The Preschool Years Developmentally Appropriate Practice By Carol Copple and Sue Bredekamp, Editors The National Institute for Early Education Research-NIEER (5 minutes) • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=or10f-YcM8Q • NIEER's five-minute video, "Growing and Learning in Preschool," shows the essential features of a high-quality preschool program. You'll see how a preschool curriculum based on solid research builds school and life-related skills, why well-qualified teachers are so important, and how play is integrated into learning. An Overview • 3-5 year olds • Over half preschoolers – enrolled • Important period not kindergarten • Optimal learning – positive & caring relationships • Critical – developmentally appropriate – Share dev. appropriate observations of sites visited? – Reminder no site names, no children’s names An Overview • ALL Preschoolers – strengths & areas to improve • Poverty – – – – – Children vulnerable 4-year-olds, 18 months behind 43% in US low income 3.5 million affected 16%-disability • Summary-magical thinking years – playful, imaginative, delightful – Observations confirming this? Physical Development • Preschoolers - extremely physical – moving, jumping, running • Goal-quarter school day - physical activity • Viewed clumsy, spills (body changes) – Ouch Reports – Book- (Band-Aid Will Help) • 3-year-olds/uncoordinated • 4-year-olds/greater control, not fluid Physical Development continued • Able to perform basic gross motor skills • Gross motor – lowered center of gravity-hop, balance • Fine motor – still developing; handedness by 4 – Paper/pencil activities less useful than hands-on! – Types of grasp (pincer, fist) – Short pencils • Girls-advanced fine & gross (skipping, hopping) – Findings surprise or confirm? Physical Development continue • Boys –advanced – force & power, running, jumping • Nutrition-5-6 meals (List) – energy, less headaches, more focused, enjoy play • Physical growth varies – per year/3-4 inches, 5-6 pounds – Prominent in trunk & legs Physical Development continue • Childhood obesity – Involve pediatricians – Scope of practice • Sensation/perception-well developed – sense of taste compared to adults Social & Emotional Development • Great advances-still struggles. • Positive social and emotional foundation = cognitive competence. Social Development • Social interactions • • • Relationships/teachers and peers Are teachers “friends” to the teachers? Levels of Play: • • • • • • • Solitary Onlooker Parallel Associative Cooperative (4-5 years of age) Teachers give ideas, help with rules of pretend play, then back away Prosocial behavior developing Social Development • Understanding other’s perspectives • Aggression –physical, relational • • • • Sense of self in relation to others • • Looking at gender – girls? Boys? Anticipate consequences of physical actions Strategies: turn taking, using words, using empathy, selfregulation skills Who are they? – Younger-I have two fish – Older-I’m nice to my friends Research Study-Supports Play • • Free-choice activities, variety of equipment and materials Findings: better cognitive (and language) abilities Emotional Development • Positive and negative impact development domains • Express and talk about their emotions Emotional Development Continued • • • • Development of emotional competence. Development of conscience. Stress, coping and resilience Saying good-bye to parents – Group activity – Parent sneaks out each day – What might you say to parent? Investing in the Emotional and Behavioral Development of Preschoolers (6 minutes) • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=l4txcMjlzH8 • Young children who can interact well with teachers and peers are more likely to succeed in preschool and beyond. This six-minute video, produced by The MacArthur Foundation, profiles MDRCs Foundations of Learning Project, a demonstration in Newark and Chicago that is testing an innovative program that combines teacher training with in-class clinical consultation to support children's emotional and behavioral development in preschool. Cognitive development • Important changes-influence all other domains • Form representations world - future and past tense • Create fanciful scenes – make-believe • Piaget “preoperational” stage: illogical, egocentric Cognitive development continued • Brain – cerebral cortex – functions regulate attention and memory not fully developed – limitations • Attention – short, distractible, better over time – Attention improves so does memory – Practice strategies (recall events) Cognitive development continued • Mental representation (internal depictions) – Mind manipulates images or mental pictures – Later advances – objects serve both as an object or as a symbol of something else. – Age 3-pictures serve as symbols • Teachers start labeling even scribbles – “Worms wrestling” or “Me and mommy playing” • Reminder-holistic view of learning – When teacher talks to family what developmental domains would be emphasized using a holistic view? Promoting cognitive development • Teachers can help by: – Cues, modeling, questions (open/closed), positive guidance, ample play time-choices, plan/review work • Teach math and science in preschool Math • Best math develops language/ vocabulary • • Promote math skills • • Page 139 – 4 bullets Different ways to solve problems • • • Sequencing concept: if wear red, get coat first Math, social situations; share play dough on table Question: children riding tricycles get stuck on incline. How do teachers help connected to allowing children an opportunity to solve problems Terms • Compare/contrast, more, less, tallest, numbers, one-to-one correspondence Science • • • • • • • Science table is a start Embedded in children’s daily work/play Builds on prior experiences, backgrounds Draws on children’s curiosity Engage children in in-depth exploration of topic over time Reflect on experiences, document experiences Provides access to science experiences Language and Literacy Development • Language & communication • Role oral language in all domains – Imagine a 4-year-old limited language abilities friendships – Early Intervention • Sustained conversations – Adult expands thoughts – Child: A white bear. – Adult: Yes, there’s a white mama bear with her baby, her little cub. Language and Literacy Development • Predictor-reading success • Private speech – Connected to problem solving • English language learners – Importance of family’s primary language – Under age 10 – best time to teach other languages • Promote by reading!!!!! Examples to Consider Chapter 5 •Creating a caring community of learners •Teaching to enhance development and learning •Planning curriculum to achieve important goals •Assessing children’s development and learning •Establishing reciprocal relationships with families Maria Montessori "Never help a child with a task at which he feels he can succeed."