CAN YOU COME TAKE A LOOK AT JOHNNY? Responsiveness to Instruction and Related Service Providers WHO ARE WE TALKING ABOUT? NCLB, 2001 – pupil services personnel IDEA 2004 – related services AREAS OF EXPERTISE SPEECH-LANGUAGE PATHOLOGISTS phonemic awareness articulation/ sound production fluency of speech voice quality and production linguistic concepts (beside, first, after, etc.) language structure syntax, grammatical morphemes, and syllabification comprehension of oral and written language pragmatic skills (greeting, requesting information or clarification) sound/symbol relationships AREAS OF EXPERTISE PHYSICAL THERAPISTS Mobility: Getting where you need to go Transfers: Moving from place to place Play: Not only gross motor skills Community Access Environmental Modification Work Skills Safety Equipment AREAS OF EXPERTISE OCCUPATIONAL THERAPISTS personal care student role skills processing skills graphic communication/ work production play community integration IDEA ALLOWANCE Nothing in the Act or regulations prevents States and LEAs from including related services personnel in the development and delivery of educational and behavioral evaluations, services, and supports for teachers and other school staff to enable them to deliver coordinated, early intervening services. (71 Fed. Reg. at 46627-8) RELATED SERVICE PROVIDERS: RELEVANT STRENGTHS history of evidence-based practice history of collaboration value of early intervention and prevention (medical model) highly skilled in: • contextual observation • data collection • progress monitoring (therapeutic model) • customer service RELATED SERVICE PROVIDERS: NATURAL PROBLEM-SOLVERS Therapeutic Process = Problem Solving RELATED SERVICE PROVIDERS: TASK DIFFERENCES Historic Method RtI Global ability & achievement testing Specific, direct measures of classroom skills National norm comparisons Regional, district, school, classroom norm comparisons Assess in 1-2 sittings/snapshots Data collected over time; dynamic Assess hypothetical constructs with presumed relationship to performance (e.g. visual perception; motor control) Assess specific skills/performance Parent/Teacher input supplemental Parent/Teacher input central Assessments minimally related to curriculum Assessments directly related to curriculum Limited relationship between assessment & intervention Direct link between assessment & intervention NASDSE (2007). RELATED SERVICE PROVIDERS: DYNAMIC ASSESSMENT using data to create broad view of: learner environment instructional content instructional methods focusing on child's potential for learning determining conditions child needs to benefit from intervention RELATED SERVICE PROVIDERS: INTENSITY OF INTERVENTION divergence in presentation—not content— from core curriculum need for systematic, explicit, or scripted approach frequency and duration size/homogeneity of group degree/specificity of instructor expertise Clark, G. & Polichino, J. (2007) AOTA FAQ on Response to Intervention. Fuchs, D. & Fuchs, L. (2006) Introduction to Response to Intervention: What, why, and how valid is it? RELATED SERVICE PROVIDERS: HOW TO INCLUDE THEM – TIER I screenings professional development Consultation • school-wide between Teachers • written resources & Parents • in-services collaboration – preventive • curriculum design • curriculum-based assessments • prevention programming • parent partnership initiatives RELATED SERVICE PROVIDERS: HOW TO INCLUDE THEM – TIER II collaboration • • • • - diagnostic grade-level meetings environmental modifications progress monitoring Consultation data analysis observations & evaluations with Other Resources RELATED SERVICE PROVIDERS: HOW TO INCLUDE THEM – TIER III collaboration – intervening • shared teaching • skills-focused small group instruction • classroom coaching • after-school programming parent training Consultation with Problem Solving Action Team RELATED SERVICE PROVIDERS: HOW TO INCLUDE THEM – TIER IV special education referral goals for specially designed instruction direct intervention least restrictive environment supplemental aids and services IEP Consideration RELATED SERVICE PROVIDERS: CURRENT NC DATA consultation with teachers diagnostics classroom instruction staff development screenings & observations grade level clinics PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS related service providers • licensure • parent consent • workload • facility with Essential Standards teachers • awareness of available RSPs • role as client • communication with families related service administrators • funding • personnel management DPI RELATED SERVICE CONSULTANTS Perry Flynn, DPI Speech-Language Pathology Consultant, UNC-G; 336-256-2005; [email protected] Lauren Holahan, DPI Occupational Therapy Consultant , UNC-CH; 919-843-4466; [email protected] Laurie Ray, DPI Physical Therapy Consultant , UNCCH; 919-636-1827; [email protected] REFERENCES AOTA (2007). Principles for the Re-Authorization of the No Child Left Behind Act. Retrieved from American Occupational Therapy Association Web site: http://www.aota.org/ Clark, G. & Polichino, J. (2007) AOTA FAQ on Response to Intervention. Retrieved from American Occupational Therapy Association Web site: http://www.aota.org/ Fuchs, D. & Fuchs, L. (2006) Introduction to Response to Intervention: What, why, and how valid is it? Reading Research Quarterly, 41, 93-99. Gersten, R., and Dimono, J. (2006) RTI (Response to Intervention): Rethinking special education for students with reading difficulties (yet again). Reading Research Quarterly, 41, 99-108. Gresham, F. Reschly, D., Tilly, D., Fletcher, J., Burns, M., Crist, T., Prasse, D., Vanderwood, M., & Shinn, M. (2004) Comprehensive Evaluation of Learning Disabilities: A Response-to-Intervention Perspective. Newspaper of the National Association of School Psychologists, 32, No. 4. Johnson, E., Mellard, D. Fuchs, D., & McNight, M. (2006) Response to Intervention (RtI): How to Do It. Retrieved from National Research Center on Learning Disabilites Web site: http://www.nrcld.org/rti_manual/ Mellard, D. (2004). Understanding Responsiveness to Intervention in Learning Disabilities Determination. Retrieved from National Research Center on Learning Disabilites Web site: http://www.nrcld.org/ NASDSE (2007). Response to intervention: Policy Considerations & Implementation. NASDSE Publications, PNA-0525.