Sigismund Schlomo Freud
“One of the Greatest Psychologists in History”
and/or
“Neurotic and Ambitious Egotist who Sought
Notice by Propounding Fantastic Theories”?
Freud’s Birth: May 6, 1856
Freiburg Austria
Father: Jakob was a wool
merchant. Had two son’s
from a previous marriage.
Mother, Amalia was 20 years Jacob's
junior and his third wife.
He was born with
a caul, which his
mother saw as a
positive omen for the
boy's future.
• When Freud was 2 his mother had a second son Julius -- who
died at 6 months.
• Anna, was born in 1858
1860 – family moves to Vienna
Four sisters (Rosa,
Marie, Adolfine
and Paula) and a
brother
(Alexander) who
Freud named after
Alexander the
great!
Anti-Semitism was rife in Vienna.
•Full citizenship rights were given to
Jews in 1867.
•Thriving Jewish community,
however, there was much
prejudice.
•Karl Leuger (Mayor) 1897 and 1910. Leuger
blamed the Jews for Vienna’s financial
problems.
•Christian Social Party (model for Nazism)
Given Special Treatment
• Own room
• Took meals in his room so he
could study more.
• Kept a dream diary (heroic
themes)
9 -year-old Freud entered
the Leopoldstädter
KommunalRealgymnasium, a
prominent high school.
By 12 he was fluent in 6
languages - German, French.
Italian, Spanish, English,
Hebrew, Latin and Greek.
At 17 attended
University of
Vienna He had
planned to study
law.
Dissected over 400
eels in search of
their sexual organs.
Martha Bernays
Twenty-one-year old Martha
Bernays was peeling an
apple when Freud first saw
her. Soon, he was sending her
roses everyday and calling
her "Princess." Within two
months, they were engaged.
Their letters to each other
expressed their new-found
feelings
•Freud wanted to become a research scientist
but their was a quota for Jews in the
profession.
•With no real prospect of ever earning a
livelihood from his scientific work
•Wanted to marry Martha,
•Freud made a painful decision: he decided to
become a doctor.
•He graduated with an MD in 1881.
Internship
Freud would spend three lonely years at
Vienna General Hospital, trying his hand at
surgery, internal medicine, and psychiatry,
eventually specializing in nervous diseases.
He rarely saw Martha. She had moved with
her family to Hamburg (northern Germany).
Every day he wrote long, romantic letters.
On September 14, 1886, after four years of
waiting, 30 year old Sigmund Freud married
Martha. For the next nine years, she would be
almost constantly pregnant, giving birth to six
children.
Freud and Cocaine
•Freud had read that cocaine was great for fatigue.
•The German army used it to stave off exhaustion.
• He thought it might help a few of his patients
suffering nervous disorders.
• On April 24, 1884, Freud ordered his first gram of
cocaine from the local apothecary (it cost 1/10th
of his monthly salary).
• Tried it himself.
• He sent some to his friends; he sent some to
his fiancée.
“ I took cocaine again and a small dose lifted
me to the heights in a wonderful fashion. I am
just now collecting the literature for a song of
praise to this magical substance”.
Carl Koller
•Freud thought Cocaine might
make him famous.
•Koller tried a cocaine solution as an anesthesia
for his patients' eyes before surgery.
• Koller, not Freud became famous!
•Research on cocaine became widespread.
•Products containing Cocaine sold well.
Dr. Ernst Fleishl von Markow
• Developed a morphine addiction treating
his painful thumb
• Freud treated the addiction to morphine
with cocaine.
• Fleishl became addicted to coke and started
mixing it was morphine. Died a horrible
addicted death in 1896.
Wilhelm Fliess
A Berlin oto-rhino-laryngologist.
Theories:
Reflex Nasal Neuroses (connection
between the nose and genitals)
Innate including bisexuality
Vital periodicity (Biorhythms).
Emma Eckstein
Freud referred 27-year-old Emma to
Fliess for surgery to remove
the turbinate bone from her nose, as
treatment for PMS.
Emma hemorrhaged almost to the
point of death and infection set in.
The cause was a piece of surgical
gauze that Fliess had left behind.
Eckstein was left permanently
disfigured, with the left side of her
face caved in.
Freud and Charot
Video
The Seduction Theory
Freud’s First Theory of Neurosis?
Described in letters to Fleiss (1895) and
published in three papers in 1896.
Freud initially thought that his patients
were relating more or less factual stories
of sexual mistreatment, and that
the sexual abuse was responsible for
many of his patients' neuroses .
