Understanding and helping
students with special needs
within the ESL classroom
Denise Pontbriand
Gwenn Gauthier
Translation: Gwenn Gauthier, Julie Proteau and Cindy Stern
Factors that may affect student
learning
Individual
Factors
A
School-related
Factors
Family and Social
Factors
School-related
Factors
Pedagogical practices
Perceptions and expectations of interveners
Classroom management, school structure
or classroom environment
Interpersonal relationships or positive
interactions
Emulation
receptive
expressive
verbal
visual
attention
memory
planning
senses
fine
gross
Differentiated
interventions…
Winning conditions.
Student with
behavioural
difficulties
Under-reactive
behaviour
Over-reactive
behaviour
withdrawn
hostile
fearful
Oppositional
defiant
depressed
thoughtless
• I can express
myself easily but I
may use an
inappropriate tone
of voice.
• I have problems getting
organised.
• I may refuse to do a
task: refuse to start it, to
pursue it or to end it (ext.).
• I lack commitment and
perseverance when
doing assignments (ext.
and int.).
• My comprehension is
concrete and literal.
• I have good motor
skills.
• I may act in an
unpredictable
manner.
• My reactions are linked
to my emotions:
complaining, crying,
getting angry, being
sensitive or touchy.
• I have problems
learning from my
previous experiences.
• I have difficulties
relating to others.
• I may be withdrawn;
isolate myself; I need
adults to protect me.
(int. behaviours).
• I may defy, argue, be
demanding; create a
disturbance (ext.
behaviours).
•Make sure I am aware of
the daily schedule and
transitions.
•As a precaution, let me
know about any changes
to the schedule.
•Have a place in the
classroom where I can calm
down, decompress or be
alone.
•Place my desk strategically in the
classroom taking into account the group
dynamics.
•Encourage me to check my agenda or
work planner.
•Let me know all the material required
to do the task at hand.
•Limit the use of certain objects on my
desk.
•Establish clear expectations in
regards to the work to be
done: time, quantity, resources
and help.
•Plan activities for me to do when I’ve
completed my work.
• Clearly present your
expectations: constance,
coherence.
• Intervene discretely.
• Establish nonverbal cues to remind me to
stop engaging in a negative behaviour.
•Regularly remind me of the clearly defined
rules of conduct in the classroom or the
school, and enforce the pre-established
consequences.
•Teach me the rules to
different games.
•Provide me with the means to relax (ex.
reading corner, sress ball, listening to
music whith headphones, walking).
Student with
attention
deficit disorder
with or
without
hyperactivity
• I have an idea, I
must share it right
away (impulsive)
• I will delay
responding
because I am
distracted.
• I have good ideas, I’m funny
and imaginitive.
• I make careless mistakes
and I forget even when I
apply myself.
• I have a poor sense of time
and space: I’m all over the
place, I have trouble finishing
what I start.
• I am distracted by noise,
and even by my own
thoughts.
• I squirm, I talk, I
need to burn
energy.
• My emotions can
get the better of me
so I may become
unusually upset or
spontaneously say
whatever is in my
head.
• I have problems
integrating
different social
activities.
• Use visual cues to setup a
classroom routine.
• Tell me how much time I have to do my
work.
• Separate a task into manageable chunks.
• Encourage me to show what I have done.
• Warn me when there are 5 minutes left till
the end of the class.
• Encourage the habit of using an agenda to
plan the week (cycles 2 and 3)
• Place my desk far from busy or noisy places such
as doors, windows, classroom sharpener.
• Allow for movement in between important tasks
(time for moving, stretching)
• Assign tasks, such as erasing the board,
distributing papers, opening windows, messenger
• Offer digital music player or CD player to
do individual tasks.
• Limit the number of objects hanging from the
ceiling which constantly move.
•Place all necessary material on my
desk.
•Remove objects that are not relevant to
the task.
• Make sure you have my attention before
giving short and clear instructions.
• Ask me to rephrase the instructions in my
own words in order to verify my
comprehension.
