Campeche, Mexico
Presentation to the
Global Climate and Forestry Task Force
Aceh, Indonesia
May 17-21, 2010
Campeche Commitment to the
Western Climate Initiative
in Request for Partner Status
Complete its green house gas (GHG) emissions inventory in the
near future.
Upon completion of the inventory, develop a reduction target for
GHG emission sources for which it has regulatory oversight.
Concurrently, develop a plan that outlines the actions necessary
to meet the established target, understanding that its participation
in the WCI cap-and-trade program can be a substantial element of
the action plan.
Campeche Background Information
Economic Activities in Campeche
Main economic activity sectors
contribution to state
GDP (2006)
Mining (including Oil and Gas Extraction by
Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX))
Communal, social and personal services
Trade, restaurants and hotels
Finance, insurance, real estate and rentals
Transport, storage and communications
Agriculture, forestry and fishing
Electricity, gas and water
Manufacturing industry (products include food,
beverages and tobacco)
SOURCE: INEGI. System of National Accounts of
Mexico. Gross Domestic Product by State
Largest City:
San Francisco de Campeche
San Francisco de Campeche
April 29, 1863
Fernando Ortega Bernés (PRI)
State Participation in GNP (2006)
United Nations World Heritage List
Historic Fortified Town of Campeche, Campeche
Date of Inscription: 1999
Criteria: (ii)(iv)
Property : 181.0000 ha
State of Campeche
N19 50 47 W90 32 14
Ref: 895
Campeche is a typical example of a harbour town from the Spanish colonial period in the New
The historic centre has kept its outer walls and system of fortifications, designed to defend this
Caribbean port against attacks from the sea.
Criterion (iv): The fortifications system of Campeche, an eminent example of the military
architecture of the 17th and 18th centuries, is part of an overall defensive system set up by the
Spanish to protect the ports on the Caribbean Sea from pirate attacks.
Ancient Maya City of Calakmul, Campeche
Date of Inscription: 2002
Criteria: (i)(ii)(iii)(iv)
Property : 3000.0000 ha
Buffer zone: 147195.0000 ha
Calakmul Municipality, Campeche Providence
N18 07 21 W89 47 00
Ref: 1061
Calakmul, an important Maya site set deep in the tropical forest of the Tierras Bajas
of southern Mexico, played a key role in the history of this region for more than
twelve centuries.
Its imposing structures and its characteristic overall layout are remarkably well
preserved and give a vivid picture of life in an ancient Maya capital.
Criterion i: The many commemorative stelae at Calakmul are outstanding
examples of Maya art, which throw much light on the political and spiritual
development of the city.
Criterion ii: With a single site Calakmul displays an exceptionally well preserved
series of monuments and open spaces representative of Maya architectural, artistic,
and urban development over a period of twelve centuries.
Criterion iii: The political and spiritual way of life of the Maya cities of the Tierras
Bajas region is admirably demonstrated by the impressive remains of Calakmul.
Criterion iv: Calakmul is an outstanding example of a significant phase in human
settlement and the development of architecture.
Protected Areas in Campeche
The Biosphere Reserve "Calakmul" was created by Presidential Decree on May 23, 1989 and is
part of the National System of Protected Natural Areas (SINAP) with a total area of 723.185
hectares in the municipality of Calakmul, which includes core areas and buffer.
The two core areas are the best preserved areas and undisturbed, which housed ecosystems,
natural phenomena of special importance or flora and fauna species requiring special protection,
where the only activities allowed are scientific preservation and environmental education. As
regards the buffer zones are surfaces that are intended to protect the core areas of the external
impact and where you can engage in productive activities, educational and recreational, as well as
applied research and research.
The fauna of the region of Calakmul species are considered rare, endemic, threatened or
endangered species such as ocelots, jaguars, howler and spider monkeys, as well as the
Ocellated which require conservation.
Abound in the region as guayacan timber species, mahogany, cedar, and logwood or Campeche,
industrial species such as sapodilla, and rubber; forage species such as Ramon, and fruits such
as black sapote, nance, mamey, ciricote, xanisté and guava, among others.
There are several archaeological sites of l the Mayan civilization, among which stand out
Calakmul, El Ramonal, Xpujil, Becán, Chicana, Rio Bec and Hormiguero, mostly belonging to the
classic period, representing a very significant from the standpoint of cultural history in the national
and and international tourism development
Los Petenes
The Petenes are small islands with tropical forest vegetation that develop between the mangroves.
