CAN YOU COME TAKE A
LOOK AT JOHNNY?
Responsiveness to Instruction
and Related Service Providers
WHO ARE WE TALKING ABOUT?
 NCLB,
2001 – pupil services
personnel
 IDEA
2004 – related services
AREAS OF EXPERTISE
SPEECH-LANGUAGE
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PATHOLOGISTS
phonemic awareness
articulation/ sound production
fluency of speech
voice quality and production
linguistic concepts (beside, first, after, etc.)
language structure syntax, grammatical morphemes,
and syllabification
comprehension of oral and written language
pragmatic skills (greeting, requesting information or
clarification)
sound/symbol relationships
AREAS OF EXPERTISE
PHYSICAL THERAPISTS
Mobility: Getting where you need to go
 Transfers: Moving from place to place
 Play: Not only gross motor skills
 Community Access
 Environmental Modification
 Work Skills
 Safety
 Equipment
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AREAS OF EXPERTISE
OCCUPATIONAL THERAPISTS
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personal care
student role skills
processing skills
graphic
communication/ work
production
play
community
integration
IDEA ALLOWANCE
Nothing in the Act or regulations prevents
States and LEAs from including related
services personnel in the development
and delivery of educational and behavioral
evaluations, services, and supports for
teachers and other school staff to enable
them to deliver coordinated, early
intervening services.
(71 Fed. Reg. at 46627-8)
RELATED SERVICE PROVIDERS:
RELEVANT STRENGTHS
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history of evidence-based practice
history of collaboration
value of early intervention and
prevention (medical model)
highly skilled in:
•
contextual observation
•
data collection
•
progress monitoring (therapeutic model)
•
customer service
RELATED SERVICE PROVIDERS:
NATURAL PROBLEM-SOLVERS
Therapeutic Process = Problem Solving
RELATED SERVICE PROVIDERS:
TASK DIFFERENCES
Historic Method
RtI
Global ability & achievement testing
Specific, direct measures of classroom skills
National norm comparisons
Regional, district, school, classroom norm
comparisons
Assess in 1-2 sittings/snapshots
Data collected over time; dynamic
Assess hypothetical constructs with
presumed relationship to performance (e.g.
visual perception; motor control)
Assess specific skills/performance
Parent/Teacher input supplemental
Parent/Teacher input central
Assessments minimally related to
curriculum
Assessments directly related to curriculum
Limited relationship between assessment &
intervention
Direct link between assessment &
intervention
NASDSE (2007).
RELATED SERVICE PROVIDERS:
DYNAMIC ASSESSMENT
 using
data to create broad view of:
 learner
 environment
 instructional content
 instructional methods
 focusing on child's potential for learning
 determining conditions child needs to benefit
from intervention
RELATED SERVICE PROVIDERS:
INTENSITY OF INTERVENTION
 divergence
in presentation—not content—
from core curriculum
 need
for systematic, explicit, or scripted
approach
 frequency
and duration
 size/homogeneity
of group
 degree/specificity
of instructor expertise
Clark, G. & Polichino, J. (2007) AOTA FAQ on Response to Intervention.
Fuchs, D. & Fuchs, L. (2006) Introduction to Response to Intervention: What, why, and how valid is it?
RELATED SERVICE PROVIDERS:
HOW TO INCLUDE THEM –
TIER I
 screenings
 professional
development
Consultation
• school-wide
between
Teachers
• written resources
& Parents
• in-services
 collaboration – preventive
• curriculum design
• curriculum-based assessments
• prevention programming
• parent partnership initiatives
RELATED SERVICE PROVIDERS:
HOW TO INCLUDE THEM –
TIER II
 collaboration
•
•
•
•
- diagnostic
grade-level meetings
environmental modifications
progress monitoring
Consultation
data analysis
 observations
& evaluations
with Other
Resources
RELATED SERVICE PROVIDERS:
HOW TO INCLUDE THEM –
TIER III
 collaboration
– intervening
• shared teaching
• skills-focused small group instruction
• classroom coaching
• after-school programming
 parent training
Consultation
with
Problem Solving
Action Team
RELATED SERVICE PROVIDERS:
HOW TO INCLUDE THEM –
TIER IV
 special
education referral
 goals for specially designed instruction
 direct intervention
 least restrictive environment
 supplemental aids and services
IEP
Consideration
RELATED SERVICE PROVIDERS:
CURRENT NC DATA
 consultation
with teachers
 diagnostics
 classroom
instruction
 staff development
 screenings & observations
 grade level clinics
PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS
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related service providers
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licensure
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parent consent
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workload
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facility with Essential Standards
teachers
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awareness of available RSPs
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role as client
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communication with families
related service administrators
•
funding
•
personnel management
DPI RELATED SERVICE CONSULTANTS

Perry Flynn, DPI Speech-Language Pathology
Consultant, UNC-G; 336-256-2005; [email protected]

Lauren Holahan, DPI Occupational Therapy Consultant ,
UNC-CH; 919-843-4466; [email protected]

Laurie Ray, DPI Physical Therapy Consultant , UNCCH; 919-636-1827; [email protected]
REFERENCES
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AOTA (2007). Principles for the Re-Authorization of the No Child Left Behind Act.
Retrieved from American Occupational Therapy Association Web site:
http://www.aota.org/
Clark, G. & Polichino, J. (2007) AOTA FAQ on Response to Intervention. Retrieved
from American Occupational Therapy Association Web site: http://www.aota.org/
Fuchs, D. & Fuchs, L. (2006) Introduction to Response to Intervention: What, why,
and how valid is it? Reading Research Quarterly, 41, 93-99.
Gersten, R., and Dimono, J. (2006) RTI (Response to Intervention): Rethinking
special education for students with reading difficulties (yet again). Reading Research
Quarterly, 41, 99-108.
Gresham, F. Reschly, D., Tilly, D., Fletcher, J., Burns, M., Crist, T., Prasse, D.,
Vanderwood, M., & Shinn, M. (2004) Comprehensive Evaluation of Learning
Disabilities: A Response-to-Intervention Perspective. Newspaper of the National
Association of School Psychologists, 32, No. 4.
Johnson, E., Mellard, D. Fuchs, D., & McNight, M. (2006) Response to Intervention
(RtI): How to Do It. Retrieved from National Research Center on Learning
Disabilites Web site: http://www.nrcld.org/rti_manual/
Mellard, D. (2004). Understanding Responsiveness to Intervention in Learning
Disabilities Determination. Retrieved from National Research Center on Learning
Disabilites Web site: http://www.nrcld.org/
NASDSE (2007). Response to intervention: Policy Considerations & Implementation.
NASDSE Publications, PNA-0525.
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Can You Come Take a Look at Johnny: