西南科技大学网络教育系列课程
英语高级口语
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主讲:吴天骄
邮箱:[email protected]
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前言
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Dear learners, from now on, we are going to learn Spoken
English, more exactly, practice Spoken English. By the
way, my name is Wu Tianjiao, your online tutor for this
course. Let’s work together and try to achieve as much
as possible. I sincerely hope that you will be able to
communicate your ideas freely at the end of this term.
Before we start our lesson, I’d like to ask you several
questions if you don’t mind.
1. Why do we need to practice our spoken English?
2. What shall we start with?
3. How to improve our oral English efficiently and
effectively?
4. Is integration with the culture important?
5. What regional variety shall we follow, British English
or American English?
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To answer the questions mentioned above and some others,
you are to reflect upon them first, since these
questions are really important for learners. Hope they
will be useful to you.
I’d love to give you some tips, however, you can do better
than I expect if you constantly practice and reflect
upon your learning experience. Then, you may have more
or better ideas on how to enhance our communicative
aptitude. As we know, learners themselves are decisive
factors in language acquisition.
Still remember the principle of learning a language? It is
Learning by doing. Well, have a go!
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课程简介
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高级口语教程的基本体例为16个单元的课文主体,每个单元又分为
核心课文,示范性对话,知识性朗读材料和表达交流练习四方面
内容。选题涉及语言学习,交际原理,日常生活,科学技术,旅
游观光,社会热点,教育政策,环境保护,经济贸易等方面的内
容。为口语表达实践提供话题,表达方式,思路和操练等方面的
参照性材料。
由于口语教程的时间十分有限,不可能按常规“精读”的教法实施。
因此,我只选择各个单元中的部分内容进行重点指导或练习,或
指导你们有重点地利用课外时间进行各单元内容的学习。
英语口语课是实践性很强的课程,学生的自觉程度和学习能力很重
要。因此,在大量朗读,兼顾背诵的前提下,增强“开口讲话”
的内在动力,克服“多讲多错”的心态,抓紧讨论和演讲的实践
环节,强化语言的组织和表达能力则是取得口语学习效果的最根
本要素。光凭“弄懂,弄通书本”是远远不够的。
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Unit one
Public Speaking
Speaking is an art. And speaking is one part of our daily
life. We use it to inform, to persuade and to entertain.
But it is difficult to be good at it. A survey conducted
in 1973 asked more than 2,500 Americans to list their
greatest fears. To the surprise of the researchers, the
largest number of people-41 percent-listed speaking
before a group among their greatest fears. By contrast,
only 18 percent included death as one of their greatest
fears. But don’t worry about it. Practice makes perfect.
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Warm-up
热身练习
Read the following passage loudly and clearly:
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My Pledge/ Oath(誓言)
What’s your story?
You can’t speak! You can’t understand!
You feel bad! You feel hopeless!
That’s crazy! Cheer up!
It’s not the end of the world.
Speaking English is a piece of cake.
Don’t look back.
Enjoy losing face. Just forget about your face.
The more mistakes your make, The more progress you make.
Don’t give up. Just try your best.
Relax! Don’t panic(惊慌)! Take it easy!
Be patient and enjoy yourself.
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Learning English should be fun.
Speaking good English is no big deal.
It’s worth your time and effort.
It’s an easy job. Do something about it.
You have no choice.
No more excuses! Get moving.
Let’s get started! Let’s talk in English.
You’d better do it now.
I have every confidence in you.
I want to be proud of you.
It’s my pleasure to help you anytime.
You can count on me! Don’t worry about it.
I’m serious. I’ll try my best.
We will make it together.
We wish you the best of luck!
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New words and expressions
相关词汇
diaper 尿布(nappy)
taco 煎玉米饼(墨西哥人常吃的一
种食物)
oyster 牡蛎
nacre珠母贝
calcium钙
attorney律师
hypothetical假设的
anecdote轶事
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Language points
重点难点分析
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Language Points for part B
1. I used to be quite at a loss…
at a loss在此意为“困惑;不知所措”
2. I simply couldn’t catch.
Catch在此应理解为“听到;领会”
Example: :
I don't quite catch on.
我不很理解。
Sorry, I didn't catch what you said. Could you please say
it again?
对不起,我没听清楚你说的话,请你再讲一遍好吗?
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Cultural background
文化背景
Taco饼
数百年来,玉米一直是墨西哥食品中的主角。而以玉米为原料制成的Taco
饼也是墨西哥最基本、也最有特色的食品。这是一种用玉米煎制的薄饼,
煎好后形成一种荷包状,硬硬的,脆脆的,吃的时候,顾客可根据自己
的喜好加入碳烤的鸡肉条或是牛肉酱,然后再加入蕃茄、生菜丝、玉米
饼起司等等配料,看上去颜色格外丰富,就好似一件艺术品一般。包好
以后,放入嘴中一咬,外面脆生生的,而里面却有香、辣、酸、甜各味
俱全,刚柔相济、多味混杂,真叫人“爱不释口”。此外,还有一种玉
米饼,形状要小些,吃的时候,沾着各式各样的墨西哥酱吃。当然,这
些酱汁九成以上是辣椒和番茄调制而成的,有的在里面还加入了芒果,
自
有
一
种
天
然
的
香
味
。
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Presenting Skills
演说技巧
英语演讲其实很简单,只要把握三个S就够了;所谓3S's,就是(一)
Stand up.站起来。 (二)Say what you have to say.说出你
该说的话。 (三)And sit down.坐下。不过当然有很多技巧。
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1.Know your topic(知道你要讲什么题目)
2.Know your audience(了解你的听众)
3.Know your start and stop times,as well as who
else is on(知道你开始和停止的时间以及除你之外还有谁要
讲话)
4.Know what you want people to do differently and
tell them(对你所说的和人们所做的有什么不同,心中要有数,
并让听众知道)
5.Make major points.(写下你的讲话要点)
6.Check
all
your
equipment , sound , lighting
and
seating arrangements.(检查你的器材、音响、灯光和座位)
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7.Ask
someone
you
trust
and
respect
to
constructively critique you.(请一个你所信任和尊敬的人
对你的讲稿提出建设性的批评和意见)
8.Relax before you go on.(演讲前要放松)
9.Practice,practice,practice.(练习、练习,再练习)
10.Remember that even if you miss a bit or forget
a couple of lines,nobody knows except you.(记住
即使你漏掉一点或忘掉几行,除了你自己,别人是不会发现的)
11.Omit telling jokes unless you are already a good
joke—teller or plan to get better.(收起你想讲的笑
话,除非你已经擅长讲笑话或者计划在这方面有所提高)
12.Have fun(要有趣味)
上述12项提示是国外人士从大量实践中总结出来的有用经验,可供
我们借鉴。根据我自己的实践经验,我想着重提出5点:
明确透过演讲要传递什么信息;
了解听众的特点和要求;
准备讲稿或讲话要点;
语言要求清晰、简练、优美、生动、形象、有频率和感召力;
临场陈述要举止稳重大方,语言语调准确
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Additional Exercises
附加练习
Answer the following questions:
1 Is English easier or more difficult than your native language?
Why and how?
2 Compare English with any other language you have had to learn,
in terms of grammar, spelling and pronunciation.
3 How should foreign languages be taught in schools? What should
be the typical elements of a good lesson?
4 When you learn a foreign language, apart from the language what
else do you learn about?
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Prepare for 1 minute,then tell your partner a true story
of studying English.Time limit: 3 minutes.You can write
down key words as guideline.
Recite those famous speeches presented in the following
additional reading materials.