This area was issued on July 4, 1996, under the state system, Special Protection Area Wildlife and Aquatic "Los
Petenes", with an area of 382.857 ha.
On May 24, 1999 was enacted, under federal rules, the Biosphere Reserve "The Petenes."
The area deals with your current declaration 282,857.62 ha. It includes the municipalities of Hecelchakán, Calkiní
and part of the Campeche and Tenabo. It is a sparsely populated land area and thus low environmental impact by
human activities. Its natural features and access diflcil make it a very attractive area of ecotourism. Therein lies the
island of Jaina, a major cemetery and ceremonial center of the ancient Maya culture, whose figurines are
internationally recognized and appreciated
Ecosystem life revolves around a cenote or spring and balance, fragile and delicate, is maintained between the
supply of fresh water and salt water intrusion along the bottom hydrodynamic and topographic found only in
The floristic composition of the Petén varies with respect to its distance from the coastline. Those closest to the
sea are denoted by red mangrove, black and white. With increasing distance from the sea changes to mangrove
buttonwood and in outlying areas, there are species typical of lowland flooding as Chechen, logwood, sapodilla,
Chaco, custard and sabal. Ecosystem life revolves around a cenote or spring and balance, fragile and delicate, is
maintained between the supply of fresh water and salt water intrusion along the bottom hydrodynamic and
topographic found only in Campeche.
The floristic composition of the Petén varies with respect to its distance from the coastline. Those closest to the
sea are dominated by red mangrove, black and white. With increasing distance from the sea changes to mangrove
buttonwood and in outlying areas, there are species typical of lowland flooding as Chechen, logwood, sapodilla,
Chaco, custard and sabal.
The importance of this region protected sesustenta in: The recognition that this is a protection zone, food and rest
for the local wildlife migration.
Part of a series of habitats, in terms of hydrodynamic and topographic, only observed in Campeche.
The region is considered important for the survival of a variety of waterfowl, both migratory and resident.
It is also true for many reptiles and cats, white-tailed deer, monkey and numerous araí'ia mollusks, fish and
crustaceans, some of which are commercially important.
This protected area has its Management Plan, with administrative direction and advice advisory.
Laguna de Términos
La Laguna de Términos was decreed protected area the June 6, 1994 has an area of 705.016
hectares and is part of Mexico's most important delta.
Estuarine lagoon system is the largest volume and surface area of the country. It is an ecological
complex comprising the coastal marine continental pataforma mirrors composed of freshwater,
brackish and estuarine marina; xona seagrass, fluvial deltaic system associated wetlands and
In a coastal beauty, this area covers the municipalities of Carmen, Palizada and Champotón.
There lies Ciudad del Carmen, the second most important settlement of the state population, and
traditional fishing villages and Sabancuy as Isla Aguada.
It is a nesting site and food for commercially important species.
In the main body and fluvio lagoon systems associated with it, feed, are born and develop different
species such as shrimp, holds a business that generates annual dólaits 194 million,
This region presents a rich mosaic of aquatic, coastal, mangrove vegetation in swamps, flooded
low forest, scrub flood inert, high-forest and secondary growth medium.
Mangroves are the most representative vegetation of the place. It is home to animals such as
jaguar, ocelot, taffy badger, deer, raccoon, manatee and bottlenose dolphin.
It is also the nesting site and a haven for various species of birds such as Jabiru stork. Among the
reptiles are the boa constrictor, iguana green, pochitoque turtle, and freshwater chiquiguao and
the crocodile.
It was created by presidential decree issued on June 19, 1979, initially as a Wildlife
Refuge and is currently in the process of reclassification.
This protected area is shared by the states of Campeche and Yucatan, in the
northwestern Yucatan Peninsula.
45 percent of the circle of the Ria Celestun is located in the State of Campeche, in
particular in the municipality of Calkiní in natural attraction sites and fishing villages
like El Remate, Island Sand and Real de Salinas. The remaining 55% corresponds to
the town of Celestun State of Yucatan. The total area of the reserve is 59.130
It is a vast wetland area well preserved and one of the largest areas of mangroves in
the Gulf of Mexico. Its importance lies in being a space for nesting and reproduction
of charismatic as the pink flamingo and the hawksbill turtle, and various migratory
birds rest. Among the fauna found in the area are some medium-sized cats like
jaguar and ocelot, and the marsh crocodile and the spider monkey, among others.
