Mr. Marston
Dominion Christian High School
Marietta, GA
 Chapter
Objectives
Explain how geography, economics, and
cultural diversity affect the population of
Latin America
Discuss how Latin America’s history continues
to affect the region’s politics today
Describe how Latin American culture is
affected by religion
 539
million people
 9% of the world’s population
 Ancestors of peoples who migrated to North
America were the first people to settle Latin
America
 Indigenous:
people descended from an area’s
first inhabitants. Are they native to the area
or just came sooner than others?
 Do exercise on page 212 (1,2) Discuss
 What
are the maps on the next slide
showing?? Time period?
Indians: Mexico, Central America and South
America (Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia)
Descendants of Aztecs and Incas

Europeans: Spanish and Portuguese descendants at
first (British, French, and German in smaller
numbers)
Argentina/Uruguay: immigrant nations.
Africans: first came to work sugar plantations in
the Caribbean and in Brazil
Asians: came as temporary workers (Guyana, for
example)
 http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=htt
p://www.southimages.com/ecuador/indians-andes9749.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.southimages.com/photos-indians-ecuadorchimborazo.htm&usg=__GvkqyCa4VLc9oP_Bv
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Spanish: primary language
 Portuguese (Brazil)
 French: Haiti, Martinique, St. Martin
 English: Belize, Jamaica, and Guyana
 Native Indian languages
 Dialect: particular form of a language unique to
a person or group. Examples of dialects in the
United States?
 213 (1-2)
 Most are bilingual: speak more than one
language
 Patois: dialects that blend elements of
indigenous, European, Asian, and African
languages. Gullah in the United States??

 http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=htt
p://campus.udayton.edu/mary//resources/s
tamps/suriname/Surinam_Stamp_Files/image
s/surinamemap.gif&imgrefurl=http://campus
.udayton.edu/mary//resources/stamps/surin
ame/surinamStamps.htm&usg=__oB1QCvMMT
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Live in 1/3 of regions land
 350 million in South America: most along the coast
“Populated rim”
Interior of South America: rain forests, deserts, mountains, and poor
soil
Coastal regions: better climates, fertile soil, and easy access to
transportation systems
Largest area where people live in South America
a.
Amazon River mouth to Buenos Aires
b.
Venezuela to Chile
Where they don’t live
a.
Amazon to Venezuela
b.
Patagonia



138 million: Central America and Mexico
37 million: Caribbean
http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http
://campus.udayton.edu/mary//resources/st
amps/suriname/Surinam_Stamp_Files/image
s/surinamemap.gif&imgrefurl=http://campus
.udayton.edu/mary//resources/stamps/surin
ame/surinamStamps.htm&usg=__oB1QCvMMT
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 Relatively
low in South America because of
size of countries
 Very High in the Caribbean
 Mexico: relatively low for the country
Extremely high in Mexico City with over 18
million people (30,000 plus per square mile)
 North:
to United States
Political freedom
Economic opportunities
Improved living conditions
What states do they live in?
Internal migration: Rural to Urban areas
Difficult to make life as farmer: land is scarce
Urbanization: the migration of people from the
countryside to cities as well as change to a
more urban society
p. 216 (1-2)
 Mexico
City
 Sao Paulo
 Rio de Janeiro
 Buenos Aires
 Top
20 cities in the world. Other populated
cities in the world?

Megacities: cities that have expanded into the
surrounding areas to have a population over 10
million people
Puts stress on infrastructure
Safe drinking water
Underground sewers
New utilities
Street maintenance
Primate city: an area that dominates its country’s
economy, culture, and political affairs

 People
move to cities for the following
reasons
Higher incomes
More educational opportunities
Better housing
Increased access to health care
Jobs and housing can become scarce and living
conditions can be substandard
 Engineering
marvel
 Save 7,000 miles from going around South
America
 Panama Canal Live Shots
 Panama
Canal Journey
 Maya
 Aztec
 Inca
 Mayan
Calendar
 Mayan
temple video
 Calendar:
accurately measured 365 day solar
year
 Glyphs:
picture writings carved on stone.
About 500 in use
Astronomy
Could predict solar eclipses
Mathematics
Concept of zero
 Aztec
3 d-Temple
 Central
Mexico
 Human
Sacrifice/Cannibalism
 Defined Class Structure: Nobility, Priests,
Merchants, Slaves and Peasants
 Agriculture: Crop Cultivations
Chinampas: Fertile land areas that were
constructed on rafts using the mud from the
bottom of Lake Texcoco. (Maize, avocadoes,
beans, squash, tomatoes) Chocolate.
Used canoes to transport food back from
islands.
p. 221 (1-2)
 Constructed
massive temple structures
 Used terracing
 Constructed mountain roads
 Domestication of animals (alpaca and llama)
 Quipu: knotted cords to keep record of
financial transactions
 Believed
in reincarnation
 Cranial deformation among nobility
 Architectural accomplishments: stone temple
construction
 Coca plants were sacred
 No written language
 Machu
Pichu video
 Spanish
Conquistadors: explorers/conquerors
Hernan Cortes (Aztec)
Francisco Pizarro (Inca)
1494: World divided between Spain and
Portugal
Spain: West
Portugal: East (Brazil)
 222
(1-2)
 Viceroy:
regional representative of the king
who “supervised” the running of the colonial
empire.
 Catholic Church
 Encomienda System: labor system in which
an individual was given the right to use
Indian labor or to tax them in return for
educating them in Spanish and Catholicism.
Many abuses of Indians took place.
 Built
cities and towns that served as trading
centers and seats of government
 Plantations grew coffee, bananas and
sugarcane
 Established farms and cattle ranches
 Indians were not long term answers to the
labor demands of the colonists (died from
diseases). Importation of African slaves
began in the late 16th century.
 Indian
treatment by Spanish colonials
 Spanish
colonists wanted to be independent
 Indians and Africans wanted freedom from
servitude
 Late 1700’s
 Started
with Haiti and its slave leader,
Toussaint Louverture (1804)
 Mexico (1821)
Most of Latin America was freed by Simon
Bolivar (Venezuela) and Jose de San Martin
(Argentina)
 Cuba
(Spanish American War in 1898)
 Many Caribbean islands did not gain
independence until the 1900s.
 Some Caribbean islands are still dependant
(under foreign control)
 Strong
Dictatorships and not much concern
for Human Rights: Legacy of Spanish Empire
 Governments
run by single party (Mexico)
 Military Officers
 Wealthy
 Influence of the Church
 Caudillo: Dictator. Absolute rulers with sole
authority to make decisions.
 South
American Independence
 Cuban
Revolution: 1959 Ouster of Bautista
and installation of Fidel Castro
 Mexico ended one party rule in 2000
 Rise of Hugo Chavez in Venezuela
 Catholicism
 Protestant
Denominations
 Islam
 Hinduism
 Buddhism
 P.
227 (1-2)
 Syncretism:
blending of religious beliefs into
a single faith. (Voodoo Condomble (Brazil),
Santeria (Cuba)
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The Cultural Geography of Latin America