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Tips for you to listen to
口语贴士
训练语音语调
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对于任何语言来说,基础都是语音。语音不仅包括单字的发音,还包括真实交际中词
汇、习语的连读、失去爆破、弱化、浊化、重音、缩读等许多音变形式。至于语
调节奏,则是地道流利英语的润滑剂。英语发音是很丰富的,北京外国语大学应
用英语系的美籍教授Paul Hanse先生说英语的味道在于语音抑扬顿挫,在于元音
的极度夸张和用腹部说话。而中国人说英语常见的毛病是习惯用喉咙发音,而不
用鼻子和腹腔发音。有人用顺口溜总结为:“嘴唇几乎没的干,牙齿(缝)不知
怎么办,舌头自己瞎拌蒜,声带可干可不干,小腹根本看不见。”另外,中文和
英文的发音方式很不一样,中文基本都以元音结尾,英文则有很多单词以辅音结
尾,因此很多中国人元音发的不到位,辅音的发音部位也有问题,这样说出来的
英语往往声音平淡,语句生硬,没有节奏感。
为训练正确的语音语调,我们可以大声朗读难度适宜的读物(中短篇),口腔肌肉到位。
对于不能确定的发音一定要查字典以更正自己的发音,同时熟记常用句子、固定
词组或搭配。还可以朗读英文绕口令,同时可以口中含块糖以加大强化训练的力
度.这样我们的口腔肌肉就能迅速适应英文发音,使我们的口语变得流利,清晰.例
如
:
☆She sells seashells at seashore. The shells she sells are seashells,
I am sure.
朗读时速度分为三档:慢速,中速和高速。慢速时,口型要夸张,音要发准,做到给
每一个音足够的时间和力度,语音语调非常清晰,有表情且有动作的大声读;中
速时,要求流利熟练,轻松脱口而出,口型到位,学习者力求做到发音准确,吐
字清晰,并注意练好吞吃音技巧;高速时,要求深吸一口气,一口气尽快说完,
声音和口型都不必太大,但发音不能变形。训练时从慢到快,逐渐加速。
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另外我们还可以模仿磁带或广播上的发音,模仿以英语为母语的人的语音和语调。模
仿是学习外语主要方法之一,模仿的原则:一要大声模仿。这一点很重要,模仿
时要大大方方,清清楚楚,一板一眼,口形要到位,不能扭扭捏捏,小声小气地
在嗓眼里嘟嚷。刚开始模仿时,速度要慢些,以便把音发到位,把音发准了以后,
再加快速度。直到能用正常语速把句子轻松地说出来,脱口而出。
模仿的具体方法,第一步,模仿单词的语音。刚开始模仿时,速度不要过快,用慢速
模仿,以便把音发到位,待把音发准了以后,再加快速度,用正常语速反复多说
几遍,直到达到不用想就能用正常语速把句子轻松他说出来(脱口而出),对于
自己读不准或较生疏的单词要反复多听几遍,然后再反复模仿,一个单词一个单
词地练,在那些常用词上下功夫,尽量模仿得像一些。 第二步,模仿词组的读
法。有了第一步的基础,这一步就容易多了。 重点要放在熟练程度和流利程度
上,要多练一下连读。失去爆破、不完全爆破,同化等语音技巧。 第四步,段
落及篇章模仿,重点在于提高流利程度。打开录音机或收音机跟着模仿,“他”
说你模仿,同步进行。目的要提高口腔肌肉的反应速度,使肌肉和大脑更加协调
起来。
模仿时分三步训练。1.模仿词组。练习连读,失去爆破,不完全爆破,同化等语音技
巧。2. 模仿常用句式,注意意群节奏感和重读弱读的处理。3.模仿段落及篇章。
与磁带或广播同步进行。重点放在流利程度及语调上。要有抑扬顿挫和节奏感。
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Additional reading materials
辅助阅读
英语演讲及范例
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【一】麦克阿瑟(Douglas MacArthur, 1880-1964),
1951离开日本时的演讲。以下是该演讲的结尾。
I am closing my fifty years of military service. When I joined
the army, even before the turn of the century it was the
fulfillment of all my boyish hopes and dreams. The world has
turned over many times since I took the oath on the plain at
West Point, and the hopes and dreams have long since vanished,
but I still remember the refrain of one of the most popular
barrack ballads of that day which proclaimed most proudly that
old soldiers never die; they just fade away.
我即将结束五十年的军旅生涯。我从军是在本世纪开始之前,而这是我童
年的希望与梦想的实现。自从我在西点军校的教练场上宣誓以来,这个
世界已经过多次变化,而我的希望与梦想早已消逝,但我仍记着当时最
流行的一首军歌词,极为自豪地宣示「老兵不死,只是凋谢」。
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【二】甘乃迪就职演说片段。
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To that world assembly of sovereign states, the United Nations,
our last best hope in an age where the instruments of war have
far outpaced the instruments of peace, we renew our pledge of
support to prevent its becoming merely a forum for invective--to strengthen its shield of the new and the weak-----and to
enlarge the area in which its writ may run.
对于主权国家之世界会议的联合国,在战争的手段远超越和平的手段之
今日,我们最后也是最大希望的联合国,我们要更新我们支持联合国的
誓词,防止它变成一个谩骂的场所,而要强化它对新入会国与弱小国家
的保护,同时扩大其宪章到任何其所能及之地区。...........
All this will not be finished in the first one hundred days. Nor
will it be finished in the first one thousand days, nor in the
life of this administration, nor even perhaps in our lifetime
on this planet. But let us begin.
所有这些不会在前一百日内完成。也不会在前一千日内完成,也不会在
我的任期内,甚至不会在我们在世的有生之年内完成,但让我们开始吧!
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【三】马丁﹒路德﹒金牧师,在1963年8月27日于华盛顿
发表的演讲「I Have a Dream」之片段。
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I am happy to join with you today in what will go down in history
as the greatest demonstration for freedom in the history of
our nation.
今天我很高兴与大家共同参加这次将会在我国历史上名垂千古,为追求自
由而举行的最大一次示威运动。
Five score years ago, a great American, in whose symbolic shadow
we stand today, signed the Emancipation Proclamation. This
momentous decree came as a great beacon light of hope to
millions of Negro slaves who had been seared in the flames of
withering injustice. It came as the joyous daybreak to end the
long night of their captivity.
在一百年以前,有位伟大的美国人签署了奴隶解放宣言,而今天我们正是
立足于他所象征的影像下。这项重大的宣告对数百万在苛酷的不公平烈
焰下惊惧的黑人而言,不啻是一线伟大的希望之光。它的来临就像愉悦
的曙光结束了他们受到束缚的漫长黑夜。
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But, one hundred years later, the Negro still is not free. One
hundred years later, the life of the Negro is still sadly
crippled by the manacles of segregation and the chains of
discrimination. One hundred years later, the Negro lives on a
lonely island of poverty in the midst of a vast ocean of
material prosperity. One hundred years later, the Negro is
still languished in the corners of American society, and finds
himself an exile in his own land.
但是一百年后,黑人依然没有自由;一百年后,黑人的生活依然由于种
族隔离的手铐与歧视的脚链而悲惨地失去行动自由;一百年后,黑人生
活在物质繁荣之大海中的一个贫穷孤岛;一百年后,黑人依然在美国社
会的一隅饱受折磨,而发现是自己土地上的被放逐者。
I say to you today, my friends so even though we face the
difficulties of today and tomorrow, I still have a dream. It
is a dream deeply rooted in the American Dream. I have a dream
that one day this nation will rise up, live out the true
meaning of its creed: “We hold these truths to be self-evident,
that all man are created equal.”
今天我告诉你们,我的朋友!虽然我们面临今天与明天的困难,但我仍
有一个梦想。这是深植于美国之梦的一个梦想。我梦想着有一天这个国
家将会站立,过着教义上所说:「我们秉持显而易见的真理,那就是人
类生而平等。」的真理生活。
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【五】二次世界大战丘吉尔临危受命之演说片段。
◎丘吉尔向国会发表「血、汗与泪」这篇演说时,二次世界大战正
逐渐进入白热化的阶段。德国纳粹的军队在欧陆势如破竹,对隔
着英吉利海峡的英国则进行大规模的日夜轰炸,声言要夷平伦敦,
企图迫使英国屈服。面对危急存亡的关头,向来采取怀柔政策的
前首相张伯伦(Chamberlain)已无法支撑大局,被迫在五月十
日辞职下台。同一天,丘吉尔临危受命,组织新政府,成为新的
英国首相。
生字解释
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1.adjournment(n.)休会
6.wage(v.)从事
11.preliminary(adj.)初期
的
2.the House(n.)下议院
7.lamentable(adj.)悲痛的
12.conceive(v.)组成
3.Mr. Speaker(n.)下议院
议长
8.grievous(adj.)严苛的
13.cabinet(n.)内阁
4.confer(v.)给予
9.administration(n.)政府
14.buoyancy(n.)快乐
5.ordeal(n.)考验
10.resolution(n.)决议
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Blood, Sweat and Tears
血、汗与泪
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In this crisis I hope I may be pardoned if I do not address the
House at any length today. I hope that any of my friends and
colleagues, or former colleagues, who are affected by the
political reconstruction, will make all allowance for any lack
of ceremony with which it has been necessary to act.