This area has substantial commercial fishing of species such as octopus, conch and
red and black species of scale in general.
Its flora consists mainly of mangroves, coastal dunes and hillocks, noting species
such as red mangrove, black mangrove, sapodilla, Chacco, pucté, nance and red
Balam-Kin was decreed by the Executive of the State, December 15, 1999, subject to ecological
preservation zone, an area of 110.990 ha., Is located at the east end of the municipality of
Champoton and abuts the buffer zone Biosphere Reserve of Calakmul.
The area is a mosaic of natural landscapes, where you can see from flood to low hills. The
climatic characteristics, soil types and the presence of bodies of water such as watering
con6cidos (basic for survival of the fauna), make particular ecosystems that allow the existence of
the dominant types of vegetation such as evergreen lowland forest (34.71%) , the low deciduous
forest (48.57%) and tropical deciduous forest (16.72%).
The flora of the region is comprised of species such as jabin, lignum vitae, disheveled, cedar,
mahogany, logwood, ramon, sapodilla, orchids, bromeliads, xate, blackwood, Chechen, Jobo,
pucté, blackberry and tzalam, among others. Many specimens have a risk and protection status.
Nearly 20 percent of the flora has been impacted by human activities such as illegal logging of
precious species such as mahogany, cedar, lignum vitae, blackwood and ciricote, but most
species have a long growth process.
The access and internal roads are only open gaps in previous years by timber and chicle. Its
fauna is composed of a large number of species of amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals,
many of them reported under some risk status, whether threatened, endemic, rare or endangered.
There are five of the six cats that live in Mexico, represented by the jaguar, ocelot, the jaguar, the
ocelot and puma. In addition, species like the howler and spider monkeys, the Ocellated, toucan,
curassows, king vulture, partridge cinnamon, gray hawk and falcon jungle, among others. Also
present in the area some endemic species like the dwarf carpenter, the flycatcher and blue jay.
Many of these are attractive to poachers.
For this reason and the latent threat of new settlements and extensive clearing for agricultural
activities the State Government proposed its categorization as a protected area.
Climate Change Impacts on Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Countries. WWF.
September 2007. Reported by the IPCC 4th Assessment Report
Replacement of tropical forest by savannas is expected in the tropical forests of central and southern Mexico, along with
replacement of semi-arid by arid vegetation in most of central and northern Mexico due to synergistic effects of both land use
and climate changes (medium confidence) [13.4.1].
In tropical forests, species extinctions are likely [13.4].
Grain yield reductions could reach up to 30% by 2080 under the warmer scenario [13.4.2].
73% to 78% reduction in coffee production by 2050 in Veracruz [Table 13.5].
By 2050, desertification and salinisation will affect 50% of agricultural lands in Latin America and the Caribbean zone [13.4.2]
In some coastal areas of the Gulf of Mexico, an increase in sea surface temperature, minimum temperature and precipitation
was associated with an increase in dengue transmission cycles [13.2.2]. Projected sea surface temperature of 1-3°C by the
2080s [Table 13.7].
Models project a substantial increase in the number of people at risk of dengue due to changes in the geographical limits of transmission
Projected impacts of climate change include 2-18% of the mammals, 2-8% of the birds and 1-11% of the butterflies committed to
extinction with temperature increase of 1.3-3°C above pre-industrial levels [Table 4.1].
Sea level rise and sea surface temperature increases are very likely to affect buildings, tourism and the Mesoamerican coral
reefs [13.4.4].
Coastal vegetated wetlands are sensitive to climate change and long-term sea-level change. Regional losses would be most
severe on the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coasts of North and Central America, the Caribbean, the Mediterranean, the Baltic and
most small island regions due to their low tidal range [].
Mesoamerican coral reef and mangroves from Gulf of Mexico are expected to be threatened, with consequences for a number
of endangered species; e.g. the green, hawksbill and loggerhead turtles, the West Indian manatee and the American and
Motelet’s species of crocodile with the projected 1-3 oC warmer sea surface temperature by the 2080s [Table 13.7].
Mangrove forests located in low-lying coastal areas are particularly vulnerable to sea-level rise, increased mean temperatures,
and hurricane frequency and intensity [13.2.2]
Since the third assessment report, several highly unusual extreme weather events have been reported in Latin America, such as
Hurricane Wilma and Stan (Oct. 2005) and Hurricane Emily (Jul. 2005). H. Wilma made several landfalls, mainly in the Yucatán
Peninsula. Losses of US$1,881 million. 95% of the tourist infrastructure seriously damaged [13.2.2 & Table 13.1].
