2015/10/3
功能语言学与语篇分析
Lecture 7
语言功能
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功能语言学关心语言在人类社会中的作用。大家知
道,语言是我们社会的一种主要的交际手段,同时
也是一种控制手段。它不单纯是一种心理现象,而
且是一种事实。Malinowski认为语言完全依赖于所使
用的社会。他从民族学的角度区分了说话的情景语
境和文化语境,以及语言的三个主要功能:实用
(pragmatic) 功能、巫术(magical)功能、寒暄(phatic)
功能。
语言功能
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1.
2.
3.
4.
不同语言学家对语言的功能分类也不相同,如
Finch (1998) 认为语言具有七种功能:
生理功能
寒暄功能
记录功能
识别功能
语言功能
5. 推理功能
6. 交际功能
7. 取悦功能
英语语法
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语法与人类的经验有着密切的联系,能反映人构建
现实的过程。语法是表达意义的资源,是一种有关
人类经验的理论,是思维的工具。
表达经验是下意识进行的。但是,如果我们稍微注
意的话,我们就能看到语言是如何反映我们所觉察
到的经验的。人们通过语法表达经验,创建出一个
丰富多彩、关系复杂的世界。我们不尽能表达出外
部的经验,还能表达发生在内心的经验。
英语语法
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在英语中,人们觉得头部不舒服时会说:“I have a
headache”. 英语语法这时构建了一种叫做ache的东
西,并用身体部位来对它进行分类。例如英语中还
有:stomachache, backache, toothache等等。
语法然后建立起“痛”和有意识的东西(说话人)之间
的关系结构。说话人成为“痛”的拥有者。不过,这不
是典型的拥有方式。拥有者不想要这种东西,但就
是甩不掉。
英语语法
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语法能构建my head aches 或 my head’s
aching之类的句子,但很少这样用。在这种句
子中,“痛”变成一种过程或状态,而不是一种
东西。在这种状态中所涉及的实体是“头”而不
是“我”。英语构建这种经验的典型方法不是这
样。
英语语法
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在英语中,放在句子的第一个成分往往具有特
殊的含义。第一个成分叫做“主位”,其余成分
为“述位”。主-述位结构是英语的一个重要特
征。因此,在my head aches中,my head是主
位,是说话人想谈论的事物。但从经验上说,
说话人在这里是个Sufferer,句子的主位理应
是‘me’(受格,宾格)。
英语语法
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因此,语法为了满足这个要求把“我”当成主语。“痛”
与人是分开的东西,是说话人拥有的东西,“头”是痛
的地点: I have an ache in my head. 如果“头”是个分
类词,那么痛和痛的地点就成为一种复合物:I have
a headache.
I have an ache in my head. → I have a headache.
英语语法
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这种句型已经成为构建身体特征和状态的一种典型
方式。人们会说:she has long hair, he has a sore
throat,而很少说her hair is long, his throat is sore.把
人而不是身体部位放在主位的位置。汉语中也有同
样的现象:
我头疼。(我的头疼。)
他胃疼。(我的胃疼。)
她头发长,耳朵短,鼻梁歪,眼睛凸,难看死了。
英语语法
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语法构建经验还与视角有着密切的联系。大家
在说my head aches或my head is aching时,句
子把“痛”看作外部现象,而不是内部现象。
英语语法
从英语的发展过程看,早期英语的施事语法主
语通常是主动的参加者。例如A missile是下句
的自然主语:
 A missile pierced the doctor’s chest.
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英语语法
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如果叙事要求受事对象作为主位,它也可以仍然事
主语:The doctor’s chest a missile pierced. 即使调换
了位置,动作者仍是主语。
后来,主语和施事者之间的联系被现代英语中的主
语作为主位的句型所替代:The doctor’s chest was
pierced by a missile.
英语语法
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这种变化使被动语态得到广泛的使用。人们更
多地考虑什么是主位,什么是新信息。因此,
我们可以说,词汇语法在构建人类经验时不是
任意的。人类与环境的关系是复杂的,多方面
的。语言构建经验的方式也是多种多样的。语
法无法用一种结构来表示两种不同的视角。
英语句型
语言学界对于英语句型的研究由来已久。由于分析角
度的不同,对于英语句型的分类也有所不同。主要
有以下三种方法:
 结构方法(structural approach )
 功能方法(functional approach)
 交际分类法(communicative approach)
结构方法
根据其结构,英语的句子可分为简单句、并列句和复
杂句。
 简单句由一个独立的小句构成,有主语和谓语动词。
如:John reads extensively in the university.
 并列句由两个以上的小句构成,小句间通过并列连
词连接起来。如:John likes linguistics, but Mary is
interested in music.
结构方法
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复杂句由两个以上的小句构成,但其中一个小
句是主句,表达主要的意思,其它小句依附于
小句,起修饰作用。例如:John didn't like
linguistics until Mary gave him a lecture.
按照句子成份的线性排列,英语有七大句型
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
SV: Someone was laughing.
SVO: She kicked the ball.
SVC: They became angry.
SVA: I went to New York.
SVOO: Mary gave John a book.
SVOC: I considered it expensive.
SVOA: They put the book on the table.
功能方法
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根据其话语功能,英语句子可分为四大类:陈
述句、疑问句、祈使句和感叹句。陈述句用来
传递信息,疑问句用来寻求信息,祈使句用来
要求受话者做事,感叹句用来表示说话人的感
受和印象。但这种分类方法经常根据句子的句
法功能来确定。
交际方法
根据其交际功能,语句可分为两类:(1)用
来开始谈话的语句;(2)对他人语句的反应。
 还可以分为交际性语句和非交际性语句。
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功能语法的分析
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系 统 功 能 语 法 把 句 子 看 作 是 小 句 复 合 体 ( clause
complex),考察小句间的相互依赖关系逻辑语义关
系。这种语法把小句复合体分为两大类:
1.并列型,表示直接引述、连接、同位、重复等语
义,用1,2,3 ……表示。
2.从属型,表示条件、修饰、时间等语义,用
α,β,γ ……表示。
功能语法的分析
John ran away, and Fred stayed behind.
 When John was away, Fred invited us to a
dinner party.
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功能语法的分析
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根据逻辑语义关系,小句复合体可分成扩展句和投
射句两大类型。
扩展句:一个小句对另一个小句的意义作补充说明,
可细分为:
1.解释关系:第二小句对第一小句的内容进行扩展
或说明,用=表示,如:
John didn’t wait; he ran away. (1=2)
John ran away, which surprised everyone. (α=β)
功能语法的分析
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2.延伸关系:第二小句对第一小句的意义做一些添加。用
+表示,如:
He hit me and I hit him. (1+2)
John ran away, whereas Fred stayed behind. (α+β)
3.增强关系:次要小句对首要句在时间、地点、方式、原
因等方面进行补充,用×表示,如:
It was expensive, so I didn’t buy it. (1×2)
Fred invited us to a dinner party when John was away. (α×β)
功能语法的分析
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投射句:指对自己或他人的语辞或思想进行原话引
述或间接引述。语辞用”表示,思想用’表示。
John said: “I’m going to school.”
John said he was going to school.
She thought to herself: “I’ll go to school.”
She thought she would go to school.
功能语法的分析
根据这样的分类方法,英语便有10种句型。
了解这种分类方法有助于我们进行语体分析和
写作。
 语体不同,各种句型的分布也不一样。
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功能语法的分析
分析实例
 选择当代英语的四种体裁:法律、科技、祝酒
辞、小品文,共19个语篇进行分析。
 分析中涉及381个小句复合体,1146个小句。
分析结果如下:

功能语法的分析
法律语篇:小句复合体总数:91
 小句总数:424
 每个小句复合体平均小句含量:4.7
 并列小句比例:11.4%
 主从小句比例:67.7%
 嵌入句比例:20.9%
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功能语法的分析
科技语篇:小句复合体总数:60
 小句总数:163
 每个小句复合体平均小句含量:2.7
 并列小句比例:28%
 主从小句比例:59%
 嵌入句比例:13%
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功能语法的分析
祝酒辞语篇:小句复合体总数:117
 小句总数:309
 每个小句复合体平均小句含量:2.7
 并列小句比例:35.8%
 主从小句比例:39.9%
 嵌入句比例:24.3%
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功能语法的分析
小品文语篇:小句复合体总数:113
 小句总数:250
 每个小句复合体平均小句含量:2.2
 并列小句比例:71.8%
 主从小句比例:28.2%
 嵌入句比例:0%
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功能语法的分析
情态
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情态表示说话人的主观判断。近20年来,情态成为语言学界
的一个热门话题。随着研究的深入,人们对于英语情态手段
的认识不断加深。Halliday(2004)认为情态表示了说话人的
视角及其对断言有效性以及对建议对错的态度。

据Francis 和Kučera(1982)的统计,布朗语料库显示英语情
态动词的使用占全部动词的7.6%。
情态
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情态研究可分为模糊观、多义观和单义观。模糊观(Palmer
1986)认为情态动词包含着大量的词汇模糊性,每个情态动
词表示一些明显不同的情态。多义观(Sweetser 1990)从认
知语言学的角度,认为情态动词表示了相同的有理据的多义
性。单义观(Kratzer 1991; Groefsema 1995)承认每个情态
动词具有共同的核心义,因语境不同可能得到不同的解释,
情态动词的意义依赖于语境。
情态
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许多学者还从功能语言学、批评话语分析的角度探索了英语
情态动词。例如Bartlett(2004)把系统功能语言学和批评话
语分析结合起来,分析了情态动词在语言中表示权势的作用。
随着语料库的出现,人们更多关注借助语料库研究情态手段
在各种不同语域的使用,大大推动了情态研究的发展。Biber
et al(1999)依据朗文英语口语和书面语语料库(LGSWE)
调查分析了情态动词英国小说、美国小说、学术语篇、英国
英语会话、美国英语会话、新闻语篇共六个语域的使用情况。
本研究的目的
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在自建语料库的基础上,探索情态动词在法律语篇
和学术的分布以及它们的功能意义,并比较英语学
术语篇中的情态动词,说明情态动词在法律语篇和
学术语篇有其独特的分布规律,具有独特的语义,
同时也说明基于语料库研究具体语域中的情态更能
反映出情态动词的本质。
有关情态的研究
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Palmer(2003)认为英语主要有四种情态:认知情态(epistemic)、道
义情态(deontic)、动力情态(dynamic)和实据情态(evidential)。
认知情态涉及的是说话人对命题状态的态度,表示说话人的理解或知识,
传递了说话人的判断。
对道义情态,事件是由句子主语的外部环境所控制,能力来自外部的许可,
涉及的是说话人或他人的行动(例如:you may go now);
而对动力情态,控制来自主语内部,能力来自主语本身的身体和心理能力
(例如:They can run very fast)。
在实据情态里,说话人不是对命题的真假做出判断,而是提供信息来源的
实据。
有关情态的研究
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情态的词汇语法体现方式有很多,可以由情态动词、语气、
小品词、附着语素等来体现。在语气上,祈使语气是道义情
态的非标记手段,陈述语气是认知情态的非标记手段。就实
据情态来说,每一种语言都有谈论实据的方法,都有谈及信
息来源的词汇手段,有的语言还使用语法手段。除了情态动
词外,Aikhenvald(2004:3)认为英语有一些表示证据的词
汇语法手段,如I think, they say, I hear, reportedly, allege, it
seems to me等。
有关情态的研究
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Palmer(1986,2003)对情态,尤其是情态
动词,做了大量的形式研究,重视情态的词汇
手段,但他同时意识到情态的许多特征无法语
法化,光从形式上研究情态是不够的。
有关情态的研究
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系统功能语言学在语言的人际元功能的基础上,区别出“命题
(proposition)”和“提议(proposal)”这两种基本的言语功能,
并用“情态化(modalisation)”和“意态(modulation)”表示。
“情态化”和“意态”与归一性(polarity)有着密切的联系。“陈述”
涉及交际双方信息的交换。归一性在命题中涉及的是肯定和
否定,其间有两种可能性:概率程度和经常程度。归一性在
提议里的意思是规定和禁止。在命令中,情态表示职责的程
度。在提供中,情态表示倾向性。
有关情态的研究
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虽然情态表达不确定性,但是情态系统有自己
的规律。英语有许多体现“情态化”和“意态”的
手段。“情态化”可由情态动词和情态附加语
(modal adjunct)来体现;意态由情态动词和
谓语的延伸式来体现。由此,我们有概率程度、
经常程度、职责和倾向性这四种情态。
有关情态的研究
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Halliday还用情态隐喻来解释其他的情态现象。他(Halliday
2004:624-626)认为在一致式里,情态是命题的附加语,而
不是命题本身。在隐喻式里,情态和命题或建议由两个小句
来体现。由于情态的隐喻特征,它虽然本身是个命题,表示
了情态的人际评价意义,同时在体现命题或提议的小句里充
当情态附加语。例如:
I think it’s going to rain.
有关情态的研究
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在实据情态句里,命题由除说话人外的其他人投射,看起来
虽然很客观,但从某种意义上说,说话人选择了某个信息,
用所掌握的实据表示命题的状态,因而构建了说话人的观点。
实据情态可以通过表示命题实据情况的投射句、介词短语、
情态附加语来体现。例如:
(9)The heavy storm has delayed the operation for a second
straight day, said an officer.
情态动词
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情态动词是情态的一种重要的体现手段。在Palmer的模式里,
情态动词可表示认知、道义、动力和实据情态意义。他
(Palmer, 1986:62-64)考虑到了不同情态动词能表达不同的
情态意义,比如may表示可能的判断,表示说话人对命题的自
信程度较弱;will表示根据已知事实做出合理的判断,must表
示根据已知事实进行的唯一可能的判断。Have to和can表示说
话人的责任或许可程度较弱,而must和may表示说话人的责
任和许可程度较高。
情态动词
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Biber et al(1999:73)将英语情态动词分为三类:
核心情态动词:can, could, may, might, must, shall, should, will,
would
边缘情态动词:dare (to), need (to), ought to, used to
半情态动词:have to, (had) better, (have) got to, be supposed
to, be going to
情态动词
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Biber et al(1999:485)还根据这些情态动词的主要意义把他
们分为三大类:
许可/可能性/能力:can, could, may, might
责任/必要性:must, should, (had) better, have (got) to, need to,
ought to, be supposed to
意愿/预测:will, would, shall, be going to
情态动词
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在系统功能语言学里,情态动词被看作是主观隐性的
情态手段,用来表达概率程度、经常程度、职责和倾
向性,具有高、中、低三个值。
高值:must, ought to, need, have to
中值:will, would, shall, should
低值:may, might, can, could
可以看出,情态动词表示了说话人对命题或建议不同
程度的观点和态度,传递许可、可能性、能力、责任、
必要性、意愿、预测等情态意义。这些研究描写和解
释了英语情态动词的性质和功能,揭示了英语情态动
词的总体使用趋势。
情态动词
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语料库的出现为人们研究情态动词提供了科学的分析工具。
Biber等人(1999:486)在朗文英语口语和书面语语料库
(LSWE)发现will, would, can的十分常见,will的出现频率最
高,而shall的出现频率最低。Smith(2003)借助LOB语料库
和FLOB语料库调查了情态动词must, have to和need to在小说、
散文、新闻和学术语篇的分布。Gotti(2003)根据赫尔辛基
英语语篇语料库,调查了shall和will在当代英语的使用情况,
发现shall出现频率相对较低,但在会话和小说中出现频率较
高。Shall通常用来表示将来、意愿和必要性。Will的出现频率
最高,尤其是在会话和新闻报道。Will的功能是做出推断,表
示意愿、必要性、将来、习惯和可能性。
实例分析

为了探索核心情态动词在当代英语法律语篇和学术语篇中的
分布和语义特征,本文建立了自己的英语法律语篇和学术语
篇的语料库。法律语篇语料库的容量为236 378词,包括英国
的清洁街区和环境法、国际组织法、美国通讯法和澳大利亚
的版权法。学术语篇语料库的容量为182 902词,包括了化
学、生物、物理、工程、经济、神经科学、人文科学等领域
的论著。本文先搜索了9个核心情态动词在这两个语料库的分
布情况。
实例分析
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从表中可以看出,情态动词may和shall构成了法律语篇的突出
特征,分别占所有核心情态动词的39.46%和34.92%,而
might和could的出现频率最低。情态动词will在学术语篇出现
频率最高,占所有核心情态动词的20.14%,can, would和may
也占有一定的比例。
可见,这里需要观测may和shall在法律语篇以及will在学术语
篇的使用情况,认识这几个情态动词所表达的情态意义。
实例分析
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法律语篇是一种非常正式的书面语,其一个重要特征是规定应当承担的法
律责任和义务,带有命令或强制的语气。调查发现,shall在法律语篇中主
要表达三种情态意义。首先,shall表达义务、规定和许可三重意义。在语
料库所有的shall当中,表示这些语义的shall占79.67%,例如:
(11)An incumbent local exchange carrier shall provide such unbundled
network elements in a manner that allows requesting carriers to combine
such elements in order to provide such telecommunications service.
(12)The agreement shall include a detailed schedule of itemized charges
for interconnection and each service or network element included in the
agreement.
实例分析
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其次,shall与否定成分连用表示禁止,语气强,语料库里这
一类的用法的占所有shall的20.33%;例如:
(13)Nothing in this section shall be construed to authorize
any private right of action to enforce any requirement of this
section or any regulation thereunder.
(14)A person shall not, at any time during the protection
period of a performance, make a direct recording of the
performance without the authority of the performer.
实例分析
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Shall在法律语篇表示义务、规定和禁止时,属于道义和动力
情态,可看作是高值情态词。在法律语篇中,may表示许可和
可能性,说明法律赋予的权利,但带低值情态意义,例如:
(15)A member may resign the office of member by giving a
signed notice of resignation to the Governor-General.
(16)The officer may enter the premises for the purpose of
silencing the alarm.
实例分析
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在法律语篇中,may和否定词语连用时与shall一样,表示了禁
止,但是其情态值比shall低。例如:
(17)A State commission may not approve such statement
unless such statement complies with subsection (d) of this
section and section 251 and the regulations thereunder.
(18)The officer may not enter premises by force under this
section.
实例分析
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学术语篇是说话人阐述学术观点、交流研究成果的场所。说话人
通过will来表示在学术语篇表示意愿或对将来事件的预测,例如:
(19)I will, however, give one curious and complex case, not
indeed as affecting any important character, but from occurring in
several species of the same genus, partly under domestication and
partly under nature.
(20)The same mechanism which will produce the finest results
when made to serve the underlying principles of scientific
management, will lead to failure and disaster if accompanied by
the wrong spirit in those who are using it.
此外,由于说话人在学术语篇经常需要阐述自己的观点和判断,
为了避免给人以武断或强加于人的印象,会经常使用低值的情态
动词can, would, may。
结束语

