IAEA Technical Meeting/Workshop
“Topical Issues on Infrastructure Development: Managing the Development of
a National Infrastructure for Nuclear Power”
9-12 February 2010, Vienna, Austria
AECL Perspectives on newcomer
NPP owners: lessons from the
Cernavoda experience
John Saroudis
Regional Vice-President
CANDU Reactor Division
 Copyright Atomic Energy of Canada Limited
IAEA, Vienna, Austria, 9-12 Feb, 2010
Outline
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AECL Profile
Vendor Expectations of newcomers to nuclear
Some key questions
Legal, commercial and regulatory matters
Training and Education
Industrial and Localisation Aspects
The Cernavoda Experience
Longer Term Issues
Conclusions
 Copyright Atomic Energy of Canada Limited
IAEA, Vienna, Austria, 9-12 Feb, 2010
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Atomic Energy of Canada Limited
• Established in 1952 to lead the
Canadian nuclear industry.
• 33 CANDU reactors in-service
worldwide
• Over 5,000 employees
• CANDU recognized as one of the
top 10 major engineering
achievements of the past century
in Canada.
• World records in construction and
commissioning.
• Advanced R&D Facilities
 Copyright Atomic Energy of Canada Limited
IAEA, Vienna, Austria, 9-12 Feb, 2010
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AECL’s Power Reactor Products
ACR-1000TM (Advanced CANDU ReactorTM)
• 1200 MWe class reactor
• Generation III+ technology
• Combines experience of CANDU 6 with new
CANDU concepts
• Light water cooling & low enriched fuel
• Enhanced safety, economics, operability
EC6 (Enhanced CANDU 6)
• 740 MWe class
• Heavy water moderated and cooled, natural
uranium fueled
• Based on the Qinshan project
• Enhanced to meet current regulatory
requirements in Canada and internationally,
and the Gen III guidelines
 Copyright Atomic Energy of Canada Limited
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CANDU – A Global Success
Romania
Cernavoda 2 units
+ 2 units planned
Quebec, Canada
Gentilly 2 1 unit
South Korea
Wolsong 4 units
Ontario, Canada
Darlington 4 units
Pickering 6 units
Bruce
8 units
China
Qinshan
India
2 CANDU units
15 PHWR units,
3 units under construction
N.Brunswick, Canada
Point Lepreau 1 unit
Argentina
Embalse 1 unit
Wolsong, S. Korea
2 units
Pakistan
KANUPP 1 unit
Pickering, Canada
 Copyright Atomic Energy of Canada Limited
Qinshan III, China
IAEA, Vienna, Austria, 9-12 Feb, 2010
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Vendor Expectations of NPP
newcomer countries
• Vendors want to deal with an intelligent customer;
• Realistic expectations and objectives from host
country;
• Clear and practical (credible) process;
• Transparency and trust;
• Host country commitment to undertaking long process
to develop the necessary infrastructure and human
resources required for the successful implementation
of an NPP program;
 Copyright Atomic Energy of Canada Limited
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Vendor Expectations: some key
questions
• What is the country's legal framework: does it adhere
to international agreements?
• Does the country have the ability to develop the
required human resources?
• Does it have a developed electricity sector from which
to draw resources that can be further trained?
• What is the funding/financing model?
 Copyright Atomic Energy of Canada Limited
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Why the subject is pertinent
• 43 countries have expressed interest in building a first
NPP;
• 25 countries are actively considering nuclear power
programs;
• Newcomer Country Perspective: Issues of economic
effort, capability of industrial infrastructure, availability
of human resources, cultural considerations
• Nuclear Vendor Perspective: Responding to new NPP
acquisition process is a time-consuming and expensive
process
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What the vendor can do
• Help educate the buyer with help from the IAEA;
• Undertake joint pre-feasibility studies (reflect some
vendor requirements into the process);
• Make their expectations and requirements known to
the newcomer countries;
• Sell proven technology; this provides a reliable base
on which to build in a newcomer country.
