Dr Alison Leonard
Westminster School, London
Institute of Education
GA Annual Conference 2015
Reporting Research
Date: Friday 10 April
Time: 13.50-14.15
My abstract
 As a geography teacher and Initial Teacher Education
(ITE) observer of beginning teachers’ classroom
practice I am still conscious of the risks of
oversimplification of complex, controversial
geographical issues which can emerge. Such risks can
occur when schools are engaged in the South/North
Educational Linking process.
An exploration of practical themes
for classroom teachers
How photos from my research
can engage school students
and their teachers in critical
thinking and Global Learning.
Examples of how my research
informs my classroom
Geography teaching of
Development Issues
(If time allows)
Practical tips for potential research
Today’s presentation/paper
Examples from doctoral research,
using ideas from Martin (2012)
and Andreotti (2011). Hands-on
ideas from conference delegates.
Audit from Geography teaching
episodes, 2014-2015 at Westminster
School, London.
Suggestions for future research by
fellow Geography teachers
Using photos to engage learners in Critical
Thinking and Global Learning.
Critical Thinking
Global Learning
 What questions could be
 How can we encourage
asked about your images?
learners to accommodate a
range of perspectives?
 What advantages can these
approaches bring to our
students’ extended writing, at
GCSE and A level?
Using photos to engage learners in Critical
Thinking and Global Learning.
Critical Thinking
 How can teachers move their
students’ thinking away from
simplistic analysis?
Global Learning
Critical Thinking and Global
Critical Thinking
 How can ideas from Martin
(2012) and Andreotti (2011) be
applied to photos taken in the
global South?
 How might theoretical
approaches from Martin (op
cit.) and Andreotti (op cit.)
aid the promotion of critical
Martin’s (2012) three concepts of
difference and similarity
Simple binary: starting from similarity
determined by dominant culture
Similarity/difference understood as
aspects of diversity
Martin’s (2012) concepts of
difference and similarity
Relational concept:
 Starting point of difference
determines similaritygroups of purple shapes, and
of four-sided figures, of
triangles, or many other
groups that are not visible
(Martin, 2012, p119).
Your questions? A work in
Photo 1
Photo 2
Capacity building?
Another photo stimulus
Thanks to GoogleEarth for this image.
Martin and Andreotti: an A4
summary, for critical thinking
 I have produced a version of Fran’s difference and
similarity ideas – her three ways of grouping the
coloured shapes.
 At the bottom is a brief summary of Vanessa
Andreotti’s ideas, about how to shift a learner’s
understanding of differences between the Global
South and North.
My numbering of her ‘shifts’
Does Andreotti’s 3rd shift happen in our Geography classrooms?
“He is praised and not punished for challenging his teachers” Adichie (2005, p301)
How my research informs by
teaching of Development Issues
 AQA A Geography GCSE
Development Gap topic
 Mini case studies from visits
to Ghana, Uganda and
 Photographic evidence
Undergraduate preparation:
Difficult choices in relation to
river basin management.
KS5 and undergraduate
CIE International A level:
Economic Transition and Global
Interdependence modules at A2
(Human Options)
 Tourism: at A2
 Voluntary/NGO Aid to research
my long list of NGOs working in
Sub-Saharan Africa (Alive and
Kicking, Nsumbi Trust, PEAS
and Smile International, in
Uganda and Apopo and Village
Aid, in Tanzania)
“Sometimes there is an input of finances from the other side, usually when we
have started especially, they do come with some finances. And that input is like
something that helps, which actually catapults this other school in the South, to
do something. So I feel that support from the Northern school goes a long way …
so the other school can initiate something” (DB, 143-147)
Capacity building
“The projects… come from us, but I am
beginning to think that maybe we have, we
have to sit down and now with this experience
I think I can suggest something which would
work better” (JK, 146-148)
How my research informs my
teaching of Development Issues
KS4: AQA Geography A
KS5 CIE International A level
Water supplies: from AQA,
Development Gap
 Quality and quantity of water
 Sustainable food supplies
 Difficult choices for young
orphaned pupils and schools
Indicators of ‘development’/HDI
 Access to modern infrastructure
 Expected years of education
 Tourism:
Small scale eco-tourism
developments vs resort-style hotel
Why some ecotourism
developments may not be
National Parks in Tanzania:
To what extent is tourism
Accommodating economic
aspirations for locals and
environmental concerns
for the blind
A final photo stimulus:
Capacity building
Southern voices? Another form of
7 very practical tips for potential
research students
At the beginning
At the end of a researcher’s journey:
Jenny Moon’s “housekeeping” (2004)
 Work on only one document and
 Invite critical friends to read
save your work each time using
the date
Use an external hard drive
automatically backing up all
your work
Make sure you note the page
number for any direct quotation
you might later use
Use Endnote software: I didn’t
and regret it!