核心情态动词是主观隐性的情态手段。虽然情态动词will在当
代英语的出现频率很高,甚至有取代shall的倾向,但是从以
上的调查可以看出,情态动词的使用与语篇类型有着密切的
关系。不同类型的语篇需要表达不同的意义。Shall在学术语
篇主要表达意愿和将来,属于中值情态词,但在法律语篇则
主要表达义务、规定和禁止的情态意义,属于高值情态词。
结束语

May在学术语篇主要表达可能性,但在法律语篇主要表达许可、
可能性和禁止。shall和may在法律语篇的出现频率高,will,
can, would和may在学术语篇的出现频率高,这都是由于语篇
的性质所决定的。从分析可以看出,分析情态动词在不同类
型语篇的分布,更能说明不同情态动词的细微情态意义和功
能。在不同的语域里,不同的情态动词可能具有不同的情态
值。因此,这种基于语料库的分析更能说明不同语篇类型的
特征。
INTRODUCTION
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Deixis concerns the use of certain linguistic
expressions to locate entities in spatio-temporal,
social and discoursal context.
First and second person pronouns, demonstratives,
tense, certain place and time adverbials, verbs such
as come, go, bring, take, and fetch.
Such deictic expressions encode specific aspects of
the speech event and cannot be interpreted unless
contextual parameters are taken into account.
INTRODUCTION
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I prefer apples to oranges.
I’ll see you there/then.
Besides, she is a very nice person.
Linguists have tended to establish categories of deictics
according to their function and the contextual parameters they
define.
A number of observations seem to point to the grounding of
deixis on human perception and image schematic structure as
well as on the interactive character of communication.
INTRODUCTION

Buhler (1982[1934]) advocated the fusion and intersection of
perceptual and linguistic processes. Deictic expressions refer to
a deictic field of language whose zero point is fixed by the
person who is speaking, the place of utterance and the time of
utterance (I, here, now, respectively). The symbolic field
comprises naming words which function as symbols of
meaning.
INTRODUCTION