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CANDU Development: A Strong History
Darlington
ACR
and beyond
900
Power (MWe)
800
900+ MWe Class
Reactors
700
600
CANDU 9
Bruce A
Bruce B
Enhanced CANDU 6
CANDU 6 Pt Lepreau Embalse
Qinshan
Wolsong 1&2
2,3,4
Gentilly 2 Wolsong 1 Cernavoda
600+ MWe Class
Reactors
500
Pickering A
Pickering B
RAPPS 1,2
200
Douglas Point
NRU
100
ZEEP
KANUPP
Research & Prototype
Reactors
NPD
NRX
1950
1960
 Copyright Atomic Energy of Canada Limited
1970
1980
1990
2000
Today
Years
IAEA, Vienna, Austria, 9-12 Feb, 2010
OFFICIAL USE ONLY
Legal and Commercial Aspects
Legal:
• Non-Proliferation legislation;
• Nuclear Liability legislation;
Commercial:
• Well-established judicial system;
• Acceptance of 3rd country legal system (if required);
 Copyright Atomic Energy of Canada Limited
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Regulatory Aspects
• Independent regulatory capability needs to be built up
early in the process;
• Close initial cooperation with vendor countries
regulators;
• Train regulator staff in vendor country(s);
• Adopt a clear, well-structured licensing system;
 Copyright Atomic Energy of Canada Limited
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Training and Education
Training:
• Second regulator staff and future operations staff to vendor
country institutions/utilities;
• Develop local labour capabilities in nuclear manufacturing
and construction;
Education:
• Existence of high level universities;
• Institute nuclear engineering courses including Masters level;
• Educate future pillars of nuclear program in vendor country
universities
 Copyright Atomic Energy of Canada Limited
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Industrial and Localisation Aspects
 Autonomy - self-reliance
 ability to implement program without undue
dependence on others
 Economic development
 local companies to benefit from economic activity
 Scientific & Industrial Development
 strengthens centres of excellence that support
other industries
 Shorten the supply chain
 suppliers closer to customers
 eliminate language barriers
 Costs
 reduce costs in a multi-unit new build program
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AECL Localization Policy
 AECL is committed to share
technology
 Four decades of experience
 CANDU plants exported to six
countries & operate in over six
languages
 High localization in most “CANDU”
countries
 AECL has no manufacturing
facilities- therefore ready to partner
with local companies
 Copyright Atomic Energy of Canada Limited
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The Cernavoda Experience
• Long history of collaboration starting in the late 1960’s
• Technology transfer contracts signed in 1978 for CANDU 6
technology;
• Initially program was too ambitious and not realistic (too much
dependence on local capability; program too large in scale);
• From 1990’s and on the program was scaled back to one more
manageable and has resulted in the completion of two very
successful CANDU 6 units (Unit 1: in 1996 and Unit 2 in 2007)
 Copyright Atomic Energy of Canada Limited
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Short history of Canada/Romania
nuclear cooperation
Preliminary Phase:
• Initial discussions started in late 1960’s;
• Bilateral agreement signed 1971;
• Joint AECL/ Ministry of Electrical Energy study;
• Common study AECL/ISPE on feasibility of CANDU in
Romania (1975-76);
– Meeting international safety standards;
– Economic evaluation;
– Localisation studies; localised D2O production;
• Visits to Canadian nuclear sites
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Short history of Canada/Romania
nuclear cooperation (con’t)
1st Commercial Phase (1978-1989):
• Commercial contracts signed in 1978:
– Technology transfer to manufacturing sector;
– Training in Canada (engineering training at AECL; operations
training at Canadian utilities: Pickering and Pt. Lepreau NPPs)
2nd commercial phase (1990’s to present):
• Greater involvement from vendor;
• Single unit pace (not 5 units at once);
• Successful completion of Unit 1 in 1996;
• Successful completion of Unit 2 in 2007 (greater local
participation – local training of operations staff)
 Copyright Atomic Energy of Canada Limited
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Cernavoda: Regulatory Cooperation
• Initially Romania adopted USNRC based licensing
process;
• Then had to be adapted to CANDU approach in
collaboration with the AECB (CNSC);
• CNCAN set up team of about 25 staff who were trained in
Canada;
• In latter years of 2nd commercial phase the CNSC had a
full-time representative advising CNCAN during Unit 1
construction;
• Unit 2 licensed entirely by CNCAN (2003-2007)
 Copyright Atomic Energy of Canada Limited
IAEA, Vienna, Austria, 9-12 Feb, 2010
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Cernavoda: Technology Transfer
• 1978 agreements had significant technology transfer
from Canadian to Romanian nuclear manufacturing
sector;
• Capability developed for an ambitious nuclear program
during the 1980’s (e.g. for Cernavoda Unit 3 it was
envisaged to manufacture calandria vessel in
Romania);
• In reality fell somewhat short of requirements;
• Long delays in program and limited volume led to
failure to fully develop domestic capability and
eventually to further erosion (mainly in manufacturing).
 Copyright Atomic Energy of Canada Limited
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Longer Term Issues:
• Effective nuclear programs need sustained efforts to
maintain capabilities;
• Long interruption in program leads to loss of capability;
• Competition for trained human resources can seriously
hamper domestic programs (manufacturing;
construction; operation);
• Need to adapt objectives to realistic requirements
(a single or 2 unit program has different requirements
than a multi-unit long-term program)
 Copyright Atomic Energy of Canada Limited
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Conclusions
• Vendors want to deal with an intelligent and wellprepared customer;
• The acquisition process is long and complex:
newcomer countries must devote the necessary
resources (human and monetary) to carry this out;
• Preparation for introduction of a first NPP is long and
demands commitment from the buyer;
• But, it has been done successfully in several countries;
• You CANDU it also!
 Copyright Atomic Energy of Canada Limited
IAEA, Vienna, Austria, 9-12 Feb, 2010
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Thank you
 Copyright Atomic Energy of Canada Limited
IAEA, Vienna, Austria, 9-12 Feb, 2010
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