The impacts of Hurricanes Katrina, Rita and Wilma in 2005 and Ivan in 2004 demonstrated that the Gulf of Mexico offshore oil
and natural gas platforms and pipelines, petroleum refineries, and supporting infrastructure can be seriously harmed by major
hurricanes, which can produce national-level impacts, and require recovery times stretching to months or longer [14.2.8].
Mexico and CARICOM Climate Change Declaration
We, the Heads of State and Government of Mexico and the Member States of the Caribbean (CARICOM),
gathered together on February 21, 2010, in the Mexican Riviera Maya, confirm our commitment to reinforcing
cooperation to deal with the threat of climate change through joint efforts by our nations.
We express our concern over the scientific evidence showing that climate change induced by humans is worse
than predicted and that the impacts of climate change we are already experiencing in our region will intensify.
Since the Caribbean is a highly vulnerable region to the harmful effects of climate change, we are determined to
strengthen our mitigation and adaptation policies with the support of the international community to cope with this
serious threat. We call for an increase in cooperation in our region to achieve understanding and adapt to the
adverse impacts of climate change and in this respect, we will ask for the establishment of collaboration links
between the Caribbean Community's Center for Climate Change (CCCCC) and the Government of Mexico.
Our region widely acknowledges the fact that the development of mitigation actions will reduce the long-term costs
and effects of the climate phenomenon. In this respect, we have been concerned to note that ever year, the
continuous increase in global emissions reduces the possibilities of stabilizing the average global temperature and
at the same time, increases the costs associated with this stabilization.
We stress the need to continue negotiations within the United Nations Framework Agreement on Climate Change
and the Bali Action Plan and we urge all the states to become constructively involved in the negotiations and to
build on the results achieved in Copenhagen.
We regard the Copenhagen Agreement as a significant step towards the implementation of the Bali Action Plan
and express our interest in ensuring that the understanding reached over certain crucial elements will facilitate the
negotiations underway at the Convention.
We also welcome the fact that our region will host the 16th Conference of the Parties to the Convention (COP 16)
and the 6th Meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol (CMP 6) and we pledge to collaborate and support the
Mexican Government to ensure the adoption of a broad, ambitious, effective agreement that will meet the
challenges and needs of mankind, particularly the most vulnerable sectors. CARICOM and Mexico agree over the
importance of ensuring that the COP 16 results are legally binding.
Campeche Background
The state of Campeche has a large population of indigenous peoples. Of these the most significant in numbers, as
well as history, are the Yucatec Maya, concentrated in the oldest settlements in the north of the state. This group
extends over the greater part of the Yucatan Peninsula with 11% in Campeche, 76.25% in Yucatan, and 12.73% in
Quintana Roo. Campeche also has a high concentration of indigenous refugees from Guatemala that are settled in
refugee camps and, the southern part of the state has received migrants from other ethnic groups. The 1990
census shows that there are 45 different languages represented in the state, among which the most important are
Ch’ol, Tzeltal, Kanjobal, and Mam.
Most of the territory of Campeche is characterized by a sub-humid climate and a dense tropical forest cover. There
is also a low-lying region with lakes and a riverine area. The "milpa" system, predominant in the state, requires an
in-depth knowledge of the specific ecological systems, including the cycles of various plants and rains as well as
the fallow period required by the soils. Hunting and gathering are supplementary subsistence activities. Local
natural resources are used to provide housing materials, as well as, energy needs. All together these activities,
plus forestry and livestock rearing have had a devastating effect on the tropical forest, and attempts to reverse this
effect are being made through the programs of sustainable development that focus on reforestation and wildlife
management. The politics of preservation have given rise to various protected areas. Among these, the Calakmul
Biosphere Reserve stands out because of the number of indigenous migrants living within the reserve’s 723,185
hectares of dense tropical forest and the plans for ecological and archaeological-tourism development.
Demography of Indigenous Groups in Campeche
Population density is very low (11.3 inhabitants per square kilometer) compared to the national average of 46
inhabitants per square kilometer.