在这个危急存亡的时刻,如果今天我对下议院的演讲不够详尽,还希
望多予体谅。在这次政治改组中,希望受到影响的朋友。同事,或以前
的同事能原谅我的失礼,这也是不得已的做法。
I would say to the House, as I said to those who have joined this
Government: "I have nothing to offer but blood, toil, tears
and sweat." We have before us an ordeal of the most grievous
kind. We have before us many, many long months of struggle and
of suffering.
正如我对加入新政府的人员说过的,我现在也要对下院说:「除了
血、苦干,泪与汗之外,我没有甚么可以奉献的。」我们面对的是一次
最严苛的考验。在我们面前的将是很长很长的艰苦岁月。
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You ask, What is our aim? I can answer in one word: Victory--victory at all costs, victory in spite of all terror, victory,
however long and hard the road may be; for without victory,
there is no survival. Let that be realized; no survival for
the British Empire; no survival for all that the British
Empire has stood for, no survival for the urge and impulse of
the ages, that mankind will move forward towards its goal.
你们问:我之后的目标是甚么?我可以用一个字来回答:胜利-----不惜一切代价的胜利、不畏恐怖的胜利,不管道路可能多么漫长艰苦;
因为没有胜利,就无法生存。这点我们必须了解,大英帝国无法生存,
大英帝国代表的一切便不复存在,而推动时代前进、使人类迈向目标的
一切动力也不会再有。
But I take up my task with buoyancy and hope. I feel sure that
our cause will not be suffered to fail among men. At this time
I feel entitled to claim the aid of all, and I say, "Come,
then, let us go forward together with our united strength."
但我满怀快乐和希望,努力肩负起我的职责。我确信,我们的理想在
人类之间不会遭到失败。这个时候我觉得我有理由要求所有其它人的协
助。我要说的是,「奋起吧,我们要团结一致,全力以赴,共同向前迈
进。」
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Unit Two
Job hunting and Job Hopping
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Hi, there. How are you getting along with your spoken
English? Do you practice both in and after class? If yes,
it’s great! If yes, but only in class, it’s good, but far
from enough. If you only read and try to understand the
conversations without speaking practice, mm…, you’ll
suffer a loss!
The first step is to, of course, open your mouth and speak
in English. Remember, speak loudly and clearly. Please
do not over-protect your self-ego or false pride. Don’t
be afraid of making mistakes, since making mistakes is a
part of language learning process. These mistakes will
disappear as long as you continue to learn and practice.
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Warm-up
热身练习
Write down two jobs which:
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1 can be done by robots
2 no longer exist
3 require absolutely no intelligence
4 have low salaries but high prestige
5 require very long training
6 will be most needed in the future
7 are overpaid
8 young children typically want to do
9 can be done from home
10 you would really hate to do
11 Which is the easiest job?The most boring one?The most tiring one?The
most useful one?The worst one?
In five minutes you have to try and write down two jobs which correspond to
the categories,then imagine their figures and draw pictures.
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New words and phrases
生词和短语
Orientation 定位,导向
Substantial 实质性的
Non-verbal 非言语的(表达方式)
non- [前缀]表示非, 无, 不
Ramification 结果;影响
Approximately 大约,近似的
Evaluation 评估,评价
educational evaluation教育评定
course evaluation课程评价
cost-benefit evaluation成本效益评估
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跳槽:job-hopping, Jump ship
Definition: To leave your job; to move from one situation to another.
Example:
When the company announced that it was losing money, many of its
employees jumped ship.
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Cultural background
文化背景
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求职面试中一些建议
Know something about the organization you are applying to. (了解一些你
申请工作单位的情况)
Dress properly. Don't shake hand with the interviewer until he/she
extends his/her hand. (穿着要得体,人家伸手时才握手。)
Don't sit down until invited to do so by the interviewer. (人家未请,先別坐
下。)
Make eye-contact with the interviewer during the interview. (面试时,眼睛
要看着对方。) Listen actively and stay calm. (注意听,保持冷静。)
If invited to a meal, be especially careful about your table manners. (被邀
吃饭时,要特別注意餐桌礼节。)
Don't talk with your mouth full. (嘴里有食物,不可开口说话)
Don't make much noise while you eat. (吃东西不要出声音)
Don't blow your nose or use the toothpick at table. (不要拧鼻涕或用牙签剔
牙)
Don't appear to be pushy or overly anxious to get a job.(不必过分表现急
着要工作)
Be honest, but not too modest.(要诚实,但不必太谦虚)
Don't put yourself down or cut yourself up. (不可妄自菲薄或自贬)
Try to avoid discussing politics or religion with your interviewer. (避免与面
试人谈政治或宗教)
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Exercises
练习
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Task 3 Group Discussion
2 There are many other companies.Why do you want to work for us?
Hints:
the interest in the job/the reputation of your company/a higher
salary/good working conditions/the relevance to the major
回答对策:Don't talk about what you want; first, talk about
their needs: You would like to be part of a specific company
project; you would like to solve a company problem; you
can make a definite contribution to specific company goals.
经典回答:
A:I hope to demonstrate my ability and talents in my field
adequately. (我希望能充分展示我在这个行业的能力和智慧。)
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3 What’s your strength?
Hints:
Sociable/reliable/vigorous/confident/dynamic/initiative
经典回答:
A:Helpfulness and caring.(乐于助人和关心他人。)
A:Adaptability and sense of humor.(适应能力和幽默感。)
A:Cheerfulness and friendliness.(乐观和友爱。)
A: I am an honest, hardworking and responsible man/woman
who deeply cares for my family and friends. (我是位诚实、工作努
力,负责任的人,对家庭和朋友都很关心。)
A:I am a friendly, sensitive, caring and determined person.
(我是位很友好、敏感、关心他人和有决心的人。)
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4 Do you have any weaknesses?
Hints:
Too honest/misplace trust on others/a bit of perfectionist
分析:这是个棘手的问题。若照实的回答,你会毁了工作,雇主试
图使你处于不利的境地,观察你在类似的工作困境中将作出什么
反应。
回答对策:回答这样的问题应诚实。完满地回答应该是用简洁正面
的介绍抵消反面的问题。回答的虽是自身的缺点,却要表现正面
的效果,对工作的积极抵消了反面。
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回答样板1:“工人们指责我对工作太投入。我经常提前一点上班安
排好我的工作,晚上晚一点下班,使要干的事得以完成。”
回答样板2:“我需要学会更耐心一点。我的性子比较急,我总要我
的工作赶在第一时间完成。我不能容忍工作怠慢。”
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6 Why do you wish to leave your company and work for us?
Hints:
Too small/lack of challenge/seek more opportunities to develop myself
回答对策: Refine your answer based on your comfort level
and honesty. Give a "group" answer if possible, e.g. our
department was consolidated or eliminated.
经典回答:
A: Well, I am hoping to get an offer of a better position. If
opportunity knocks, I will take it.(我希望能获得一份更好的工作,
如果机会来临,我会抓住。)
A:I feel I have reached the "glass ceiling" in my current job. / I
feel there is no opportunity for advancement. (我觉得目前的工
作,已经达到顶峰,即沒有升迁机会。)
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Additional Exercises
附加练习
Speaking:
Brainstorm on the concept of “work”, then discuss the following
questions with your partner:
1 Apart from school or your job, what else do you consider to be work?
2 Are these “real” jobs: housewife, novelist, pop star, priest? Why?
3 If the salary were the same, which job would you like to do:
actor/actress, archaeologist, astronomer, chef, fashion designer,
fortune teller, musician, research scientist, tourist operator? Why?
