Please check, just in case… APA Tip of the Day: Attributing action – third person “Inappropriately or illogically attributing action in an effort to be objective can be misleading. Examples of undesirable attribution include use of the third person, anthropomorphism, and use of the editorial we” [emphasis added] (APA, 2010, p. 69). • Use I or we instead of the author or the authors, when referring to yourself. Announcements 1. There is a readings review due next week. 2. PowerPoint is not required, but appreciated, as are handouts. Upload everything to UNM Learn before class. 3. Don’t wait to get started on your final assignment. 4. You MAY include information from your intervention paper and your classmates’ presentations in your final assignment. So look ahead to see what you might need to share/learn. Quick questions or quandaries? Today’s Topic: Intervention Important Watermarks in the Development of Communication: Intentional communication Conventional communication Symbolic communication Language Intentional? Intentional Communication: “signaling behavior in which the sender is aware a priori of the effect that a signal will have on his listener.” (Bates, as cited in Reichle, Halle, & Drasgow, 1998, p. 419) Intentionality is not “all-or-none” 1. Absence of awareness of a goal; 2. Awareness of the goal; 3. Simple plan to achieve the goal; 4. Coordinated plan to achieve the goal; 5. Alternative plan to achieve the goal; & 6. Metapragmatic awareness of the plan to achieve the goal. (Wetherby, Alexander and Prizant, 1998, p. 137) Important Point! Gestures, vocalizations, and eye gaze are, for most children, are the earliest means (forms) of communicating intentionally. Therefore, if we want to help children develop intentional communication, we must be highly responsive, in predictable contexts, of their earliest (even non-intentional) communication attempts. Conventional communication? Communication forms that are generally accepted and used within a social group/community. These do NOT have to be “vetted” forms (e.g. in a dictionary), but their use should not be restricted to only a few people (like ‘tumpted’). The opposite of conventional is “idiosyncratic”. Discussion Question: Why are gestures important to consider at this level of communication development? Discussion Question Why is it important to figure out whether an individual is using symbolic communication (e.g. abstract, decontextualized representations) or not? If they are using any kind of representation (e.g. pictures) isn’t that enough to know about? Symbolic? An arbitrary and abstract relationship between the referent and its representation. Use of the symbol in a decontextualized manner. Remember! Whether something is a symbol or not depends on the relationship between the referent and its representation FOR THE INDIVIDUAL! Language? Intentional Conventional Symbolic Comprehension and production of written, spoken, and/or signed words Rule governed Quick Write In what way(s) do the intervention paradigm(s) described in the readings differ from that we typically see in classroom for students with severe disabilities? “Nonverbal” is not a useful descriptor There is a HUGE range of communication skill levels within the group of individuals who are identified as ‘nonverbal’. So, what to do? First identify “where” your student is, in terms of: o intentionality o symbol-ness o language Then, plan for intervention in natural contexts, with real communication partners, consistent with “promising practices.” Intervention Target Selection: Intentional communication is a precursor to the development of language. So, if a child has not yet developed intentional communication, language production is probably not the most appropriate target of intervention. Developing “symbol-ness” First words and early gestures are typically not fully symbolic’ they need to become “decontextualized.” Therefore we need to encourage students to use their words, gestures, or other means to communicate in a variety of contexts and for a variety of functions. •Not only for requesting! “Eliciting” Communication Natural elicitation, rather than direct elicitation, is recommended for early language and communication development. Following the individual’s attentional lead, setting up routines and arranging the environment, and responding to communicative attempts work better than artificial word elicitation strategies (i.e. flash cards). Cultural Sensitivity is a MUST! It is important to consider the communication style preferred by the family. Some intervention strategy may include some aspects that are inappropriate for some cultural groups. For example, telling a Native American student to look at you when fostering joint attention, or engaging only in adult child dyads, instead of child-child dyads, might be aspects you will need to modify. No Cookbooks! There is no one right strategy or set of strategies for teaching communication skills to all individuals with intensive communication needs or with a specific disability label. Don’t forget! 1. Accept and encourage multiple modes of communication. 2. Plan for generalization of skills to a variety of communicative contexts. 3. Take into account how different contexts influence the individual’s need for supports (i.e. cueing) and the types of communication that are appropriate within different settings. Looking ahead… More on intervention! Please take a minute for the minute paper. And don’t forget to turn your phone back on.