The population is concentrated in the municipalities of El Carmen, Campeche, and Champoton which together
account for 72.3% of the state’s total population. The remaining 27.7% of the state’s population is dispersed over
the rest of the state’s territory.
The census figures in the period between 1980 and 1990 show a slow growth rate of indigenous language
speakers (ages 5 years and over) as compared to the total population of the state. This low rate of growth is
unlikely to accurately reflect the natural rate of growth, due to three sources of distortion: under enumeration of the
immigrants from the southern portion of the state; the out-migration from the northern part of the state’s
predominantly Maya speaking population; and gradual loss of indigenous language speakers (ILS), the defining
indicator in the census. In contrast to the rate of growth as defined by ILS, the real natural population growth rate
is highest in the municipalities with a high concentration of indigenous population, because the average number of
live births per woman is higher than the state’s average.
However, the state’s overall population balance is heavily affected by the migratory movements. Campeche is
considered to be a state of great migratory attraction, in 1990 occupying ninth place in the nation for in-migration.
The non-indigenous migrants are concentrated in the municipalities of El Carmen, Campeche, and Champoton,
while indigenous migrants are drawn to areas where there is available land. The low population density of the state
and the availability of land render it an area of new colonization. Some of the colonization programs have resulted
in the creation of collective ejidos and settlements in what have come to be known as New Ejido Population
Centers (NPC), that are playing an increasingly important role as organizational poles for new indigenous
Spanish and Indigenous Languages in Campeche
The main languages spoken in Campeche belong to the Maya group and include Yucatec Maya,
Ch’ol, and Tzeltal. Linguistic transmission takes place within the household and family through
informal daily education. Although there are government programs that seek to preserve and
reinforce the use of these languages, their results are mixed, and limited to the Mayan language.
In Campeche statistics show that 91.43% of the indigenous language speakers are bilingual in
both an indigenous language and Spanish.
The remaining 6.31% are monolingual. If bilingualism is to be considered an indicator of
acculturation, these high figures would portend to show a high degree of acculturation and of redefinition of ethnic indigenous identity. Although the high levels of bilingualism show linguistic
acculturation, indigenous customs and world view persist along with a strong capacity to adapt
elements from the national culture into indigenous forms of organization due primarily to the high
numbers of indigenous peoples in the state.
These are reinforced by in-migration of new ethnic groups which explains the high linguistic
heterogeneity (43 languages other than Maya and Ch’ol), with a predominance of Kanjobal and
Indigenous Regions in Campeche
There are five distinct regions in the state. The statistical information available is discontinuous due to the creation of the Calakmul, out of pieces of
other municipalities.
Camino Real (Calkini, Hecelchakan and Tenabo) is a region characterized by a peninsular Maya peoples which due to their proximity to outside
communications is more open to other cultural influences. The people of this region live in traditional population centers with significant land pressure.
The economy is based on traditional agriculture, artisanal work and riverine fishing. The small municipality of Tenalbo, even with its tradition of intensive
irrigated agriculture is an area of strong labor out-migration.
Chenes Region (Hopelchen, and part of Campeche), also with a peninsular Maya population, but one which is more highly traditional and conservative,
due to its relatively high isolation, is an area with a high incidence of monolingual speakers. Its economy is based on traditional agriculture and forestry.
Settlements are widely dispersed and land pressure less than in the previously described region.
Champoton Region has a lower indigenous population density as well as a population long in contact with an inmigrated non-indigenous population. The
economy is based on fishing, livestock production, and intensive cash crop production: sugar, rice and copra, although forestry and apiculture are
relatively important in the eastern portion of this region.
Calakmul has a heterogeneous indigenous population which in-migrated with the opening of new areas for colonization. Despite a low population
density, it is nevertheless a region with great pressure on the existing resources and competition between the residents of ejidos and the organizations
of new migrants. A large part of this region encompasses the Biosphere Reserve of Calakmul, and the existing settlements and their populations have
had to adapt to the regulations governing the Biosphere’s resources and its adjacent buffer zone. The economy is based on traditional agriculture and
the exploitation of forest resources.
The Southwestern region (El Carmen, Palizada, and Escarcega) has a low percentage of indigenous population and is linked to the adjacent center of
Villahermosa, the capital of Tabasco. The petroleum extracting activities in the zone have had a strong impact on the local economy as well as on
livestock production and commercial agriculture.