4 If you had enough money never to have to work again, would you
stop working? What would you do instead?
Writing:
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Choose one of the following titles and write about 300 words:
1 My ideal job
2 A day in the life of a …
3 How I would resolve unemployment
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Tips for you to listen to
口语贴士
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训练眼神、表情和体势语言
经常看到中国学生在与人交谈时,不自觉地目光低垂,双手背在身后或交握身前,体
势语言极少。这是中国文化中表示谦虚的行为。殊不知目光低垂在老外眼中是自
卑的表现,而限制了体势语言也限制了口语表达的表现力。体势语言的使用,使
语言不仅生动有趣,还有直观的视觉感受。在语言交流的过程中,视觉有助于人
们对语言的理解,因为,在可视场合下,人们可以根据人的表情、姿态、场景和
气氛来帮助理解,从而提高交际效果。此外,母语操练者有特定的手势、表情和
习惯,这都与语言本身有必然的联系,这也是学外语时不可忽视的现象。
唐·加博尔(Don. Gabor)曾在《How to start a conversation and make friends》
中给英语学习者介绍了如何善用体势语言的技巧。6个字母代表:S—Smile微笑
是友好,愿意和别人交往的标记。O—Open posture开放式的姿势,是一种欢迎
别人和你交谈的姿势。F—Forward lean在和别人讲话时,身子要稍稍前倾。T—
Touch如果和别人相遇时,表示友好的最普通的形式是热情而有力的握手。E—
Eye-Contact眼睛里传递非语言信息的最有效渠道。N—Nod和别人说话时,人们
经常用点头来表示我在认真听你说或我同意你的说法。下面试归纳一下常用的体
势语言:
从nod(点头)谈起:英美人的点头,可以表示多种意思。to nod consent点头表示同
意。to nod one's farewell点头表示告别to nod as a sign of agreement or
as a familiar greeting 。点头表示赞同或打招呼。
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to
to
to
to
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hold one's head high昂首挺胸(表示趾高气扬)
shake one's fist挥动拳头(表示威胁)
shake one's head摇头(表示不知道)
show a V sign由食指和中指构成字母“V”,而“V”是victory的第一个字母。因
此,这一手势是祝愿胜利或庆祝胜利之意。
to wink at a person向某人眨眼睛
to shrug one's shoulders耸肩(表示冷淡或怀疑)
to make a face面部露出厌恶的表情
to keep (or have) one‘s fingers crossed把中指叠在食指上交叉着,作十字状。
这是暗中希望上帝保佑自己正在做的事成功。
更有趣的是英美人用大拇指(thumb)做出许多不同的表示。to thumb one's nose以
大拇指按鼻,其余四指张开,表示轻视。在英美等国家,你会看到这种手势经常
用在调皮的孩子们中间。他们用大拇指点着自己的鼻子,而其他四指张开不停地
摇动,表示轻蔑或嘲弄。也可以说“to cock a snook at somebody。
to twiddle one's thumbs无聊地交互绕动着两个大拇指。表示无所事事,懒散。
thumbs down大拇指朝下。表示反对或拒绝的手势。thumbs up翘起大拇指。表示
赞成或夸奖。
但值得一提的是在英美等西方国家,有时会看到有人站在马路边,朝驶过来的车辆伸
出一只翘起大拇指的拳头 。这是请求搭便车的表示。所以搭车也可以说“to
thumb a lift”。
大家可以配合句子大胆放开作各种表情,加上多变的体势语言,在实际使用时根据不
同的心态和场合自由发挥出来以增强表现力。
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Additional reading materials
辅助阅读
有关企业,事业,机关等单位的名称
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State-owned enterprise 国有企业
Foreign-funded enterprise 外资企业
Joint venture 合资企业
Department;section;branch 部
Bureau;administration 局
Factory;plant;mill;work;yard;depot厂
Department;office 处
Section;department 科(处,股,室,部门)
Insurance Company 保险公司
Party committee 党委
Electric power administration 电业局
Airlines 航空公司
Chemical Works 化工厂
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Computer Network System Company 计算机网络系统公司
3-D Cartoon Engineering Company 三维动画工程公司
Software Technology Corporation 软件技术公司
Software Development Company 软件开发公司
Institute of Software 软件研究所
Research Institute 研究所
High-Technology Group Company 高技术集团
Limited Company 有限公司
Monopoly shop 专卖店
有关职务,头衔,职称的词汇
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Director;director-general; commissioner;chief 局长
Deputy chief 副局长
Factory director; director of plant operations; factory superintendent 厂长
Director; trustee 董事
Chairman of the board; chief executive 董事长
Division chief; section head 处长
Deskman; office worker 科室人员
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Section member; section chief 科员
Director-general of the general office 办公室主任
Secretary of the Party committee 党委书记
Office manager 办公室经理
Section manager; department manager 部门经理
Assistant manager; vice manager; sub-manager 副经理
Department head 部门主任
Finance director; chief of finance; chief accountant 财务处长
Storeman; storekeeper; custodian 保管员
Insurance agent 保险经理人; 保险经纪人
Translator 笔译翻译
Interpreter 口译翻译
Police constable 初级警察
Police inspector; commissary 高级警官
Senior clerk; officer; official 高级职员
Cadre 干部
High-ranking cadre 高级干部
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Accountant; treasurer; accounting clerk 会计
Certified public accountant 注册会计师
Senior accountant 高级会计(师)
Senior economist 高级经济师
Mechanic; mechanical engineer; machinist 机械师
Programmer 计算机程序设计员
Architect; master builder 建筑师
Scientific and technological worker 科技工作者
Blue-collar worker 蓝领工人
White-collar worker 白领工人
Social worker 社会工作者
Auditor; controller 审计师
Senior auditor 高级审计员
Journalist; newspaperman 新闻工作者
Correspondent 特派记者
War correspondent 战地记者
Reporter 新闻记者
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Press-photographer 摄影记者
Researcher; research worker 研究员
Safety engineer 安全工程师
Electrical engineer 电气工程师
Aeronautical engineer; commissioned airman 航空工程师
Senior engineer; associate professor of engineering 高级工程师
Computer system engineer 计算机系统工程师
Software engineer 软件工程师
Project engineer 设计工程师
Typist 打字员
Tourist guide 导游员
Visiting scholar 访问学者
Adjunct; assistant 助理
Teller 出纳
Medical assistant 医助;医士
Physician in ordinary 常任医生
Doctor-in-charge 主治医师
Professor of treatment 主任医师
ENT doctor 耳鼻喉医生
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Personal Progress and Job-hopping
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In many parts of the world, personal influence is almost essential in
getting ahead. One needs a "godfather? a "sponsor". Here that
is not true. Naturally all people use influence sometimes, but
one rarely advances far on that basis alone in the United States.
Here traits which lead to success are generally considered to be
the willingness to work hard (at any kind of job), scholarship or
skill, initiative, an agreeable and outgoing personality. In other
words even in the realm of personal progress, this is a "do-ityourself" society. By and large, success is neither inherited nor
bestowed. This means, therefore, that our employment practices
are different from those in many other countries.
In some nations it is considered disloyal to quit a job; deep
reciprocal loyalties exist between employee and employer
(recipient and "patron? In many cases); lifelong job security and
family honor are frequently involved.
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This is not true in the United States. "Job-hopping" is part of our
constant mobility. We consider it a " right " to be able to better
ourselves, to move upward, to jump from company to company
if we can keep qualifying for more responsible (and therefore
better) jobs.
This interchangeability of personnel seems unreasonable to some
members of foreign nations. Where are our roots? How can we
be so cold and inhuman? "We act? Some say, as if we were
dealing with machines, not humans. ?They do not understand
that a great many Americans like to move about. New jobs
present new challenges, new opportunities, new friends, new
experiences-often a new part of the country.
The employer may be quite content too. Perhaps he has had the
best of that man's thinking; a new person may bring in fresh
ideas, improved skills, or new abilities. Then, too, a newcomer
will probably start at a lower salary for he will have no seniority.
Hopping is so readily accepted here, in fact, that a good man
may bounce back and forth among two or three corporations,
being welcomed back to his original company more than once
through his career, each time at a different level.
