Sigismund Schlomo Freud “One of the Greatest Psychologists in History” and/or “Neurotic and Ambitious Egotist who Sought Notice by Propounding Fantastic Theories”? Freud’s Birth: May 6, 1856 Freiburg Austria Father: Jakob was a wool merchant. Had two son’s from a previous marriage. Mother, Amalia was 20 years Jacob's junior and his third wife. He was born with a caul, which his mother saw as a positive omen for the boy's future. • When Freud was 2 his mother had a second son Julius -- who died at 6 months. • Anna, was born in 1858 1860 – family moves to Vienna Four sisters (Rosa, Marie, Adolfine and Paula) and a brother (Alexander) who Freud named after Alexander the great! Anti-Semitism was rife in Vienna. •Full citizenship rights were given to Jews in 1867. •Thriving Jewish community, however, there was much prejudice. •Karl Leuger (Mayor) 1897 and 1910. Leuger blamed the Jews for Vienna’s financial problems. •Christian Social Party (model for Nazism) Given Special Treatment • Own room • Took meals in his room so he could study more. • Kept a dream diary (heroic themes) 9 -year-old Freud entered the Leopoldstädter KommunalRealgymnasium, a prominent high school. By 12 he was fluent in 6 languages - German, French. Italian, Spanish, English, Hebrew, Latin and Greek. At 17 attended University of Vienna He had planned to study law. Dissected over 400 eels in search of their sexual organs. Martha Bernays Twenty-one-year old Martha Bernays was peeling an apple when Freud first saw her. Soon, he was sending her roses everyday and calling her "Princess." Within two months, they were engaged. Their letters to each other expressed their new-found feelings •Freud wanted to become a research scientist but their was a quota for Jews in the profession. •With no real prospect of ever earning a livelihood from his scientific work •Wanted to marry Martha, •Freud made a painful decision: he decided to become a doctor. •He graduated with an MD in 1881. Internship Freud would spend three lonely years at Vienna General Hospital, trying his hand at surgery, internal medicine, and psychiatry, eventually specializing in nervous diseases. He rarely saw Martha. She had moved with her family to Hamburg (northern Germany). Every day he wrote long, romantic letters. On September 14, 1886, after four years of waiting, 30 year old Sigmund Freud married Martha. For the next nine years, she would be almost constantly pregnant, giving birth to six children. Freud and Cocaine •Freud had read that cocaine was great for fatigue. •The German army used it to stave off exhaustion. • He thought it might help a few of his patients suffering nervous disorders. • On April 24, 1884, Freud ordered his first gram of cocaine from the local apothecary (it cost 1/10th of his monthly salary). • Tried it himself. • He sent some to his friends; he sent some to his fiancée. “ I took cocaine again and a small dose lifted me to the heights in a wonderful fashion. I am just now collecting the literature for a song of praise to this magical substance”. Carl Koller •Freud thought Cocaine might make him famous. •Koller tried a cocaine solution as an anesthesia for his patients' eyes before surgery. • Koller, not Freud became famous! •Research on cocaine became widespread. •Products containing Cocaine sold well. Dr. Ernst Fleishl von Markow • Developed a morphine addiction treating his painful thumb • Freud treated the addiction to morphine with cocaine. • Fleishl became addicted to coke and started mixing it was morphine. Died a horrible addicted death in 1896. Wilhelm Fliess A Berlin oto-rhino-laryngologist. Theories: Reflex Nasal Neuroses (connection between the nose and genitals) Innate including bisexuality Vital periodicity (Biorhythms). Emma Eckstein Freud referred 27-year-old Emma to Fliess for surgery to remove the turbinate bone from her nose, as treatment for PMS. Emma hemorrhaged almost to the point of death and infection set in. The cause was a piece of surgical gauze that Fliess had left behind. Eckstein was left permanently disfigured, with the left side of her face caved in. Freud and Charot Video The Seduction Theory Freud’s First Theory of Neurosis? Described in letters to Fleiss (1895) and published in three papers in 1896. Freud initially thought that his patients were relating more or less factual stories of sexual mistreatment, and that the sexual abuse was responsible for many of his patients' neuroses . Why Did Freud Abandon this theory? The