In each of these regions, inter-ethnic relations are defined by the density of indigenous population, and by the dominant ethnic group. Traditional forms
of Maya organization with a long history of association with a mestizo population of Spanish descent, predominate in Camino Real, resulting in a
relatively open and dynamic system of cultural relations compared to the Chenes region and its more conservative population. The southern
municipalities are shaped by immigrant ethnic groups who adapted to the organizational forms of the ejido developing similar forms of political
representation and decision-making for resource management, layered by a continuous interaction with mestizos. This interaction has attenuated ethnic
differences. The city of Campeche has unique characteristics as an old indigenous settlement which retains--in its periphery and peri-urban area--a
highly traditional indigenous population combined with recent indigenous migrants. As a result, the municipality of Campeche has a much higher density
of ILS, and classifies as a "predominantly indigenous" municipality according to Instituto Nacional Indigenista definitions.
Forests and Cenotes
Yucatan Moist Forests
Mexican States
Diversity of Flora in Mexico
Principal Ecosystems in Mexico
Ecological Zones in Mexico
Physiogeography of Mexico
Yucatán Moist Forests (NT0181)
Biome:Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forest
Size:Ecos: 69,700 km2
General:Bio corridor in between the drier forests in the north and
more humid environments in the Southwest.
Special:Temperature fairly constant throughout the year. Large part
of this eco region lies atop karst (limestone). Karst forests typically
harbor many endemic species.
Climate:Mostly hot subhumid - mean annual temperature > 22 °C,
temperature of the coldest month > 18 °C, annual precipitation 500 2500 mm.
Fauna:More than 15 species of amphibians, 40 reptiles, 200 birds
and 90 mammal species
Dangers:Logging, agriculture, cattle grazing, road construction,
illegal trade in wild species
Yucatán Moist Forests (NT0181)
Southern North America: Yucatán Peninsula in southern Mexico extending into northern Guatemala, and northern
Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
26,900 square miles (69,700 square kilometers) -- about the size of West Virginia
Conservation Status: Vulnerable
Forests of the Maya
The Yucatán forests form a biological corridor that allows the exchange of species between the drier forests of
northern Yucatán and the more humid environments of the southwest.
These forests are home to more than 15 species of amphibians, 40 reptiles, 200 birds and 90 mammals. On the
island of Cozumel, just off the eastern Yucatán, one can find many endemic species, including the Cozumel vireo,
thrasher, and emerald hummingbird, and the Cozumel Island raccoon and coati.
The northern portion of the forest is an important area for many interesting bird species, including Caribbean
elaenia, migratory species like prairie warblers and peregrine falcons, and species with local distributions like the
Caribbean dove, the zenaida dove, and the black catbird.
In addition to its rich forests, this ecoregion borders wetlands of great importance, like the Ria Lagartos mangroves
and the Sian Ka'an wetlands.
Special Features
• In the tropical, humid climate of the Yucatán
Moist Forests, the temperature remains fairly
constant throughout the year. Some areas of
deep soils called akalché are periodically
flooded, providing a source of water for native
villagers and wildlife species alike.
• Much of this ecoregion lies atop rugged,
weathered limestone called karst. Karst forests
around the world are noted for having many
endemic plant species.
Wild Side
• In the warm and humid Yucatán Moist Forests, small spotted cats
called margays climb high into the trees. They can actually rotate
their rear paws inward so that they can climb down a tree and
pounce from this position. They feed on small mammals, lizards,
and bird eggs.
• Other famous felines here include the ocelots that stalk monkeys
and birds, jaguarundi that hunt for small rodents and ground nesting
birds, and the secretive jaguar. The Mexican black howler monkey is
largely restricted to this ecoregion. The ecoregion is home to an
amazing variety of bird species, from black and white owls, King
vultures, and ocellated turkeys to harpy eagles, great curassows,
scarlet macaws, and Yucatán parrots.
• The southeastern part of the region, where the land is swampy, is
filled with chicle, fiddlewood, and chaca trees, and palms are
scattered in the understory.
Cause for Concern
• Almost all the forests in the northern part of the coastal
plain have been lost to logging, agriculture, and cattle
• What's left of these forests continues to be cleared to
make roads for expanding human populations in the
area. In addition, game hunting threatens many of the
already endangered species here, and illegal trade in
wild species is extensive.
• This area once supported a large human population and
extensive agriculture during the Maya period.
Mexico Forest, Grasslands and Drylands Profile

Campeche: State-level Indigenous Profile Summary 4. …