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Unit 3
Science and Technology
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Warm-ups
热身练习
1 Discuss the question “What is Science?” First brainstorm on a list of
scientific subjects. Then decide if they really are sciences or not.
2 Discuss what we need science for and the role of science today.
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3 Brainstorm on the most important inventions and discoveries over
history(e.g. the lever, fire, the wheel, computer, car, plane,
electricity).One list should order them on the basis of how
important they were in relation to the history of mankind and
technological development(e.g. without the “discovery” of the lever
many other later developments would have been impossible). The
second list should order them in terms of how difficult it would be
to live without them now.
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New words and phrases
生词和短语
Proliferation 丰富,扩散
proliferation of funds分散资金
Drudgery 乏味
Hyphenate 用连字号连接
Shortchange 克扣,短缺
Boost 提高
Aftermath 后果
famine as an aftermath of drought. 旱灾后是饥荒
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Language points
重点难点分析
How do you define “telecommunications”?
tele- 表示“远距离传递,电视”之义
telecommunication电讯, 长途通讯, 无线电通讯, 电信学
telecommunication satellite通信卫星
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Cultural background
文化背景
与Science有关的习惯用语: 与Technology有关的习惯用
语:
blind with science
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用专业[技术]知识来蒙蔽[迷惑]
人
blinded with science
为智力所制服, 为技巧所击败
have sth. down to a science
精通[擅长]某事, 深谙...之道
noble science [art] (of defence)
拳术; 剑术
technology club
技术小组
technology trade
技术贸易
technology transfer
技术转让[受援]
technology transfer patents
技术转让专利权
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Tips for you to listen to
口语贴士
训练描述能力
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在描述东西时我们要注意文化差异对其的影响。。描述东西与时间
空间相关。美国人对空间的描述总是由内及外,由里及表,由小
到大。而中国人正好相反。从时间上来说,中国人是按自然的时
间顺序来描述。我们描述一个东西突然停住时,往往最后说的那
个地方是最重要的。而美国人在时间的描述上先把最重要的东西
说出来,然后再说陪衬的东西。只有发生悲剧性的事件,美国人
才在前面加上铺垫。
训练方法如下:1)描述静态景物或图片,要求详细准确生动,用词
力求丰富多变不重复。2)描述动态画面,借助多媒体,与电影
电视或录象放映同步进行,要求简洁流畅,抓住要点。3)描述
事情,要求顺序得当,符合逻辑,重点突出。
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Additional reading materials
辅助阅读
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Internet
R: Hi, Welcome back to "Let's Talk".
We are still talking about computers,
but not just plain ordinary
computers, today we are
discussing the 'World Wide Web',
and that's Internet use with English
words. I'm sure you already know
about the Internet in China and all
over the world. It's also called
"cyber-space", "the information high
way", connecting countries around
the world. And it's also called the
Internet.
国际互联网
R:大家好,欢迎再次收看“你说我
说”栏目。这周我们将继续电脑方
面的话题,但这次说的并不是一般
的电脑话题,而是全球互联网。我
想你们一定对中国和全世界的网络
很了解。它又被称之为“电脑空
间”“信息高速公路”。它们将整
个世界上的国家联系了起来。另外
它还有"Internet"这个名称。
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E: And on the Web, there are
Websites. A "site" is a place, and so
a Website. And each site had its
address. If you go there, you can
just go right into the site and find
everything you need, or you may
need to enter in the box, we say
enter, the verb is "to enter" your
user name, that means who you
are. And you need maybe a secret
word or a secret number to get in,
but we say a password, it's the
word that lets you pass in, so you
would need a password, which of
course also might be anything.
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E:说到网络,它们都有一个网址,
“site”指的是一个场所,而网址就
是每一台上网电脑所在的地址。如
果你按照(某一个)网址上网的话,
在那里可以找到任何你需要的信息。
你的用户名说明了你的称谓。(上
网时)你可能还需要有一个秘密的
单词或数字,我们称它们为
“password”。有了秘码你才能进入
网络,你可以选任何数字字母或词
汇作为你的秘码。
R:是这样,无论把什么作为你的密
码,记住它才是最重要的。
R: Yeah. Whatever you can
remember, it's important.
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E: E-mail, why do we say "E-mail?"
E:E-mail,为什么我们称之为“E-
Have you thought about it? "E" is the
first letter in the word "electronic",
so its called E-mail for short.
mail?”你想过这个问题吗?“E”是
“electronic”这个词的第一个字母,所以
E-mail是一种缩略形式。
R: "E" is used all over computer
language. Have you ever heard of Ecommerce? That's very popular now
all over the world. And that's buying
and selling things for businesses
and consumers on the Internet.
E: On the Internet, people like to use
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just one letter to represent
something. For example, you can
talk about "E-commerce" and talk
about B to B E-commerce, or B to C
E-commerce. "B to B" means
"business to business", businesses
selling things to businesses. "B to
C" would be "business to consumer".
R:在电脑语言中“E”的用法可以说是
无处不在。你听说过“E-commerce”吗?
(网上购物)它在全球可谓非常普及了。
意思是在网上做交易即买卖东西。
E:在网络中,人们喜欢只用一个字母来
代表某物,例如,你在说"E-commerce"
时,你可将它们说成"B to B Ecommerce"或者"B to C E-commerce",
"B to B"的意思是"business to
business",指的是商家对商家的交易。
指的是"business to consumer"。
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R: I know Elyn you've use a chat
R:Elyn, 我知道你常在聊天室聊天,
room, right? Where you go and you
chat, but you don't talk in the chat
room, do you?
对吧?(虽说叫聊天)但你不在那里不
用语言交谈,对吗?
E: Not, you're not talking, you are
typing. You know there are some
things that you can use in a chat
room, some wonderful acronyms. An
acronym is again something that
uses the first letter of each word, so
for example, if you did Chinese “你
好”, it would be “N” for “你”,and “H”
for “好”, "你好". So you'd write "NH",
that means "你好".
R: And every time, you got an E-mail,
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and it started with "NH", you'd know
that's what it meant. And we wanted
to teach you some of the funny ones
in English, like, my daughter said
she enjoy using "LOL", which means
"Laugh Out Loud", that's because
you are reading an E-mail made you
laugh. But how can a person know
you were laughing, so you type back
"LOL".
E:当然不用语言交流而是通过打字来
交流。在聊天室里聊天你可以使用一些
很有趣的缩略语,“缩略语”指的是每
个单词的第一个字母,例如,如果你想
用汉语说“你好”时,你只需打出“NH”
两个字母,“N”是“你”的意思,“H”
是“好”的意思,它们合在一起就是
“你好”的意思。
R:当你收到一份E-mail,它的一开
头便是“NH”,你往往会对它的意思感到
困惑不解,我们想教你们一些诸如此类
的有趣表达法,象我的女儿说她喜欢用
"LAL","LAL"的意思是"Laugh aloud"
(大声笑)因为你正在读一份令你发笑
的E-mail,而你怎样让电脑另一端的网友
知道你正在大笑呢,所以你打出三个字
用"LAL"。
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E: Yeah, it's fun. There is another one,
that is if somebody says something
silly, and you say: "Are you kidding
me? Are you joking with me?" you
might ask them "Are you joking?"
And they say "HHOK", it means "Ha
Ha, only kidding", or you could write
"HHJK", "Ha Ha, just kidding".
E:真的很有趣。这种用法中还有,
如果某人说某物很蠢,而你说“Are
you kidding me? Are you joking
with me?”(你在开玩笑吧)他们对
此的回答是“HHOK”,意思是“Ha
Ha,only kidding.”你还可以用
“HHJK”意思是“Ha Ha,just
kidding”。
R: You all know "ASAP", "As soon as
possible", but there are also "BRB"
"Be right back".
E: So you are going to sound like a
true 'computer geek' when you are
surfing the net, when you use all this
good English vocabulary.
R:你们都知道“ASAP”(越快越好)
的意思。还有“BRB”,意思是“Be
right back”(快点回来)。
E:学会使用这么多电脑用法之后,
你马上就要成为一个真正的“网虫”
了。
E: Do you know what a geek is? A
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geek is someone who just does
computers, maybe they are very pale,
because they never go outside.
