Application of Academic Language for CCSS and SMARTER Balanced Department Chair and Teacher Leader Presenters: Kim Kumar and Dawn Abrams Academic Discourse: The kinds of language used in academic settings District Wide Focus Academic Language Strategies: oAcademic Register oEffective Collaboration (Productive Partners) oAcademic Vocabulary oSentence Frames Language-Laden CCSS Emphases • Reading: Narrative and Informational Text Analysis, Synthesis, Text-Dependent Questions • Vocabulary: Domain-Specific and High-Use Vocabulary for Academic Literacy/Communication(Details to follow) • Writing: Informational Text Summary, Evidence-Based Response to Text, Argumentation • Language: Academic Discourse/Formal Register(Details to follow) • Collaboration: Partner/Group/Class Interaction (Details to follow) Let’s try a sample performance task! • Highlight or circle the domain specific academic vocabulary in this task. • Think about the level of academic language needed to respond to this task and be ready to share with your elbow partner. Academic Register “We tend to write the way we speak.” Academic Register • The type of language used in a given situation oFor example: • Writing a text message to invite a friend to a party • Writing an email message to a teacher requesting an extension on a research report • Asking a coach for permission to miss practice • Asking a manager at an internship to clarify expectations for a task • Writing an essay • Writing a letter to a Board • Writing letter of intent to a college Academic Register What challenges do recent immigrants face when first arriving in a new country? Informal Verbal Response Jobs Formal Constructed Verbal Response One challenge that recent immigrants The language face is learning an entirely new Learning English language. Formal, Brief Written Response One challenge faced by recent immigrants is learning an entirely new language. English communication and literacy skills are critical for adult immigrants if they want to have jobs that pay well or attend college. Collaboration Productive Partnering Academic Discussions Pair-Share Collaboration Options for Academic Interaction Identifying Partners • Elbow Partners/Adjacent • Eyeball/Mirror Image Naming Partners • Partner A and Partner B • Partner 1 and Partner 2 Lower Your Voice = Use a Private, Scholarly Voice • Speak 2 x slower than you normally speak. • In my opinion, a productive partner demonstrates interest in my ideas • Emphasize key words. when she makes eye • Pause at the end of contact with me. phrases. Language to Listen Attentively Everyday Academic English • Huh? • Will you please repeat that? • What? • Will you please restate your idea? • What do you mean? • I don’t get it. • Can you explain what you mean by ___? • I don’t quite understand your __ example, reason, question decision, perspective, concern Academic Discussion: Steps 1. Decide on the partnering configuration 2. Give prompt regarding what will be discussed 3. Give time frame for sharing 4. Go Academic Discussion: Steps 1. 2. 3. 4. Decide on the partnering configuration oEyeball/Mirror Partners and 1s and 2s • Look at your mirror partner • Decide who is a 1 and who is a 2 • 1s raise your hand, 2s raise your hand Give prompt regarding what will be discussed oDiscuss with your partner: • How will common core impact your classroom instruction? Give time frame for sharing oYou will have 30 seconds each to share Go o2s you have 30 seconds to answer the prompt oThen 1s you have 30 seconds to answer the prompt Academic Vocabulary Academic Vocabulary Tier 2 High frequency/ Tier 3 Low frequency/ Academic Vocabulary Content-Specific Consists of the most basic words, rarely requires instructional attention to their meanings in school Frequency is high and is used across a variety of domains. Contains multiple meanings. Promotes cognitive function Frequency of use is low and limited to specific domains, best learned when a specific need arises Walk, cup, want, clock, baby, happy analyze, approach, benefit, estimate, evaluate, method, Isotope, lathe, peninsula, refinery Tier 1 Basic Tier 2: Academic Vocabulary ● Used across a variety of environments. Words for which students understand the general concept, but need greater precision and specificity in describing a concept or a person, such as: sets, tables, power, round and route, (for math or science, or for a table of contents ● Words that are important and useful for comprehension of the text, such as: character, setting, plot, caption Tier 2: Academic Vocabulary Some Criteria for Identifying Tier Two Words ● Importance and utility: Words that are characteristic of mature language users and appear frequently across a variety of domains. ● Instructional potential: Words that can be worked with in a variety of ways so that students can build rich representations of them and of their connections to other words and concepts. ● Conceptual understanding: Words for which students understand the general concept but provide precision and specificity in describing the concept. Tier 3 Vocabulary Generalizations from Research • Students must encounter words in context more than once in order to learn them. • Instruction of new words in context enhances learning those words. • One of the best ways to learn a new word is to associate an image with it. • Direct instruction works. • Direct instruction on words that are critical to new content produces the most powerful learning. -Marzano High-Utility Word Instruction Word tend to Meaning Meaningful Sentence to usually do a _____________ thing Students tend to get restless at school on rainy days because they _______________ a ____________ of doing something After several rainy school days, teachers have a tendency to become ________ _______________ tend to verb tendency ten•den•cy noun Images Word tend to Meaning to usually do a certain ________thing Students tend to get restless at school on rainy days because they don’t have the _______________ opportunity to get _______________ fresh air. usual way a ____________ of doing something After several rainy school days, school teachers have a tendency to become _______. irritable tend to verb tendency ten•den•cy noun tendencies (plural) Examples Images Academic Vocabulary Template Coxhead’s Academic Word List (570 High-Utility Academic Word Families) Group 1/10 (Highest Incidence): assume analyze benefit concept consist context economy environment establish estimate factor finance formula function income indicate individual interpret involve issue labor legal major method occur percent principle section significant similar source specific structure. . . word family: assume, v. assumed, adj. assumption, n. Source: (Averil Coxhead, 2000) Webb’s DOK Question Stems as Starters for Sentence Frames A Sentence Starter Does Not Ensure Competent Language Production Everytime • Sentence Starter: I could lead a healthier lifestyle by • Predictable Informal Responses oUm…I won’t eat junk food. oUh…exercise. oSleep better. oWell, no more Cheetos and sodas. oEating more healthy stuff. Sentence Starter vs. Sentence Frame • Sentence Starters require students to already know how to accurately complete the sentence • Sentence Frames add essential grammatical support so students can produce a competent response in the appropriate register. A Sentence Frame to Promote Use of Academic Register • What challenges do you face when wanting to lead a healthier lifestyle? • One challenge that I face is ____ (verb + ing) adjusting my schedule to incorporate `exercise. • Verb Bank: Everyday finding knowing dealing with making Precise ________ ________ adjusting to earning Sentence Frames • Sentence frames help students use and understand vocabulary and better understand correct sentence structures. • Remember to always model the expected outcomes of the lesson. • For example, if the intent is to use correct grammar, develop sentence frames that address the vocabulary + verb tense that students are working on and have them write sentence frames too. Sentence Frames • The sentence structure needs to take into account the functions you want the student to understand. • When developing academic vocabulary words, make certain that students understand the meaning of the word and provide sufficient examples and modeling. • Establish a purpose for the sentence frame. • The purpose of the sentence frame is to support the use of specific types of words: conjunctions, transitions, articles, adjectives, comparative, verb tense, subjectverb agreement, as well as the structures for compound/complex sentences. Collaboration With A Flair Academic Discourse is Characterized by Use of… • complete, complex, more lengthy sentences with embedded clauses • precise and technical vocabulary oDomain Specific Words (publisher’s vocabulary) oHigh-Utility Words (language of the test or prompt) Academic Discussion Routine Elements • a written, visibly-displayed prompt • adequate think time and brainstorming • sentence frame(s) to model and guide use of academic register • structured partner rehearsal/interaction • active listening tasks • contributions from a range of students • conscientious monitoring Transition to Academic Discourse Partner Discussion Directions • Partner 1: Discuss your response with your partner twice oFirst time: State your response in a complete sentence using the response frame oSecond time: Make eye contact and say it with expression • Partner 2: Listen attentively and restate the response • Switch roles oB: discuss, A: listen and restate • Remember the 4Ls. So, you find it successful to … •Yes! That’s accurate… •Actually, I plan to …. Productive Partners: Discuss So, you find it successful to … •Yes! That’s accurate… •Actually, I plan to …. Inclusive Participation “Student Accountability” Structuring Inclusive Participation Options • Preselect 1-2 students to initiate class discussion • Invite a reticent participant with a strong response to contribute when you ask for volunteers • Encourage partner nominations • Invite all partner 1s/2s to stand and report • Randomly select 1-2 students • Allow a reporter to select the next • Ask for volunteers from sections of the classroom Language to Select Reporters Everyday English Um…(name) I pick… I want… Let’s hear from… How about…? Academic English • I select… • I choose… • I nominate… • I’d like to hear from… • I’d appreciate a contribution from… Use Your Public Voice When Reporting During Class Discussion A Public, Scholarly Voice: • Sit up straight. • Move hands away from face. • Project your voice: 3x louder than your private voice. • Speak to the classmate furthest away from you. • Pause appropriately. • Emphasize key words. Requests for Audible Contributions Everyday English Academic English What? • Please repeat that using your public voice. Huh? Come again? What did you say? I didn’t get that. Speak up. We can’t hear you. • Please say that again audibly so __ can hear. • Thank you. This time, sit up and project your voice. • Three times louder, using professional voice. What can I implement tomorrow, next month, next year?