• Display pictograms on the wall or on my
desk to help me visualise instructions (stop,
look, listen)
• Assign me teammates that can serve
as models.
• Use non-verbal cues that we have agreed
upon: standing near me, hand on my
shoulder, point to photo of object on my
desk
• Emphasise important elements
• Alternate periods of intense work and tasks that
allow for movement and reenergising
• Allow me to:
- drink from a bottle of water in between two tasks
- chew gum
- fiddle with an anti-stress ball
• Guide me towards a peer that
could help me with an activity or
task
• Recognise that I may need time in order to
participate in the process of conflict
resolution
• Play soft music during certain activities
Student with
dysphasia
It’s a language disorder for which the following aspects:
Receptive
understanding the “oral” message
Expressive
production and organisation of the oral message
… are affected
• I often demonstrate a
strong need to
communicate.
• Understanding the
meaning of words or
sentences is difficult.
• I express myself with
difficulty: sounds,
words, sentences,
ideas.
• Planning, organising, and
orienting myself in space
and time can be
challenging.
• I have an acute sense of
observation.
• Generally I am aware of
my difficulties.
• I have a certain lack in
fine and gross motor
skills.
• I tire quickly during a
task or during
explanations.
• When I do not
understand, I have a
hard time controling
my emotions.
• I want to socialise.
• I have a hard time
perceiving,
understanding and
resolving certain social
situations.
• Present the “Menu of the day”.
• Inform ahead of time when there
will be changes in the schedule.
• Specify the time allotted for an activity (ex:
Fun Tac on the clock).
• Plan for pauses during longer tasks.
• Allow for necessary time to express my
message.
• Place yourself in front of me at my
level when communicating with me.
• Diminish sources of noise (a corner with
screens, individual pencil sharpeners)
• Provide me with visual aids to help my
understanding.
• Place all necessary material on my desk.
• Remove objects that are not relevant to the
task.
• Use gestures when giving
explanations.
• Give short instructions at a slow
pace.
• Repeat activities so that I may understand,
memorise, use and integrate them.
• Repeat words that I have incorrectly
pronounced without asking me to
repeat them.
• Ask me to say the steps and
strategies “out loud” when carrying
out a task.
• Help me settle conflicts in an
appropriate way.
• Explain the social language of my age
group, such as expressions and jokes.
dyslexia
dysphasia
Dys : difficulty
Dys : difficulty
Lexia : use of words
Phasia : speech,
language
Trouble with reading and
writing
Language disorder
No code
Code 34
Normal intelligence
Normal intelligence but
reveal weakness:
language is impediment
Student with
pervasive
developmental
disorders
(PDD)
• I don’t understand the
need to communicate.
• My understanding is
concrete and literal.
• I use stereotypic
language.
• I want to communicate
to satisfy my needs.
• I have problems
processins and
filtering information.
• I have problems
planning and getting
organized.
• I have enhanced
perceptual discrimination.
• I have a photographic
memory.
• I am hypersensitive or
hyposensitive to
certain evironmental
stimuli.
• I lack certain fine
and gross motor
skills.
• I have limited
interests.
• I process information
from my point of view
only.
• I have few facial
expressions.
• I am often stressed.
• I have no
reciprocal skills.
• I like routine.
• I am very
predictable.
• Set up a daily routine with visual support.
• Give me my own schedule with pictures,
words or meaningful photographs.
• Announce changes to the schedule to help me deal
with the unscheduled.
• Use an audio cue or visual reference so I can know
the timeframe of the work that needs to be done.
• Give me a reasonable delay to react to a request.
• Allow me to take brief breaks during the task to
maintain my availability.

Time-Timer
• Assign me a strategically placed
permanent seat in the class-away
from windows and traffic. I prefer to
be near a wall or a bookshelf.
• Offer me a place where I can withdraw to
when I become overstimulated (quiet corner).
• Give me enough space so I can move
without any mishaps.
• Let me use the tools that work best for me.
• Help to minimize stimuli (ex. CD player,
tennis balls on chairs, headphones)
• Give me tangible
reinforcement.
