Sysmus Graz
THE TRANSDISCIPLINARY
FOUNDATION OF
(EUROPEAN) MUSIC THEORY
Richard Parncutt
Centre for Systematic Musicology
University of Graz, Austria
PSYCHOLOGICAL DIRECTIONS
AT EUROMAC VII
Author
Topic
Subdiscipline
Susan de Ghizé
Orgasm in Tristan & Isolde
Sexology, Evolution
Johanna Tafuri
Children’s singing
Development
Iolanda Incasa
Performance gesture
Performance
Aurélie Fraboulet-Meyer Corporality & interpretation Emotion
Audrey Lavest-Bonnard Schönberg’s language
Psychoanalysis
MUSIC THEORY:
A LONG HISTORY OF
TRANSDISCIPLINARITY
Cosmic mysticism
Theology
Physics
Philosophy
Mathematics
Cognition
Pythagoras
Boethius
Rameau
Schenker
Forte
Lerdahl
MUSIC THEORY:
MODERN
TRANSDISCIPLINARY
CHALLENGES
Ethnomusicology
Neuroscience
Computing
1. How important is
transdisciplinarity
for music theory?
2. If it really is important,
how can it be
promoted?
Why think about transdisciplinarity?
All academic disciplines are evolving
 discussions on future directions
Recent developments in music theory
• USA 1980s: big new impulses  Europe 2010s?
The inevitability of transdisciplinarity
• If two disciplines are relevant to a question, why not?
My relevant background
Research
Perception of musical structure
 Music theory, physics, psychology
Co-founder of conference series
CIM: Conference on Interdisciplinary Musicology
SysMus: Student conference on Systematic Musicology
cAIR: Conference on Applied Interculturality Research
Politics
Experience of humanities-sciences conflict in musicology
Transdisciplinarity
Concept
Definition
Multidisciplinarity Many disciplines side by side
Interdisciplinarity,
Interaction between disciplines
Crossdisciplinarity
The disciplines are themselves
Transdisciplinarity changed by the interaction
(fluid/multiple identities)
Transdisciplinarity
1. Independent
disciplines
1
2
2. Interaction
(synergy)
1
2
3. Mutually enriched
but still distinct
1’
2’
Transculturality
e.g. in modern cities
1. Independent
cultural groups
1
2
2. Interaction
(synergy)
1
2
3. Mutually enriched
but still distinct
1’
2’
Transdisciplinarity as transculturality
some dangers
Different…
• Languages
• Ways of thinking
• Ways of doing
 Conflicts! due to
• Ignorance of Other, prejudice
• Delusions of own superiority
Collegiality in transdisciplinary teams
especially important in musicology!
– common goals
• research question
• high standards
– democracy
• equal value and rights of team members
– transparency
• clear aims and intentions
– quality control
• evaluation – but only within disciplines
• realistic appraisal of strengths, weaknesses
• mutual constructive criticism
TRANSDISCIPLINARY MUSIC
THEORY AT SYSMUS GRAZ
Music theory
Music psychology
Psychoacoustics
Physics, mathematics
Ethnomusicology
Was ist der Grundton dieses Akkords?
Musiktheorie und Psychologie
Welche Töne werden gehört?
Welche Töne klingen wichtiger?
Auditive Szenenanalyse
Zusammenarbeit mit Annemarie Seither-Preisler, Inst. für Psychologie
Listeners hear a chord followed by a tone
Task: Rate how well the tone goes with the chord
7
6
diminished triad [036] - average of all three
inversions
Ges
Es
C
goodness of fit
C
Es
?
Ges
5
4
3
2
20 musicians, 60 data per point
1
Gottfried Reichweger,
SysMus Graz
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
interval (semitones)
9 10 11
Indirekte Verbindung zwischen
Psychoakustik und der heutigen
Wahrnehmung über Musikgeschichte
Psychoakustik
Musikgeschichte
Wahrnehmung
Mathematical modeling
of musical expression
Erica Bisesi, SysMus Graz
 tempo and dynamics fluctuate gradually or suddenly
 model gradual fluctuations (e.g. ritardando) by curve fitting
 curves can be added together
Wie beeinflusst Musik
Bewusstseinszustände?
Bernd Brabec, SysMus Graz
•
•
•
•
•
„trance-fördernde“ musikalische Strukturen?
körpereigene Rhythmen (Chronobiologie)?
Kontext: kulturell oder sozial?
Bewegung? Performance, embodiment?
Monotone Frequenzen? Obertöne?
Music and the integration
of cultural minorities
Angelika Dorfer & Martin Winter, SysMus Graz
• Cultural minorities in Graz
– Germany, Italy, Australia…
– Egypt, Albania, China, Irak, Nigeria, Serbia…
• Music in everyday life: Daily realities
– Role of active music making
• Promotion of integration through music
– “Transmusic”: fluid multiple musical identities
The Journal
of Interdisciplinary
Music
Studies
(JIMS)
Conference on Interdisciplinary Musicology CIM
Journal of Interdisciplinary Music Studies JIMS
Fora for constructive interaction among all subdisciplines
or paradigms of musicology:
analytical, applied, comparative, cultural, empirical, ethnological, historical,
popular, scientific, systematic, theoretic
...and all musically relevant disciplines:
acoustics, aesthetics, anthropology, archeology, art history and theory, biology,
composition, computing, cultural studies, economics, education, ethnology,
gender studies, history, linguistics, literary studies, mathematics, medicine, music
theory and analysis, neurosciences, perception, performance, philosophy,
physiology, prehistory, psychoacoustics, psychology, religious studies, semiotics,
sociology, statistics, therapy
Conference on Interdisciplinary Musicology CIM
Journal of Interdisciplinary Music Studies JIMS
promote interdisciplinary collaboration within musicology
All contributions have at least two authors. They represent at least two of the
following three groups: humanities, sciences, practically oriented disciplines.
focus on quality rather than quantity
Academic standards are promoted by anonymous peer review of submitted
abstracts by independent international experts in relevant (sub-) disciplines. The
review procedure is transparent, and the reviews are impersonal and constructive.
promote musicology's unity in diversity
CIM promotes all interdisciplinary music research and treats all musically relevant
disciplines and musicological subdisciplines equally.
