The BIG FIVE
Components of Reading
Vocabulary Development
The Big Five Components of Reading
Objectives for Vocabulary
You will be able to
– Identify the vocabulary component of the Big
5 of Reading and find how to assess it
– Learn how to choose vocabulary words to
teach
– Learn a format for teaching vocabulary
– Become intentional in planning so vocabulary
development is present in all your lessons
– Plan a lesson that contains intentional
vocabulary development
Vocabulary for This Component
 Tier
1, Tier 2, and Tier 3 words
 Receptive
vocabulary
 Productive
 Function
vocabulary
words
 Incidental
teaching
 Intentional
teaching
The Big 5 Components of Reading
Comprehension
Phonological Awareness
Phonics
Vocabulary
Fluency
Common Core Standards
Reading
State Standards for English Language Arts &
Literacy in History/Social Studies,
Science, Technical Subjects
4 - Interpret words and phrases as they are
used in a text, including determining
technical, connotative, and figurative
meanings, and analyze how specific word
choices shape meaning and tone.
From “Balanced Literacy”
CMS Literacy Facilitators’ Training
Common Core Standards
Language
4. Determine or clarify the meaning
of unknown and multiple-meaning
words and phrases by using context
clues, analyzing meaningful word
parts, and consulting general and
specialized reference materials, as
appropriate
Common Core Standards
Language
5. Demonstrate understanding of
figurative language, word
relationships, and nuances in word
meanings
Grade Level Standards
K
– homographs (duck/duck), affixes
 1 – affixes, roots and affixes (look,
looked)
 2 – prefixes, compounds, shades of
meaning (toss, throw, hurl)
 3 - affixes, similar roots (company,
companion), dictionaries
 4-5 - Greek and Latin roots and
affixes, dictionaries
Writing
Independent
Reading
Balanced
Literacy
Research
 Use
of multiple approaches is
effective to teach vocabulary,
including direct instruction, words in
context, and wide reading.
 Repeated exposures to new
vocabulary in meaningful contexts is
effective.
From “Balanced Literacy”
CMS Literacy Facilitators’ Training
Summarize to your partner
This is strictly a pantographic
hauntography of proto-mantic
motherworlds. Mysteriograms of
toposonic radiances are
deconstructed and raptoluminal
resonances at residual numinophillic
nemeta sites are reiterated in the
mycoboreal precincts.
Press release publicizing music of the band Infernal Method
What is Vocabulary?
Primary teachers: sight words
 Intermediate teachers: content words

Vocabulary is knowledge of words and
word meanings
Oral: listening and speaking
 Print: reading and writing
 Two forms:

– Receptive: recognize words when we hear or
read
– Productive: recognize words when we speak or
write
Why Is Vocabulary Important?
100 years of research:




The extent of students’ vocabulary relates
strongly to their reading comprehension and
overall academic success
Affects even phonological awareness
Significant predictor in kindergarten and first
grade of comprehension in middle and high
school
Vocabulary development is a fundamental
goal for students in the early grades.
However, very little instructional time is
devoted to vocabulary development.
The Vocabulary Gap
Hart and Risley (1995) conducted a
longitudinal study of children and
families from 3 groups:
c
Professional families
Working class families
Families on welfare
Meaningful Differences
Words
heard per
hour
Words
heard in a
100 hour
week
Words
heard in a
5,200 hour
year
Words
heard in 4
years
Welfare
616
62,000
3 million
13 million
Working
class
1,251
125,000
6 million
26 million
Professional
2,153
215,000
11 million
45 million
How Many Words Do Students
Need to Know?
 Consensus
among researchers:
2,000 to 3,500 distinct words each
year added to reading vocabularies.
 Only
8 to 10 words can be taught
effectively each week.
 Rest
come through incidental
learning.
Continuum of Word Knowledge
-Do not know the word
-Have seen or heard the word
-Know something about the word
-Know well, can explain it
Research on Vocabulary Instruction
 Vocabulary
from a text should be
taught directly and indirectly
 Repetition
and multiple exposures in
multiple contexts are important
 Learning
in rich contexts is valuable
– Words should be ones useful in many
contexts
– Words should come from content to be
read
Research on Vocabulary Instruction
 Vocabulary
students.
tasks should meet needs of
 Vocabulary
learning is effective when it
entails active engagement
 Vocabulary
can be acquired through
incidental learning
 Dependence
on a single instructional
method will not result in optimal
learning
Instruction for Vocabulary
Development
 No
single method works
– incidental learning
– intentional learning
Incidental Learning of Vocabulary
Home is where much vocabulary is
acquired.
Sources of oral and written language:
Rare words per 1,000
Newspapers
68
Adult books
53
Children’s books
31
Children’s tv shows
20
College graduates talk
17