Assault on Truth (1984) Jeffery Masson Rejection by medical community Fliess was sexually abusing his sons. Perhaps his ideas simply evolved. The papers indicate that the patients did not relate stories of having been sexually abused in early childhood; rather, Freud used the analytic interpretation of symptoms and patients' associations, and the exerting of pressure on the patient, in an attempt to induce the "reproduction" of the deeply repressed memories. . Freud also acknowledged that the patients generally remained unconvinced that what they had experienced indicated that they had actually been sexually abused in infancy. Royal Road to the Unconscious • Dream Analysis • Free Association Father’s Death in 1896 Begins collecting. Collected over two thousand pieces of art, ranging from statuary to jars to seal rings to painted mummy bandages. Begins his self analysis which continues for four years. Freud’s Analysis Freud’s Problems • travel phobia • fainted when around talented males • addiction to cigars Analysis made his symptoms worse for the first year. What he Discovered • lust for his mother. • hatred of his father. • wishing the death of his bother. Reasoned these were normal parts of development (Oedipus Complex). Interpretation of Dreams Freud considered this his most important work, It was a record of his self-analysis. Book sold only 300 copies in 6 years. Wednesday Circle Freud and Jung Freud’s protégé Travelled together Invited to America to lecture at Clack University 1909 Given an honorary degree Freud and Jung Jung proposed the existence of a second, far deeper form of the unconscious, which underlies the personal one. This was the collective unconscious, where the archetypes themselves resided. Freud dismissed Jung’s interest in religion and myths as being ‘unscientific.’ “Your allegation that I treat my followers as patients is demonstrably untrue. . . . It is a convention among us analysts that none of us need feel ashamed of his own neurosis. But one [meaning Jung] who while behaving abnormally keeps shouting that he is normal gives ground for the suspicion that he lacks insight into his illness. Accordingly, I propose that we abandon our personal relations entirely.” SF, 1912 In 1912, Freud and Jung met in Munich at a professional meeting. At Jung’s talk about his new psychoanalytic essay, Freud was overcome by a sudden fainting spell. It is noted that Jung picked-up his estranged friend, and carried him to a nearby couch. The Inner Circle "Secret Committee" of seven men, including himself, that Freud organized in 1912 "to maintain the faith and to search out deviance" from his principles. To seal their compact he gave each a ring, thus closing the circle. WWI 1914 - 1920 All 3 of Freud’s sons volunteered for the Austrian army and were sent to the Russian front. The war caused massive inflation and devaluation of currency. Freud lost all his savings and was left cold and hungry. Freud's favorite daughter Sophie died in the influenza epidemic brought by the disease and famine of the immediate post war years. Beyond the Pleasure Principle Duality of human nature that emerges from two basic instincts: Eros is an instinct for life, the drive toward attraction and reproduction; Thanatos the instinct of death and aggression, toward repulsion and death. One leads to the reproduction of the species, the other toward its own destruction. 1923 Mouth Cancer Had 34 surgeries over 16 years. Lost a large section of his jaw. Refused to stop smoking. By 1920 Freud was a household name. Most famous psychologist in the world. Samuel Goldwyn (who called Freud “the greatest love specialist in the world”) offered him $100,000 to write for the screen or work as a consultant in Hollywood. Freud claimed he never understood women Referred to them as the dark continent. What do Women want? In Freud's view, the little girl had to come to terms with her self-perception of being a failed boy. As he put it, "Anatomy is destiny." Hitler 1933 • Freud’s books were among the first burned. • March 13, 1938 Hitler annexed Austria. • Freud refused to leave. • After office raided and Anna detained he agreed to leave. Anna, Amilia and Freud escaped to London Freud's four sisters were not allowed to leave and died in concentration camps. Cancer Returns Freud asked his doctor to administer a fatal dose of morphine and he died on September 23, 1939. Ashes are in a Greek Urn from 300BC Freud's collection of antiquities.