When a person uses a deictic term, he also feels his
body in relation to his visual orientation, and uses it
deictically. His body feeling representation stands in
relation to the visual space.
Hanks (1992) makes reference to an image schematic
figure-ground relation characterizing the identification of
a referent (figure) in relation to an indexical origo
(ground). Deictic reference “organizes the field of
interaction into a foreground upon a background, as
figure and ground organize the visual field.” (Hanks
1992)
A DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS
Truth value
 A woman with a baby in her arms is ill.
 I am ill.
 The truth value of a sentence does not rely
solely on the sense of the words in it, but also
depends on context.

A DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS

Traditionally, by deixis is meant the location and identification
of person, objects, events, processes and activities being
talked about, or referred to, in relation to the spatiotemporal
context created and sustained by the act of utterance and the
participation in it, typically, of a single speaker and at least one
addressee.
A DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS
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Person deixis: those that are used to refer to speaker and
addressee (I, you, we)
Place deixis: those that refer to spatial context (here, there)
Time deixis: these that refer to temporal context (now, then,
verb tense markers)
Discourse deixis: those that refer to parts of unfolding
discourse (however, furthermore)
Social deixis: those that encode aspects of the
social relationship between speaker and
addressee (你,您)
 Perceptual deixis: There’s Harry.
 Delivery deixis: Here’s your pizza.

A DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS
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An essential characteristic of all categories of deixis appears to
be their egocentricity.
The speaker constitutes the deictic center of the speech event.
Two kinds of usage of deictic terms: gestural usage and
symbolic usage.
I don’t agree with you but with you. (gestural)
This room is badly lit. (symbolic, requiring knowledge of context)
A DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS
Deictic and non-deictic usages of deictic terms?
 Jane kicked her shoes off and then she picked
up a paper.
 There we go again.
 Would Lady Jane like some tea?
 Johnny must go to bed now.

A DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS
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Person and social deixis
Person deixis makes refers to the speaker as the deictic center
of the speech event and the addressee. It encodes speech
roles.
Mrs. Jones should apply by tomorrow the latest. (addressee is
the lawyer, Mrs Jones is the hearer)
It’s now closing time. Thank you for your custom and we hope
to see you again soon.
A DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS
We encodes the roles of both speaker and
addressee
 我们男孩子不怕疼。
 我们年青人朝气蓬勃。
 Why don’t we go to the cinema?
 Now we are going to put our pyjamas on.
 Motherese, pseudo-inclusive

A DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS
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Time deixis
She arrived last month.
She arrived in November 1998.
Coding time (CT) and receiving time (RT)
Today is a holiday.
Johnny broke his plate today.
She is in the office now.
Today youngsters behave strangely sometimes.
A DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS
Time deixis in English is expressed through
tense marking on the verbs of utterances.
 Metalinguistic tense (m-tense) and linguistic
tense (l-tense)
 Whales are whales.
 The whales are ill.

A DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS
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Place deixis
Localism: spatial expression are grammatically and
semantically more basic than non-spatial expressions, because
they serve as the basis of other expressions.
Nearly every preposition or particle that is locative in English is
also temporal, while prepositions that are temporal in Modern
English, e.g. for, since, or till, derive historically from locatives.
A DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS
The post office is two kilometers from the
school.
 The post office is 500 meters away.
 She doesn’t like this coffee-table.
 That woman is the judge.
 She came home for lunch.
 She went home for lunch.

A DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS
Discourse deixis: deixis in text
 Discourse deixis is expressed with terms that
are primarily used in encoding space or time
deixis.
 In the last section we considered place deixis.
 In the next chapter more will be said about
space.
 Discourse deixis and text cohesion are
interrelated.

A DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS
Now, what is that you want?
 What do you want, then?