E:你知道"a geek"是什么吗?它指
的是那些整天沉溺于电脑的人,可
能他们看起来很苍白,因为他们从
不外出。
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R: Maybe they are thin because they
forget to eat.
E: They do forget to eat, and maybe
their clothes are dirty, because they
forget to wash, because they love
their computer so much, that's all
they do. So that is a 'computer geek.'
Maybe you'll have to tell your
address to someone, your computer
address, and if you do, you have to
know how to say the different parts.
So let's say I have my address, it's
"Elyn", is my name, "@" that "a" with
a long tail, is @, then "China.com".
R: So today we‘ll leave you computer
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geeks with a “汉语拼音” acronym.
Would you understand me if I say
“ZJ”.
E: If you didn’t get it. “Z” is for
“再”,and “J” is for “见”.
Together:再见。
R:也许他们很瘦,因为他们经常忘
了吃饭。
E:他们这些人的确会忘了吃饭,也
许他们的衣服很脏,因为他们忘了
洗衣服。出于对他们电脑的如此热
爱,上网便成为他们的全部生活内
容,这便是网虫。也许你不得不将
你的网址告诉他们,那么你将不得
不知道如何表达网址的每一部分。
[email protected] Elyn
是我的名字,"@"是一个有着长尾巴
的"a"然后是china.com。
R:今天在节目的最后我们将留给你
们这些网虫的是一个汉语拼音缩略
语,如果我说“ZJ”,你知道是什么
意思吗?
E:如果不知道,(我告诉你)"Z"
是“再”的意思,"J"是“见”的意
思。
一起:再见。
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互联网英语词汇
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中央处理器 CPU(Central Processing Unit)
计算机辅助设计 CAD(Computer-Aided Design)
互联网普及率 Internet Penetration
网民 Cyber Citizen
网络犯罪 Cyber Crime
网络城市, 虚拟城市 Cyber City
数字鸿沟 Digital Divide
智能学校 Smart Schools
多功能卡 Multipurpose Card
软件开发 Software Development
内容开发 Content Development
数字化商业 Digital Business
信息化 Informationization, Network-based
Information Flow
软件包 Software Packages
申请注册域名 Domain Name Application and
Registration
虚拟空间 Virtual Space
局域网 Intranet
脑图 Mind Map
便携式电脑 Portable Computer; Laptop;
Notebook Computer
个人数字助理 PDA---Personal Digital
Assistant
掌上电脑 Palm Computer
路由器 Router
网络管理员 Network Administrator
网络经济 Cyber Economy
以太网 Ethernet
服务提供者 ISP-Internet Service Provider
网络计算机 NC: Network Computer
多媒体个人电脑 MPC: Multimedia Personal
Computer
多媒体扩展 MMX: 是MultiMedia extensions
兆赫 MHz Mega Hertz
视频图形阵列 VGA: Video Graphics Array
三维摄影室 3D Studio: Three Dimension
Studio
虚拟现实 VR:Virtual Reality
原始设备制造商 OEM:Original Equipment
Manufacturer
即插即用 PNP:Plug and Play
乐器数字接口 MIDI:Musical Instrument
Digital Interface
运动图像专家组 MPEG: Motion Picture
Experts Group
域名 Domain Name
拨号连接 Dial-up Connection
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Unit 4
Road to Success
Success often depends upon knowing how long it will take to succeed.
成功常常取决于知道需要多久才能成功。
——法国思想家孟德斯鸠·C
Success covers a multitude of blunders.
成功由大量的失误铸就。
——英国剧作家肖伯纳·G
The people who get on in this world are the people who get up and look for
circumstances they want,and if they cannot find them, they make them.
在这个世界上,取得成功的人是那些努力寻找他们想要机会的人,如果找不到机
会,他们就去创造机会。
——英国剧作家肖伯纳·G
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You have to believe in yourself.That's the secret of success.
人必须相信自己,这是成功的秘诀。
——美国演员卓别林·C
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New words and phrases
生词和短语
threshold开端
salutary有益的
janitor门卫;工友
fig关注
gratify使满意,使喜悦
indorse(=endorse)(支票)签付,转让,担保
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Language points
重点难点分析
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Language Points for part A
1.
Janitor,janitress
-or 构成名词, 表示“...者”, “...物”, “...器”, 如:inventor,
tractor
-ess构成名词,表示“女性” “阴性”, 如:actress, monitress
2. Don’t put all your eggs in one basket.
put all (one's) eggs in one basket or have all (one's) eggs in
one basket【 Informal】
To risk everything on a single venture. 孤注一掷将所有的一切放在
一次冒险上
Language Points for part B
Global Positioning System全球定位系统
GPS Satellite全球定位通讯卫星
[全球定位系统(Global Positioning System-GPS)是美国从本世纪70年
代开始研制,历时20年,耗资200亿美元,于1994年全面建成,具有在
海、陆、空进行全方位实时三维导航与定位能力的新一代卫星导航与定
位系统。]
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Cultural background
文化背景
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1 Pittsburgh匹兹堡
美国钢铁工业中心,有“钢都”之称。宾夕法尼亚州第二大城市。位于该州西南部,
俄亥俄河上源阿勒格尼河与莫农加希拉河交汇处。拥有美国第一座完整的核动力
工厂和工业用核反应堆。
2 Michigan密歇根州(美国州名)
密歇根州是位于美国最北部的州之一,三面环水,被密歇根湖、休伦湖、苏必利尔湖
以及伊利湖包围,由上下两个半岛组成。北与加拿大隔湖相望,南与印第安那州
和俄亥俄州接壤,是美国的工业要地。州树是白松树,州花是苹果树花,州鸟是
知更鸟。17世纪前印第安人即在此居住和狩猎。州名源于印第安语,意为“大水”
(Great Water)。密州是美国第38任总统福特的故乡。1610年,法国探险者首
先到来,此后法国人控制该地区近150年,直至1763年被英国人打败。1763年独
立战争后,美国控制了该地区。1837年加入联邦,成为美国第26个州。
3 Texas德克萨斯
德克萨斯州原为印第安人聚居的地方,"德克萨斯"乃印第安语"朋友"之意。1519年至
1685年属西班牙。1685年至1690年属于法国。之后一段时间内印第安人曾管理过
德州的大部分地区,1719年至1821年又重新沦为西班牙的殖民地。1821年,墨西
哥宣布独立,德州是其一部分。1836年在德克萨斯独立军统帅山姆·休斯顿的率领
下赢得了独立,成立德克萨斯共和国。1845年作为第28个州加入美国。1861年至
1865年德州在美国内战中站在南部同盟军一边,因此直到1870年才被正式确认为
联邦成员。以矢车菊Blue bonne为州花。别名“孤星之州”Lone Star State。
本州箴言:“友谊”Friendship。
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Tips for you to listen to
口语贴士
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训练叙述能力
中国人叙述事情往往一再铺垫,而美国人则开门见山,简洁明快。
这是我们在训练时要注意的。训练方法有:
⑴复述法,阅读后用自己的话(英语)复述英语故事或短文。复述
是在模仿、朗读之后的一个再创作的过程,它比背诵要难。可以
尽量用自己的话复述朗读、听过的或阅读过的,也可以完全摆脱
原文,组织、创作材料内容。对于程度较差的人,可以先复述原
文的中心思想,一句、两句话即可。然后,由少至多。复述是在
没有人对话的情况下提高口语最有效的途径之一。在保证语言正
确的前提下,复述可有越来越大的灵活性,如改变句子结构,把
生词改成常见词,长段可以缩短,甚至仅复述大意或作内容摘要。
复述的内容要有所选择。一般来说,所选资料的内容要具体生动,
有明确的情节,生词量不要太大。可选那些知识性强的小短文。
开始时可以练习复述小故事,有了基础后,复述的题材可扩展开
些。
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⑵听述法,听完磁带或别人对话后复述。要循序渐进,可由一两句
开始,听完后用自己的话(英语)把所听到的内容说出来,一遍
复述不下来,可多听几遍。逐渐听的内容增多,听的次数减少。
⑶口语作文法,找好一个题目作一分钟的口语作文,同时将其录音.