Why Did Freud Abandon this theory?
The Assault on Truth (1984) Jeffery Masson
Rejection by medical community
Fliess was sexually abusing his sons.
Perhaps his ideas simply evolved.
The papers indicate that the patients did not
relate stories of having been sexually abused
in early childhood; rather, Freud used the
analytic interpretation of symptoms and
patients' associations, and the exerting of
pressure on the patient, in an attempt to
induce the "reproduction" of the deeply
repressed memories.
.
Freud also acknowledged that the patients
generally remained unconvinced that what
they had experienced indicated that they had
actually been sexually abused in infancy.
Royal Road to the Unconscious
• Dream Analysis
• Free Association
Father’s Death in 1896
Begins collecting. Collected
over two thousand pieces of
art, ranging from statuary to
jars to seal rings to painted
mummy bandages.
Begins his self
analysis which
continues for four
years.
Freud’s Analysis
Freud’s Problems
• travel phobia
• fainted when around talented males
• addiction to cigars
Analysis made his symptoms worse for the
first year.
What he Discovered
• lust for his mother.
• hatred of his father.
• wishing the death of his bother.
Reasoned these were normal parts of
development (Oedipus Complex).
Interpretation of Dreams
Freud considered this his most important
work,
It was a record of his self-analysis.
Book sold only 300 copies in 6 years.
Wednesday Circle
Freud and Jung
Freud’s protégé
Travelled together
Invited to America to lecture at Clack
University 1909
Given an honorary degree
Freud and Jung
Jung proposed the existence of a second, far
deeper form of the unconscious, which
underlies the personal one. This was the
collective unconscious, where the
archetypes themselves resided.
Freud dismissed Jung’s interest in religion
and myths as being ‘unscientific.’
“Your allegation that I treat my followers as
patients is demonstrably untrue. . . . It is a
convention among us analysts that none of
us need feel ashamed of his own neurosis.
But one [meaning Jung] who while behaving
abnormally keeps shouting that he is
normal gives ground for the suspicion that
he lacks insight into his illness. Accordingly,
I propose that we abandon our personal
relations entirely.” SF, 1912
In 1912, Freud and Jung met in
Munich at a professional meeting. At
Jung’s talk about his new
psychoanalytic essay, Freud was
overcome by a sudden fainting
spell. It is noted that Jung picked-up
his estranged friend, and carried him
to a nearby couch.
The Inner Circle
"Secret Committee" of
seven men, including
himself, that Freud
organized in 1912 "to
maintain the faith and
to search out
deviance" from his
principles. To seal
their compact he gave
each a ring, thus
closing the circle.
WWI 1914 - 1920
All 3 of Freud’s sons
volunteered for the
Austrian army and were
sent to the Russian front.
The war caused massive
inflation and devaluation
of currency. Freud lost
all his savings and was
left cold and hungry.
Freud's favorite
daughter Sophie died in
the influenza epidemic
brought by the disease
and famine of the
immediate post war
years.
Beyond the Pleasure Principle
Duality of human nature that emerges
from two basic instincts: Eros is an
instinct for life, the drive toward
attraction and reproduction; Thanatos
the instinct of death and aggression,
toward repulsion and death. One leads to
the reproduction of the species, the other
toward its own destruction.
1923 Mouth Cancer
Had 34 surgeries over 16 years. Lost a large
section of his jaw.
Refused to stop smoking.
By 1920 Freud was a household name.
Most famous psychologist in the world.
Samuel Goldwyn (who called Freud “the
greatest love specialist in the world”) offered
him $100,000 to write for the screen or work
as a consultant in Hollywood.
Freud claimed he never understood
women
Referred to them as the dark continent.
What do Women want?
In Freud's view, the little girl had to come to
terms with her self-perception of being a
failed boy. As he put it, "Anatomy is destiny."
Hitler 1933
• Freud’s books were among
the first burned.
• March 13, 1938 Hitler
annexed Austria.
• Freud refused to leave.
• After office raided and Anna
detained he agreed to leave.
Anna, Amilia and Freud escaped to
London
Freud's four sisters were not allowed to leave
and died in concentration camps.
Cancer Returns
Freud asked his doctor to administer a fatal
dose of morphine and he died on September
23, 1939.
Ashes are in a Greek Urn from 300BC
Freud's collection of antiquities.
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Sigmund Freud - University of Wisconsin–Platteville