COGNITIVE STRUCTURE OF DEIXIS

It is assumed that as a background that some entity
exists and is present at some location in the
speaker’s visual field, that the speaker is directing his
attention to it, and that the speaker is interested in its
whereabouts but does not have his attention focused
on it…The speaker then directs the hearer’s attention
to the location of the entity (perhaps accompanied by
a pointing gesture) and brings it to the hearer’s
attention that this entity is at the specified location.
(Lackoff 1987)
COGNITIVE STRUCTURE OF DEIXIS

A deictic expression is one that builds a mental
space in which the speaker and the addressee
are co-present at a given point in time.
COGNITIVE STRUCTURE OF DEIXIS

In these terms deixis may also be described as a speech act
which is realized by various grammatical constructions. The
use of these constructions by a particular speaker
automatically authorizes her as the deictic center, the
source of the act. In other words, deictic constructions
construct the speaker as the deictic center. Moreover,
directing the addressee’s attention to an entity in space
implies that it is not already focused on it, and carries the
presupposition of existence and definiteness of this entity.
COGNITIVE STRUCTURE OF DEIXIS

The image-schematic structure of the deictic ICM appears to be
that of CENTER VS. PERIPHERY. This schema is based on our
experience of our bodies as having centers (e. g. the trunk) and
peripheries (e.g. fingers, toes, hair, etc.). Centers are viewed as
more important than peripheries, which depend on the centers,
while centers do not depend on peripheries.
COGNITIVE STRUCTURE OF DEIXIS
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Given a center and a periphery, a NEAR-FAR schema is
also experienced as stretching along our perceptual or
conceptual perspective.
The center defines the identity of the individual in a
way that peripheral parts do not. The structural
elements of this schema, then, are a spatial domain, a
center and a periphery.
The center is obviously the speaker, whereas the
periphery carries the object of deixis as an entity in
space.
COGNITIVE STRUCTURE OF DEIXIS
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The analysis of social deixis in terms of place deixis is consistent with
and confirms the spatialization-of-form hypothesis, which requires a
metaphorical mapping from physical space onto a conceptual space, e.
g. social space in the case in point. Cognitive structure is understood in
terms of image schemas plus a metaphorical mapping.
Conceptual, social space is understood in terms of the CENTER VS.
PERIPHERY image schema and a metaphorical mapping of properties
of physical space on properties of experienced social reality.
A social hierarchy is spatially understood in terms of the UP-DOWN
schema, as shown in expressions like “climbing up the social ladder”
or “downward mobility”.
COGNITIVE STRUCTURE OF DEIXIS

The metaphorical understanding of time in terms of
spatial experience has long been attested in the
relevant literature. In English, time is structure in terms
of the TIME IS A MOVING OBJECT metaphor with the
future moving towards us, as shown in expressions like
‘the time will come when …’, or ‘the time has long
since gone when…’ among others. Because of this
metaphor, time also receives a front-facing towards us
while it moves towards us, as shown in expressions like
‘ I can’t face the future’ or ‘Let’s meet the future headon’.
COGNITIVE STRUCTURE OF DEIXIS
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When time is constructed as a moving object, it is also moving
towards or away from the speaker. In ‘the time will come’, the
object is moving with the speaker as the goal or the destination.
When the moving object reaches its goal, the time will be ‘now’,
central time, or coding time.
COGNITIVE STRUCTURE OF DEIXIS
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The conceptualization of time as a moving object is
paired with the conceptualization of time as a fixed
location with respect to which the observer is moving.
Passing of time is understood as motion of an object
over a landscape, that is, motion of the observer
towards a time span.
He passed the time happily.
We’re getting close to Christmas.
Christmas is coming. / We are coming up to Christmas.
COGNITIVE STRUCTURE OF DEIXIS
Both instances of come are temporal, but in
the first case the time is moving towards the
observer, while in the second the observer is
moving towards the time span.
 Time deixis is understood as place deixis in
terms of the LINEAR ORDER image schema.

COGNITIVE STRUCTURE OF DEIXIS
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‘you’ may take a more general reading.
You can never tell what youngsters actually want
nowadays.
‘we’ may be used to exclude the addressee, or even
the speaker.
We’d like to set up a nursery school within the
premises.
In this country, we vote for Parliament every four years.
COGNITIVE STRUCTURE OF DEIXIS

Deixis is internalized in terms of a cognitive model and
metaphorical mappings that motivate the construction
of conmmunicatively and socioculturally defined roles
human being take in the speech event. The use of
English deictic system contributes to the
internalization of the social roles of interlocutors and
the definition of self in terms of the basic level
concept of space and the physical distance between
entities in space.
谢谢各位!
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功能语法与语篇分析