Conference on Interdisciplinary Musicology CIM
previous events
Year
Theme
City
Host
2004
-
Graz
University of Graz
2005
timbre
Montréal
Observatoire internationale de la
création musicale
2007
singing
Tallinn
Estonian Academy of Music and
Theatre
2008
structure
Thessaloniki
Aristotle University of Thessaloniki
2009
instruments
France
Université Pierre et Marie Curie
2010
culture
Sheffield
University of Sheffield
2011
performance
Glasgow,
Scotland
Centre for Music Technology, U
Glasgow
Conference on Interdisciplinary Musicology CIM
future events
Musikwissenschaftliches
Seminar, U Göttingen
2012
History
Göttingen,
Germany
2013
Popular music
Izmir, Turkey
Dokuz Eylül University
2014
Technology
Berlin, Germany
National Institute for Music
Research
2015
Consciousness &
imagination
Shanghai, China
Res Inst for Ritual Music in
China,
Shanghai Cons Mus
2017
Emotion and
expression
Belgrade, Serbia
Faculty of Music, University
of Arts
Why CIM?
The fragmentation of musicology
proportion
100
historical
80
systematic
60
40
20
0
ethnological
1600
1700
1800
année
1900
2000
Alterity in musicology
in-group (“the” musicology)
• elite Western history
intermediate
•
•
•
•
•
•
theory/analysis
ethnomusicology
pop/jazz research
sociology
philosophy
performance research
out-group (Others)
•
•
•
•
acoustics
psychology
physiology
computing
Power games with ambiguous labels
for academic disciplines
Subtle forms of discrimination
science
humanities
= natural,
= lettres,
social, formal! Geisteswiss.
science ≠ all academic
research and scholarship!
Which “science”
are you talking
about?
What do you mean
by “musicology”?
music ethno
ology music
?
ology
systematic
musicology
musicology?
systematic
musicology
musicology = all research
about all music!
Power games with ambiguous labels
for academic disciplines
Solutions
“Science”
Wissenschaft = academia, scholarship, research NOT science
wissenschaftlich = academic, scholarly NOT scientific
“Musicology”
Don’t abbreviate “historical musicology” to “musicology”
Include musical sciences (psychology, computing etc.)
Conference on Applied
Interculturality Research (cAIR)
• Graz, 2010; Porto, 2012
• Bring together practice and research
– like music theory!
• All areas of interculturality
Keynotes at cAIR10 Graz
Interreligiöser Dialog
Institutsvorsitzende der Religionswissenschaft,
Universität Graz
Ulrike Bechmann
Internationales Recht
Direktor des ETC / European Training and Research
Center for Human Rights and Democracy
Vorsitzender des World University Service Austria
Wolfgang Benedek
Musikethnologie
Universität Wien
Vorsitzende von “Music and Minorities” / Initiative
Minderheiten
Ursula Hemetek
Weltliteratur
Professorin an der Panjab Universität, Indien
Mitbegründerin von MELOW
Manju Jaidka
CONCLUSION
Concrete ideas for the future
Inclusive music theory
• Take advantage of all relevant expertise
Diversity = academic quality!
 Equality/promotion of traditional Others
–
–
–
–
Women
Non-Western researchers, non-English speakers
Different sexual preferences and gender identities
“Too old”, “too young”, “disabled”, “strange ideas”…
Inviting women
Reasons for inviting 4♂ and 0♀
• “We could not find women with appropriate expertise”
• “The first women we contacted declined”
But there are also good solutions:
try harder - ask for advice - try repeatedly
Leading Euro cognitive music theorists:
• Nicola Dibben, Sheffield, GB
• Barbara Tillmann, Dijon, France
Tip for EuroMac VIII: Optimal ratio 3♀:1♂
 Women experience being a majority
 Men experience being a minority
 New insights, new approaches, new creativity
Transdisciplinary peer review
Goal: Transdisciplinary quality!
– evaluate both disciplines independently
(the only reliable way to avoid “bullshitting”)
 Recognition of music theory!!
– equal status, no longer a “Hilfswissenschaft”
– more money, jobs, infrastructure, PhD programs…
Globalise music theory
• Balance Euro & North American
– No longer provincial!
• Include non-Western…
– musics, composers, theorists…
• Consider music’s global roles
– Cultural understanding
– Global development
– Conflict resolution
• Continue to promote local…
– traditions, languages, composers, theorists
Dare to ask difficult questions
• Why is major-minor tonality so popular?
– Theory, history, psychology…
• Music-structural universals? Implications?
– Theory, ethnomusicology, psychology
• The musical mind-body problem
– Theory, neuroscience, philosophy
• Algorithmic tests of music theories
– Theory, computer science
Work together
• EuroMac VII:
– less than 5% of papers with >1 author!
• Suggestion for the future:
– Collaborate with expert from another discipline!
– Develop infrastructures in music theory to
promote synergetic transdisciplinarity
The “transdisciplinary music theorist”
• Curious
– adventurous, courageous, broad-minded…
• Solid basis in music theory
– good undergraduate degree plus original research
• Some knowledge of other disciplines
– One or two relevant ones
• Knowledge/experience of collaboration
– esp. between humanities and sciences
Descargar

Folie 1