Chapter 10

Illustrations
 Story or anecdote example of
▪ An idea, issue, or problem being discussed
▪ Brief Illustrations
▪ A sentence or two to drive home a point
▪ Extended Illustrations
▪ Like a short story
▪ Hypothetical Illustrations
▪ Situations or events that haven’t actually occurred
▪ “Imagine you are stranded on a deserted island”

Illustrations
 Using illustrations effectively
▪ Relevance to subject being supported
▪ Should represent a trend
▪ Avoid illustrations using rare instances
▪ Vivid & specific
▪ Don’t drag out using too many details

Illustrations
 Using illustrations effectively
▪ Listeners should identify with
▪ Human drama, triumph, pain, joy etc.
▪ Personal ones are best
▪ A personal story that can be an illustration
 Powerful effect on the audience
 "Overcoming personal challenge"
 "Impact of a personal decision"

Descriptions & Explanations
▪ Most commonly used form of support
 Describing
▪ To produce word pictures
▪ Appeal to audience senses
 Explaining how
▪ When discussing a process
▪ How a jury is selected
 Explaining Why
▪ Provide reason or consequences of something

Descriptions and Explanations
 Using them effectively
▪ Keep them brief
▪ If too long, will bore audience
▪ Use specific and concrete language
▪ To keep info lively & interesting
▪ Avoid too much
▪ Too much of the same becomes boring

Definitions
▪ Use to clarify uncommon terms
 Definitions by Classification
▪ From a reference book/dictionary
 Operational Definitions
▪ Explaining how something works
or what it does

Definitions
 Using Them Effectively
▪ Use definitions when needed
▪ Not as time filler or for common terms
▪ Be certain there understandable
▪ Avoid definitions that leave audience confused
▪ Make definitions consistent with use in speech
▪ These two nations will never be friendly
their amity goes back centuries

Analogies
▪ Comparison used to increase understanding
 Literal Analogies
▪ Comparison between two similar things
 Figurative Analogies
▪ Comparison between two seemingly different things
▪ Simile
▪ Metaphor

Analogies
 Using analogies effectively
▪ Make sure things compared literally are similar
▪ The different eras of recession,
▪ Artists or entertainers with similar styles
▪ Similarity in figurative comparisons should be apparent
▪ The workplace was a seething snake pit…

Statistics
▪ Use of numbers to define a fact
 Using statistics as support
▪ Use 3 or 4 brief examples to be effective

Statistics
 Using statistics effectively
▪ Using reliable sources
▪ Reputable – Gov. organizations, research reports, etc
▪ Authoritative – Primary sources -> secondary sources
▪ Unbiased – Sources not associated with special interest groups
▪ Interpret statistics accurately
▪ The population of native American students has increased over 3oo % in just
the last 3 semesters

Statistics
▪ Round off numbers
▪ If statistics have odd numbers, round them off for audience
▪ 2,003,456 -> 2,000,000
▪ Use visuals to present your statistics
▪ Use graphs, tables, charts, etc
▪ This will help audience recall or relate to the statistics you are sharing

Opinions
▪ Statements from people regarding ideas or topics
 Expert Testimony
▪ Opinion or statement from an expert in a given field
 Lay Testimony
▪ The statement or opinion of the average person
 Literary quotations
▪ Quote from an article or book

Opinions
 Using opinions effectively
▪ Cited authority should be expert on subject
▪ Identify sources
▪ Cite unbiased authorities
▪ Cite opinions that represent mass opinion
▪ Quote sources accurately
▪ Use literary quotations sparingly
Descargar

Introduction to Public Speaking