Reference Architecture
for Enterprise Integration
CIMOSA GRAI/GIM PERA
Dima Nazzal
Definitions
Enterprise: a complex set of business processes that can be
designed to accomplish a specific set of objectives.
Enterprise integration (agile manufacturing, business process
reengineering, CIM):
 The coordination of the operation of all elements of the
enterprise working together in order to achieve the
optimal fulfillment of the mission of that enterprise as
defined by enterprise management.1
Architecture:
 A description (often graphical) of the structure of
something 1.
 A structured plan, a framework on the basis of which a
product or an organization of an enterprise can be
constructed2
Definitions
Reference model: a general model that can be
used as a base to derive other models from.
Reference Architecture: is a structured set of
models which represent the building blocks of
the system.3
Enterprise Integration Reference Architecture:
is a framework in which enterprise related
concepts are organized.
The most known reference architectures are: CIMOSA,
GRAI-GIM and PERA
The Enterprise Model Requirements
The enterprise model which fits the specific
objectives of the particular enterprise should:



identify the different processes in the enterprise.
contain the machines, the information, the transfer of
information, the human involvement and the
functions that have to be carried out.
address design activities, manufacturing processes,
the way materials are ordered, moved and
transformed into products.
Enterprise Modeling
Enterprise modeling has to fulfill several
requirements to achieve efficient and effective
enterprise integration:


provide a modeling language easily understood
by non-IT professionals, but sufficient for
modeling complex industrial environments.
provide a modeling framework which:
 covers the life cycle of enterprise operation from
requirements definition to end of life.
 enables focus on different aspects of enterprise
operation by hiding those parts of the model not
relevant for the particular point of view.
 supports re-usability of models or model parts
Open System Architecture for
CIM - CIMOSA
In 1985, the ESPRIT Consortium AMICE
started to work on the definition and
specification of a CIM architecture for
enterprise integration.
CIMOSA (completed in 1996) is premodeling solution which provides a
framework based on the system life cycle
concept
CIMOSA
CIMOSA Reference Architecture supports the
description of the enterprise, from the
management level to the shop floor level
CIMOSA consists of:



Enterprise modeling framework (reference
architecture)
Enterprise modeling language
Integrating infrastructure
CIMOSA Enterprise RA
CIMOSA Enterprise Modeling Constructs
(building blocks)
CIMOSA Process Based Enterprise Modeling
Domains with interacting Domain Processes
CIMOSA Process Based Enterprise Modeling
CIMOSA Process Based Enterprise Modeling
Decomposition of a Domain Process into Business Processes and
Enterprise Activities
CIMOSA Process Based Enterprise Modeling
CIMOSA Process Based Enterprise Modeling
Domain Process Representation as a network of
Enterprise Activities
CIMOSA Process Based Enterprise Modeling
CIMOSA Process Based Enterprise Modeling
Functional Operations executed
by Functional Entities
(Resources)
CIMOSA Process Based Enterprise Modeling
FE1:
vehicle
controller
FO1:
set down
vehicle
FO2:
clasp
the lot
X
X
FO3:
pull up
vehicle
X
CIMOSA Integrating Infrastructure
The Integrating
Infrastructure
provides a set of
service entities for
model engineering
and enterprise
operation control.
Relations between the Enterprise System Life Cycle and
the progress of the modeling process
GIM-GRAI Integrated Methodology
Developed by the laboratory for automation and production at
the university of Bordeaux- France since 1970’s.
GIM is composed of the following elements:
 GRAI conceptual model: a representation of basic concepts of
a manufacturing system decomposed into three sub-systems:
physical system, decision and information system.
 GIM modeling framework (RA) with three dimensions:
views, life cycle, and abstraction level.
 GIM structured approach: guide to show how to perform
analysis and design of the manufacturing system in three
main phases: analysis, user-oriented design, and technicaloriented design.
 GIM modeling formalisms (languages): GRAI grid and GRAI
nets for decision system modeling, IDEF0 and stock/resource
for physical system modeling, ER for information system
modeling, IDEF0 for functional system modeling.
GIM Conceptual Model
GIM Modeling Framework and RA
GIM Structured Approach
GIM Modeling Formalisms
Purdue Enterprise Reference
Architecture - PERA
PERA was developed at Purdue University during
the period 1989-91.
The simplifying concepts of systems
engineering in enterprise integration