Incidental Learning of Vocabulary
 Wide
Reading
– Read 1 hour a day, 5 days a week =
2,250,000 words a year
– If 2%-5% are unknown = 45,000 to
112,500 new words.
– If child learns 5%-10% of these words =
at least 2,250 new words a year from
reading
Incidental Learning of Vocabulary
 Teacher
Read-Alouds
The value is in the teacher talk that
accompanies the reading.
Incidental Learning of Vocabulary
 Oral
Language Experiences at School
– Teacher talk is often concrete, about the
“here and now”, and uses commonly
recognized words.
– Make word learning part of daily
routines.
Intentional Teaching of Vocabulary
Which words should be taught?
 Importance
– are, that, a, to, or, the, of
– 107 function words make up 50% of all
written words in texts
 Prepositions,
pronouns, conjunctions,
auxiliary verbs (be, have, got, do)
“Content” Words
 Nouns
 Adjectives
 “Full”
verbs
 Adverbs
Tier I, II, and III Words
 Usefulness
and Frequency
– Tier I, Tier II, Tier III words
Intentional Teaching of Vocabulary

Tier I words: clock, baby, happy
– Words children should(??) know; words used in
everyday speech

Tier II words: fortunate, maintain,
merchant
– Words that appear in written and oral language
that are not used every day

Tier III words: micron, hydrochloric acid,
contrapuntal
– Words specific to a discipline or content area
– Words that appear rarely
Intentional Teaching of Vocabulary
 How
is?
do I determine what a Tier II word
Frequency and Utility: Words that mature
language users use and that appear
frequently
Instructional potential: Words that lend
themselves to instruction and can be worked
with in a variety of ways so students can
build in-depth knowledge of them and their
connections to other words and concepts
Conceptual Understanding: Words that
describe a concept of which students already
have a general understanding
Intentional Teaching of Vocabulary
Which is the Tier II word?
Jose avoided playing the ukulele.
avoided
– Importance and utility
– Instructional potential
Can teach other forms: avoid, avoiding, avoids
– Conceptual understanding
Already have the concept of not wanting to do
something
– Verbs are where the action is
Let’s Choose Tier II Words

Johnny Harrington was a kind master who
treated his servants fairly. He was also a
successful wool merchant, and his
business required that he travel often. In
his absence, his servants would tend to
the fields and cattle and maintain the
upkeep of his mansion. They performed
their duties happily, for they felt fortunate
to have such a benevolent and trusting
master.
Let’s Choose Tier II Words

Johnny Harrington was a kind master who
treated his servants fairly. He was also a
successful wool merchant, and his
business required that he travel often. In
his absence, his servants would tend to
the fields and cattle and maintain the
upkeep of his mansion. They performed
their duties happily, for they felt fortunate
to have such a benevolent and trusting
master.
Choosing Which Tier II Words to
Teach
 Importance
and utility
 Instructional
 Conceptual
potential
understanding
You choose Tier II words
 Read
“My Father, the Entomologist”
 Choose the
5th graders
 Decide
depth
Tier II words for 4th and
which should be taught in
– important for the student to
understand the selection
– apply to other selections
Words to Teach in
Depth
longhorn beetle
antennae
metamorphosed
entomologist
obsessed
splendid
detest
shuddered
despise
mumble
muttered
hurl
Intentional Teaching of Vocabulary
 Read
aloud
– 101 Text Talk-type lessons:
– http://schools/utah.gov/curr/readingfirst
/documents
Intentional Teaching of Vocabulary
Teaching Independent Word-Learning
Strategies
 Use
of dictionaries
 Use
of context clues
 Use
of word-part information
Intentional Teaching of Vocabulary
Teaching Independent Word-Learning
Strategies
Use of Word-Part Information

Compound Words
– Small words give clues to meaning of compound
word
 Skyscraper
doghouse
guitar string

merry-go-round
Prefixes
– Most useful
– Give the meaning of a word
Intentional Teaching of Vocabulary
Teaching Independent Word-Learning
Strategies
Use of Word-Part Information
 Suffixes
– Some give the meaning of a word
 -er
-or = one who, agent
teacher, actor, sitter, collaborator
– Some give the part of speech
 -ed
= past tense verb
 -ly = adverb
 -able = adjective
Intentional Teaching of Vocabulary
Teaching Independent Word-Learning
Strategies
Use of Word-Part Information