Seize any chances to share your
findings with others; critical
friends can be invaluable.
and comment on drafts of
your work
 Follow up their
recommendations for
supporting literature
Thanks for listening
Fill out a post-it to help me
with future research
Contact details
What I would still like
to know about the
process of South/North
Educational Linking is
(Contact email: PTO)
How geography teachers might explore the
effects of their School Links in the Global South
What do we still need to
 Why links/the South/North
Educational Linking Process
may not evolve or become
 How a dying link can be
 How reliant some school
links are on external funding:
how to become self-reliant?
How could you do the
 Identify opportunities for
short-term links, which can
promote students’ awareness
of social justice issues.
 Share advice, if this applies to
your links; what was done to
revive a flagging relationship?
Adichie, C. N. (2005) Purple Hibiscus. London: Harper Perennial.
Andreotti, V. (2006) Soft versus critical global citizenship education, Policy and Practice, Issue 3, Autumn 2006, Belfast: Centre
for Global Education.
Andreotti, V. (2011) Actionable Postcolonial Theory in Education. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Bourn, D. (2008) (Ed.) Introduction, in ‘Development education: debates and dialogue, pp1-17, London: Institute of Education
Bourn, D. and Bain, M. (2012) International school partnerships: Contribution to improving quality of education for rural
schools in Uganda, Development Education Research Centre Research Paper No 6, London: Development Education Research
Centre in partnership with Link Community Development
Bourn, D. (2015) The theeory and Practice of Development Education A pedagogy for global social justice. London: Routledge
Friere, P. (1996) Pedagogy of the Oppressed. Translated: Shaull, R and Bergman Ramos, M. London: Penguin
Kwack, H.S. (2011) ‘An Analysis of Children’s Development Awareness: The Impact of Global School Partnerships between the
North and the South and on Development Education’, Unpublished MA Thesis, University of Sheffield, Sheffield
McNicoll, (2013) Do students benefit from North/South School Partnerships? Thesis Submitted for Master of Arts Degree in
Development and Emergency Practice, Oxford Brookes University, Centre for Development and Emergency Practice
(CENDEP)School of Built Environment
Martin, F. (2012) The geographies of difference, Geography vol 97, Part 3, pp116-122
Mishler, E.G.(1986) ‘Research interviewing: context and narrative’. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press
Moon, J. (2004) A Handbook of Reflective and Experiential Learning: Theory and Practice, London: Routledge Falmer
Quist-Adade, C. and van Wyk, A. (2007) The role of NGOs in Canada and the USA in the Transformation of the Socio-Cultural
Structures in Africa, Africa Development, Vol. XXXII, No 2, 2007, pp66-96 council for the Development of Social Science
Research in Africa, 2007
OSDE www.osdemethodology.org.uk
Danger of a single story http://www.ted.com/talks/chimamanda_adichie_the_danger_of_a_single_story?language=en
Shape the Future 2014! http://globaldimension.org.uk/news/item/19188 and http://vote.myworld2015.org
My own work: 2012-2014
Leonard, A. (2012a) The ‘Aston-Makunduchi partnership’: South-North School link, In depth Case Study,
Development Education Research Centre Research Paper No.8, London: Development Education Research
Centre. Accessible at http://www.ioe.ac.uk/Aston-Makunduchi.pdf
Leonard, A. (2012b) “A Southern perspective on the South/North Educational Linking Process (S/NELP).
Early stage analysis from Zanzibar” research paper and presentation at “Development and Development
Education” conference, 23 January, Institute of Education, University of London
Leonard, A. (2012c) “The south-north educational linking process: comparing southern perspectives”,
research paper and presentation, at April GA Annual conference, 14 April, University of Manchester,
accessible at www.geography.org.uk/download/GA_Conf12LeonardRR.ppt
Leonard, A. (2012d) “School linking: young people’s perspectives from the Global South”, paper and
presentation, FRI-S7B-91 Session 7B, paper at “A Child’s World conference; working together for a better
future”, 29 June, University of Aberystwyth.
Leonard, A. (2012e) “The south/north educational linking process: a southern perspective, 2012”, paper and
presentation at “At the Crossroads, Jubilee Conference-new directions in teacher education”, 17 July,
Canterbury Christ Church University
Leonard, A. (2012f) “Effects of linking in Ugandan schools”, presentation, at ‘School Linking: Where Next?’
DERC and LCD conference, Institute of Education, University of London, 23 November Accessible at:
Leonard, A. (2014a) The South/North Educational Linking Process: young people’s perspectives from the
Global South, chapter in, Thomas, M. (ed.), A Child’s World, Contemporary Issues in Education, pp 288-314,
Cardiff Centre for Educational Studies, University of Wales.
Leonard, A. (2014b) School Linking: Southern perspectives on the South/North Educational Linking Process,
from Ghana, Uganda and Tanzania. Doctoral thesis, Institute of Education, University of London. Accessible
at http://www.leonardmorrison.org

School Linking: Doctoral research findings from Southern