The mission
Separation of functions
Networks of tasks
The place of the human
The life cycle
Planning and organization of the integration effort
(the master plan)
PERA - Enterprise Integration Project
Phases
The
master
plan
Phase Title
Description
1
Identification of the
Enterprise Business
Identity and boundaries of the enterprise
2
Project Concept
3
Project Definition
4
Project Specification or
Identify human tasks, initial choice and
Preliminary Design
specification of human organization
Identify information and control equipment
and mission fulfillment equipment
Mission, vision and values
Operational policies
Identify requirements, tasks and modules
Develop flow diagram or other models
of the Enterprise Entity
PERA - Enterprise Integration Project
Phases
Phase Title
Description
5
Completion of all
detailed design needed
for construction phase
Detailed design of human and organizational
information, control, customer product and
service components of the enterprise
6
Implementation,test
and commissioning
phase
Conversion of detailed design to actual plant
elements, testing, operational trials and
acceptance or commissioning
7
Operations phase
The enterprise is carrying out its mission
8
Decommissioning
Enterprise has come to the end of its economic
life
PERA RA
PERA- Models and tools involved at each phase
of the life cycle
GERAM
The IFAC/IFIP Task Force on Architectures for Enterprise
Integration was formed by IFAC (The International Federation of
Automatic Control) and IFIP (The International Federation for
Information Processing) in August 1990.
The Task Force objective was to contribute a single, universally
accepted architecture, framework, or model for enterprise
integration.
They developed the architectural specification GERAM
(Generalized Enterprise Reference Architecture and
Methodology).
Task Force recognized three RA:



CIMOSA
GRAI-GIM
PERA
The "matrix" model for GERAM was developed by combining the
distinctive characteristics of each of three studied architectures
into one diagram.
Components of the GERAM Framework
Enterprise
Reference
Architecture
employs
Enterprise
Engineering
Methodology
utilize
Implemented in
Modeling
Concepts
support
supports
Reference
Models
Enterprise
Engineering
Tools
used to build
Enterprise
Models
Enterprise
Modules
used to implement
Enterprise
Operational
Systems
Enterprise
Modeling
Languages
Comments on CIMOSA
liked
Did not like
Structuring of RA into generic
Constructs definitions are not
and partial modeling levels
very clear.
Support for function,
Requirements definition level
information, resource, and
modeling is not well defined
organization modeling views.
No reference models to design
Specifying the processes and
the system
exchange of information using
domain processes, events, and
object views.
Comments on GIM-GRAI
Liked
Did not like
Addition of the decisional
view.
Some reference models have
been developed
Requirements definition level
modeling is not well defined.
Comments on PERA
Liked
Did not like
The focus on preparing the
master plan
Emphasis on defining the role
of human
covers all phases of the
enterprise life cycle
lack of modeling formalisms.
methodology is not clearly
defined
References
1.
T. J. Williams. 1998. “PERA and GERAM – Enterprise Reference
2.
iies.www.ecn.purdue.edu/IIES/PLAIC/PERA-GERAM_10-98.pdf
http://cimosa.cnt.pl/Docs/Primer/primer0.htm
3.
4.
5.
Architecture for Enterprise Integration”.
D. Chen, B. Vallespir and G. Doumeingts. 1997. “GRAI
integrated methodology and its mapping onto generic
enterprise reference architecture and methodology”
Computers in Industry. V33 p387-394.
G. Doumeingts B. Vallespir, and D. Chen. 1995.
“Methodologies for designing CIM systems: A survey”. V25
p263-280
http://www.cit.gu.edu.au/~bernus/taskforce/geram/versions
/geram1-6-3/v1.6.3.html
Descargar

GERAM:General Enterprise Reference Architecture …