative language and how the organization
of the text contributes to meaning.
“What type of poem is this?”
“Knowing the structure, what do we expect?”
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Author’s Purpose
There is a purpose for each text.
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the genre helps the reader understand the author’s purpose
Was the specific text written to entertain, explain, inform, or persuade?
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the way in which the author constructs the text—the point of
view—helps readers determine the purpose.
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texts are told from a specific vantage point, and readers want to know,
whose story is not represented?
See genre posters on
http://www.sanjuan.edu/webpages/gguthrie/files/Genre%20ALL%20post
ers%20in%20one%20attachment.pdf
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Inferences
Inferences are more than guesses or simply telling students to
“read between the lines.”
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readers should know how to probe each argument in persuasive text,
each idea in informational text, each key detail in literary text, and
observe how these build to a whole.
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questions should allow students to consider the information that is
provided and then make informed guesses from the information
provided
“How did the narrator know the Jabberwock was dead, not the Jubjub bird
or Bandersnatch?”
“What can we infer about the Jabberwock, given the text and his name?”
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Opinions, arguments, and
inter-textual connections.
Opinions, arguments, and inter-textual text dependent questions are often
the questions that teachers like to ask because these questions tend to
generate a lot of discussion and personal connections but do not require
students to read the text.
These questions are good to follow up text dependent questions.
According to the poem, how should we construct our notions of good and evil?
Why is the hero of the poem—the ultimate good guy who slays the
Jabberwock—anonymous?
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QAR
QAR is a reading strategy in which students categorize comprehension
questions according to where they found the information they needed to
answer each question.
There are five primary purposes.
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Helps students monitor their comprehension
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Provides a purpose for reading a text
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Allows students to assess their comprehension
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Encourages elaborative and critical thinking
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Helps refute the common misconception held by students that the text
tells all
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QAR
Right There Questions – words or sentences in the text will answer the
questions
Think and Search – information that students will need to answer questions
is implied in the text, but students will need to combine ideas in the text
with prior knowledge to form inferences
In My Head – the information students will need to answer the question is
entirely in the readers’ minds
http://www.vdoe.whro.org/elementary_reading/QAR1-252010_F8_FastStart_512k.swf
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EVALUATIONS
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Please write your name on the evaluation.
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Lay the evaluation near the sign-in sheet on the way out.
Thank you! Have a great
evening!
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Close reading and text dependent questions