听录音,找出不足和错误,就此题目再作两分钟的口语作文,同样
录音,再听并找出不足与进步,继续作三分钟口语作文。
⑷自言自语法,自我设置一个语言情景,并担任其中主、客两个角
色,自问自答所处情景中的对话。自己创造虚拟的“英语世界”,
常问问自己:这层意思或这个事物用英语该怎么表达?在这种场
合或情景下,“老外”会说些什么话?
⑸背诵。练习口语不免背诵一些东西,但很多人不喜欢背诵。不过,
背诵一些名篇是非常有必要的。基础较差的人一定要背诵一些常
用的句型和表达方式。
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Unit 5
Higher Education
But the teacher cried
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The six-year-old John was terribly spoiled . His father knew it,
but his grandma doted on him. He hardly left her side. And
when he wanted anything, he either cried or threw a temper
tantrum. Then came his first day of school, his first day
away from his grandmother's loving arms.
When he came home from school his grandma met him at the
door.
"Was school all right?" she asked, "Did you get along all right?
did you cry?"
"Cry?" John asked. "No, I didn't cry, but the teacher did!"
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Warm-up
热身练习
1 Read the joke and translate it into Chinese.
2 Brainstorm on all subjects taught in schools. Choose the six
most important subjects, rank them, and to add at least tow
subjects that are not taught in schools that you think would
be useful. (e.g. memory skills, social skills, newspaper
reading, film studies, first aid, environmental and peace
studies, plumbing, electrics).
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3 Brainstorm on all words you can associate with higher
education,write down at least 20 words within 2 minutes
and use them to compose a story.
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New words and phrases
生词和短语
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To adjust to调整,适应
To have Friday off星期五逃学
(play truant, play hookey)
Clue (=clew)思路,主意
To sleep in睡懒觉
(lie in)
Homesick想家(思乡病)
airsick晕机的, 患航空病的
carsick晕车的
fancy-sick患相思病的
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表达「睡不着」的十句话
1. I couldn't fall asleep last night.
我昨晚睡不着。
6. I didn't close my eyes until early
morning. 我一直到凌晨才阖眼(入睡)。
2. I passed a wakeful night.
我彻夜未眠。
7. I tossed and turned in bed all
night./ I tossed about in bed all night.
我一整晚辗转难眠。
3. I was up all night.
我一整晚都没睡。
4. I had a sleepless night
worrying about my exams.
我因为担心考试一整晚没睡
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5. I've been suffering from
insomnia.
我近来饱受失眠之苦。
8. Sleeping pills somehow didn't
work for me last night. 安眠药昨晚不
知怎么搞的好象对我没用。
9. I was counting sheep all night.
我一整晚都在数羊。
10. I guess I drank too much coffee, I
was wide awake all night. 我猜我可
能是喝了太多咖啡,一整晚都很清醒。
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Language points
重点难点分析
Education一词的搭配法
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例 : compulsory education will be
made universal
education will be popularized
receive pre-service education
education provided by specialized
secondary schools
developing
education
to
arm
youngsters
be deprived of education
completed their 9-year compulsory
education
Education还可以和以下动词连
用:
Acquire/gain/get/obtain
(higher)
education
Pursue/seek further education
Have a college education
Enjoy a splendid education
Continue one’s education
Extend and deepen one’s education
Finish one’s education
Give sb. a good education
Supply technical and professional
education
Spread education
Promote education
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Class, course用法辨析:
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Class和course都可和attend, conduct和hold连用,但这两个词的意思不
同。Class的意思是“班,级,年级”或“一节课”,用来指一组/群人
或一段时间。如:
The (large/small) training class meets once a week.
They were both members of the class of 1977.
学生attend/have classes in (a subject) at (a school),意思是“上课“;
老师则conduct或start a class,即“办班”,如:
The school holds classes in Chinese for foreign businessmen.
They have just started a beginners’/intermediate/advanced class.
Course指某学科的“课程”或“教程”。
学生attend/take a course in (a subject) by (a teacher) at (a school);
老师conduct/offer/give a course in(a subject);
学校establish/hold/offer a course,如:
Our university holds a summer course in modern Chinese history.
The college offers a 4-year course in international law.
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Cultural background
文化背景
1 Marymount University
http://www.marymount.edu/
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都市介绍: 纽约 (New York City)
纽约市位于美国东北部哈德逊河口,
濒临大西洋,是美国和美洲最大的城
市。全市由曼哈顿(Manhattan)、
布鲁克林(Brooklyn)、昆斯
(Queens)、布郎克斯(Bronxs)
和斯塔滕岛(Steden Island)五个区
组成。面积830平方公里。
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1626年荷兰人用24美元的物品从印第
安人手中买下曼哈顿岛,取名为新阿
姆斯特丹。1664年被英国人占领,取
名纽约。1789年成为新独立的美国第
一个首都和美国最大的城市。十九世
纪开始,纽约向世界性大城市发展。
至二十世纪初,纽约成为世界最大的
城市之一与伦敦、巴黎齐名。
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纽约是个大熔炉,它有近800万
人口,来自世界各地近百种以上
民族,其中犹太人有200万左右,
黑人有200万左右,中国人有60
万以上。
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纽约也是美国的文化中心,有大
大小小近200家剧场,著名的有
大都会歌剧院(位于林肯表演艺
术中心);纽约现有近百家电影
院,近200家公立私立图书馆;
著名博物馆有大都会艺术博物馆、
美国自然历史博物馆、现代艺术
博物馆等。纽约市教育事业也很
发达,有著名的哥伦比亚大学、
纽约大学和其他大专院校。
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Exercises
练习
Answer the following questions.You can prepare for only 1
minute,then you should organize your idea and answer.
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1 What is the difference between having a young
inexperienced teacher and an old experienced one? Does
expert knowledge of a particular subject necessarily imply
an ability to teach that subject?
2 What do you think of this saying? “Those who can, do, those
who can’t, teach.”
3 Which teacher role is more important—teaching
facts,methods and ideas or getting students to learn how to
learn?
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4 Suppose you are a member of the board of governors of a
school(real or imaginary). You have to cut down on
expenses. Which of the following would you do?
A increase the numbers of students per class.
B Eliminate certain subjects—which one?
C Reduce the number of hours spent at school either by
reducing the length of the school day or by reducing the
number of hours
D Sack inefficient teachers—which ones?
Or you have better ideas?Analyze advantages and
disadvantages of each idea and compare them.Try to find
the best solving way.
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Listening:
Listen to the stories and note down the key words.Retell the
stories after hearing. Then you should be able to come up
with a definition of an ideal teacher.
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1 Actually it was one of the first lessons I’d ever
taught,when I first began teaching.I had this
beginners class, right, and I’d noticed that
everything I wrote down on the blackboard they’d
copy down into their books.So we were doing the
days of the week,right,and I wrote them all up on
the board and I decided to write an eighth day
and called it “My day”, and sure enough there
were some who diligently wrote it down.I then
tried to convince them that in Australia we had
eight days a week.But they did not fall for that
one.
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2 I’ve always been interested in psychology and I
decided to try out an experiment of my own. I had
this advanced class and I wanted to do a lesson
on speech and silence. The idea was that I’d go in
the class,sit down and say nothing and then see
how long it would take for someone in the class
to say something.Then the students would be
able to compare what the’d been thinking during
this silence, plus a general discussion on how
silence can be embarrassing,and also why people
find it difficult or are reluctant to say something
when they don’t understand what is going on.
The fact is that I fell asleep,this was the last
lesson of the day and I hadn’t slept much the
night before.