• Chunk the task into smaller parts
intersperced with activites that
interest me.
• Divide the task by illustrating or
writing the different steps.
• Give me a checklist and encourage me to
check off what has been completed as soon
as it’s done.
• Use short, precise and familiar sentences that I can
manage.
• Give me one instruction at a
time.
• Look at what I am doing rater than trying
to get my attention.
• Let’s agree on a non verbal cue to get my attention
or to encourage me to get back to work.
• Closed questions or multiple choice work better for me.
• Stop between instructions to monitor my
comprehension.
• Help me get into rank by asking
me to leave an arm’s length
distance between me and the
other student.
• Provide me with means to relax (quiet corner,
reading corner, anti-stress ball, listen to music
with headphones, walk).
Student with
mild handicap
• I want to communicate with
others.
• I have a limited vocabulary
that I use in many situations.
• I have trouble initiating and
maintaining a conversation.
• I don’t understand play on
words (puns) or sentences
that are too long.
• I am a slow learner.
• I have cognitive delays or
arrested development.
• I have trouble memorising,
retaining and producing
information.
• It’s difficult for me to use new
knowledge in a different context
from the one I learned it.
• I have little knowledge and they
are poorly organized.
• My movements may lack
finesse and precision.
• I may have problems with
balance, dexterity or
coordination.
• I may have sensory
dysfunction.
• I have problems putting a name
to and repeating what I feel.
• I am convinced I can’t do a task
before I even begin it.
• I am aware that I am different and
my self-esteem is affected by
this.
• I can contemplate my future, but I
need help in developing a
realistic life scenario.
• I want to make friends and
keep them but I don’t know
how.
• I don’t deal well with
delays which causes
problems with others. I
seek instant gratification.
• Give me one instruction at a time and
wait a few seconds for my response.
• Let me know when the task starts
and ends.
• Let me know in advance how much
time I have to do the task.
• Chunk the task into multiple sequences.
• Give me short breaks during the task.
• Eliminate or control stimuli that
can distract me.
• Personalize certain visual references
and make them accessible to my
space.
• Place my desk near an adult or a peer
that can help me.
• Provide me with concrete material to
facilitate understanding and to encourage
the learning of new concepts.
• Use ICTs and visual support.
• Adapt material to match my abilities
• Chunk tasks.
• Favour an approach that lets me
SEE, TOUCH, and DO.
• Give me a reasonable challenge.
(modify the task).
• Suggest tasks based on my interests, my
prior knowledge, that are relevant to me.
• Adapt the requirements of written tasks so
my fine motor skills can manage.
• Use signal words: Attention!
Ready! Look.
• Encourage my efforts as well
as my successes.
• Use concrete language, short
sentences and speak slowly.
• Monitor my understanding by asking precise
questions or by restating differently.
• Help me to become aware that I have strategies that
can help me do the task..
• Help me make links to a similar task I have donewhether successfully or not- and ask me to explain
how I did the task.
• Clearly explain the requirements of
the task and the different steps
needed to do it.
1- First, you….
2- Then, you….
Some basic ingredients
• Establish a link. Be interested in
the other for what he is.
• Display ROUTINES and daily
SCHEDULES.
• Use VISUALS.
Photos
• Set up CLEAR and SIMPLE
RULES.
Drawings Pictograms
Words
• Give regular REINFORCEMENT.
Some sources





REFERENCE: At Risk Students and Students with Special
Needs
http://aenq.org/fileadmin/FSE/syndicats/z77/Stock/English/Docu
ments/Various/ReferenceSp-Ed.pdf
http://www.success4teachers.com/index.html
Gagné, P.-P.,Pour apprendre à mieux penser, La Chenelière,
Montréal, 1999, ISBN 2-89461-261-3
MELS: Learning difficulties, Reference framework for
intervention
MELS: Organisation of Educational Services for At-Risk
Students and Students with Handicaps, social Maladjustments
or Learning Difficulties
Descargar

Document