Prefixes and suffixes that account for 75% of all
affixed words:
un- (not)
re- (again)
in-, im-, il-, ir- (not)
en-, em- (surround with)
dis- (apart, reverse)
non- (absence of)
in, im- (in)
over- (above, too much)
mis- (wrong, incorrect)
-s, -es (plural)
-ed (past tense)
-ing (changes a verb to a
noun)
-ly (adverb)
-er, -or (agent)
Intentional Teaching of Vocabulary
Teaching Independent Word-Learning
Strategies
Use of Word-Part Information

Latin and Greek roots
– Get the most efficient teaching, teach all about the word:
Migr (move), Spanish: mígrar
parts of speech
migrate (verb)
migration (noun)
migrant (noun)
migratory (adjective)
em=from
Emigrate
Emigration
Emigrant
im=in
immigrate
immigration
immigrant
Intentional Teaching of Vocabulary
Teaching Independent Word-Learning
Strategies
Use of Word-Part Information
Greek Roots
Latin Roots
telethermphoto-
-tract-spect-port-dict-rupt-scrib-
Intentional Teaching of Vocabulary
Teaching Independent Word-Learning Strategies
Use of Word-Part Information
Greek and Latin Prefixes
Inter- between
Intra- within
Post- after
Pro- forward, in front of
Co/com/con- together
Sub- under
Pre- before
Anti- against
What does this word mean?
satiate
 -sat-
= Latin root for enough
 in- = not
 able = adjective
 What
other words do you know with
the –sat- root?
Summary of
Working with Vocabulary
 Provide
a clear, concise definition of
the word
– Talk about the word meaning in context
– Relate the word to the student’s
experience
– Provide descriptions or examples of the
new word
– Have the student restate the description
or explanation in his/her own words
– Have student use the word
Assessment
 How
do we assess vocabulary?
Review
Incidental Vocabulary Teaching
Read alouds
Wide reading
Oral experiences at school
Intentional Vocabulary Teaching
Tier I, II, and III words
 Three types of Tier II word learning tasks –
Importance and utility, Instructional potential,
Conceptual understanding

Independent Word Learning Strategies
Dictionaries, Context clues,
Word part information
Resources for
Vocabulary Development

Coxhead’s (2000) Academic Word List
– http//www.vuw.ac.nz/las/research/awl
Bringing Words to Life
Robust Vocabulary Instruction
by Beck, McKeown, Kucan


Text Talk from Scholastic

Timrasinski.com/?pages=presentations

CORE
Your Turn
 Please
find a vocabulary lesson in
Imagine It!
 Are
they the words you would have
chosen based on this workshop?
– Why or why not?
 Does
Imagine It do a good job of
teaching the words?
Your Turn
 Look
in your social studies or science
manual.
– Choose 5 Tier II words
– Plan how you are going to introduce
them
– Plan follow up activities so children use
them and apply them and “make them
theirs”
– Plan how you are going to assess their
mastery of the words at the end
Vocabulary for This Component
 Tier
1, Tier 2, and Tier 3 words
 Receptive
vocabulary
 Productive
 Function
vocabulary
words
 Incidental
teaching
 Intentional
teaching
The Big Five Components of Reading
Objectives for Vocabulary
You will be able to
– Identify the vocabulary component of the Big
5 of Reading and how you assess it
– Find resources to supplement what is missing
from vocabulary development in your present
reading program
– Be intentional in planning so vocabulary
development is present in all your lessons
– Plan a lesson that contains intentional
vocabulary development
Common Core Standards
Reading
State Standards for English Language Arts &
Literacy in History/Social Studies,
Science, Technical Subjects
4 - Interpret words and phrases as they are
used in a text, including determining
technical, connotative, and figurative
meanings, and analyze how specific word
choices shape meaning and tone.
From “Balanced Literacy”
CMS Literacy Facilitators’ Training
Common Core Standards
Language
4. Determine or clarify the meaning
of unknown and multiple-meaning
words and phrases by using context
clues, analyzing meaningful word
parts, and consulting general and
specialized reference materials, as
appropriate
Common Core Standards
Language
5. Demonstrate understanding of
figurative language, word
relationships, and nuances in word
meanings
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The Big 5 Components of Reading