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Tips for you to listen to
口语贴士
训练听力
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口语分主动口语和被动口语。主动口语指的是“说”,是表达
言语的输出或释放过程; 被动口语指的是“听”,是理解言语的
输入或吸收过程。主动口语是在被动口语的基础上发展起来的,
它们是口语交际中形式上截然不同但密切相关的行为过程。美国
语言学家Krashen就第二语言习得提出的输入假说认为人类获得
语言的唯一方式是对信息的理解,也就是通过吸收可理解的输入
习得语言知识。输入在学习者理解的水平上,再包括一点超过他
们能力的语言时,语言结构也就习得了。在Krashen的i+1理论
中,这种输入必须是理解的,大量的。语言的语感只有加大语言
的流量才能培养出。因此,教师应不断给学生提供合适他们水平
的听力资料和建议,鼓励他们课后多听,培养他们对语言的敏感
性和提高他们的理解力。
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我们可以借助媒体,通过看、听英文原版电影、电视,课外收听
英语广播,欣赏英文录像,听英文歌曲等泛听,使学生熟悉不同口音、
性别、年龄、国家的读音,扩大知识面,培养语感,增强反应能
力,达到提高听力的目的;也可以选择其中一些段落精听,去重
复和回答其中的对话和问题;还可以参与实际对话,通过讲地道
的口语来提高听力和发音,语调、句子结构和表达方式不要中国
化。这种形式要比其它形式具体、实际、形象、有趣,因而容易
实施,效率最高。
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但在训练中我们需要注意,受母语影响,很多国家和地区的人
发音并不很准确,甚至以英语为母语的国家也有地方口音——就
如我国各地的方言一样。例如,苏格兰人通常会吞掉一些音节,
澳大利亚人常将“today”说成“todie”;不少新西兰人把“set”
说成“sit”;拉丁语系的人说英语,有r结尾的单词往往加上小舌
颤音;日本人说英语r与l分不清;东南亚的人说英语往往夹杂着
本国母语的语调,而且t音常用d来代替。
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Additional reading materials
辅助阅读
各类学校名称
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高等学校 institution of higher education
综合性大学 comprehensive university
文科大学 university of liberal arts
文科学院 college of arts
理工科大学 college/university of science and engineering
师范大学 normal university; teachers’ university
师范学院 teachers’ college
工业大学 polytechnical university
工业学院 engineering institute
农业大学 agricultural university
农学院 agricultural college
医科大学 medical university
医学院 medical college/school
药科大学 pharmaceutical university
中医学院 institute of traditional Chinese medicine
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航空工业学院 aeronautical institute
音乐学院 conservatory of music
美术学院 academy of fine arts
业余职工大学 spare-time college for staff and workers
广播电视大学 television and radio broadcasting university
函授大学 correspondence school
教师进修学校 teachers’ college for vocational studies
成人夜校 night school for adults
业余艺术/体育学校 amateur arts/athletic school
半工半读学校 part-work and part-study school
中等技术学校 secondary technical school; technical secondary school
职业学校 vocational school
全日制寄宿学校 full-time boarding school
全科类重点中学 key middle school with all regular academic disciplines
进修班 class for advanced studies
在职进修班 in-serve training course
短训班 short-term training course
研习班 seminar
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重点学校 key school
附属学校 affiliated school
附属中学 attached middle school
分校 branch school
各类教育形式
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九年制义务教育 nine-year compulsory education
成人教育 adult education
继续教育 continuing education
终生教育 lifelong education
全日制教育 full-time education
全面教育 comprehensive education
政治教育 ideological education
伦理教育 ethical education
普及教育 universal education
学前教育 preschool education
职业技术教育 vocational and technical education
素质教育 quality education
应试教育 examination-oriented education
爱国主义教育 education in partriotism
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国际主义教育 education in internationalism
集体主义教育 education in collectivism
初等教育 elementary education
中等教育 secondary education
普遍教育 general education
教师,学生及学位
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大学教师 college teacher
教学人员 the faculty; teaching staff
中小学校长 headmaster/headmistress; principal
大专院校校长 president; chancellor
副校长 vice president
大学院长 faculty director
系主任 dean; chairman; chairperson
副主任 vice-chairman
教务长 dean of studies
政治辅导员 political assistant
班主任 head/class teacher
教授 professor
正教授 full professor
副教授 associate professor
讲师 lecturer
助教 teaching assistant
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专职教师 full-time teacher
兼职教师 part-time teacher
辅导员 assistant for political and ideological work
客座教授 visiting professor; guest professor
校友 alumnus; alumna
高年级学生 upper/higher grade pupil/student; pupil/student in senior grade
低年级学生 lower grade pupil/student; pupil/student in junior grade
走读生 day student; non-resident student
住宿生 boarder
旁听生 auditor
研究生 graduate student; postgraduate
应届毕业生 graduating student/pupil; this year’s graduates
一年级学生 freshman
二年级学生 sophomore
三年级学生 junior
四年级学生 senior
领取助学金的学生 a grant-aided student
学历 record of formal schooling
学年 school/academic year
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学期 (school) term; semester
学士学位 bachelor’s degree
硕士学位 master’s degree
博士学位 doctor’s degree; doctorate
博士后 postdoctor
工商管理硕士 master of business administration(MBA)
学校课程
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课程 course; curriculum
必修课 required/compulsory course
选修课 elective/optional course
基础课 basic course
专业课 specialized course
公开课 open class
课程表 school timetable
听课 to visit a class; to sit in on a class; to attend a lecture
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After Babel, a new common tongue
英语:通天塔之后的通行语
圣经传说中的通天塔既代表了人类语言的多样化,也象征了人类希
望用同一种声音进行沟通的心愿。尽管有专家按照语言结构的规
律和语法规则创造了一种易于使用的世界语(Esperanto),并
希望这种语言可以成为人们相互交流的通行语。然而,在现实生
活中,通行语的功能却似乎更青睐于某种语言,这就是英语。
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IN THE 17th century, educated people across central Europe
could still communicate with each other in Latin. By the
mid-19th century, the handiest language for a traveller
through Mitteleuropa (中欧)was the German spoken by
the Habsburg monarchs(哈普斯堡皇室)who reigned over
Hungarians, Czechs and many others. A little more than 100
years later, the dominant tongue was Russian.
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Now the region's new
language of choice for the
21st century is percolating
(渗透)upwards through the
education system, and
downwards from the
business and political elite. It
will be English, studied by
three out of four secondaryschool pupils from the Baltic
to the Balkans.
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Unlike Britain, the European
Union functions in a variety
of languages. Language
Futures Europe posts links
and debate on European
language issues.
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Most central European countries have just joined, or are
waiting to join, the European Union, and their accession is already
reinforcing the dominance of English as a language for the EU as
a whole. In central Europe, as in much of the world, knowledge of
English has become a basic skill of modern life comparable with
the ability to drive a car or use a personal computer.
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What has happened to the other main languages? A majority of
central Europeans have eschewed (避开)Russian as firmly as
they have rejected the communist ideology which was once
articulated in that tongue. Russian remains the second-moststudied foreign language in the Baltic countries, where there are
large minorities of native Russian speakers and a thriving
Russophone(俄语的)culture with them. But in Poland and
Slovakia it has fallen to third place, and in Hungarian and Czech
schools it is scarcely studied at all. That said, Russian still serves
as a common language among older central Europeans schooled
in communist times—including, ironically, the politicians whose
generation helped drive out communism. Their arrival in the
European Parliament has brought the sound of Russian small-talk
into its corridors and tea-rooms.
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The limited enthusiasm for German in central Europe has been
much more surprising. Even in the communist era, it was taught at
least as widely as English, being the language of a “fraternal” country,
East Germany. In the post-communist era, Germany has been central
Europe's biggest export market, and a huge investor in the region. Yet
only in the Czech Republic, Hungary and Slovakia does the
proportion of secondary-school pupils studying German come
anywhere close to the proportion studying English; and nowhere in
the region is German the top choice.
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German has languished (衰退)partly because Germany has been
shy about promoting its language and culture in a region ravaged
(毁坏)by Hitler's war. No such shyness has affected France. Its
cultural diplomacy in the region has been vigorous and generous.
Handsome French cultural centres ornament the capitals of the
region: the newest of them will open in Riga, the Latvian capital, in
October. But admiration for France's culture does not translate into
widespread use of its language. Only in Romania—whose own
vernacular is of Latin origin—does it exceed English in popularity.
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The choice of English has been made easier by the
demands of foreign investors. The first to move east were
the most international European companies, which tended
to use English as their international working language
regardless of their base. The biggest foreign direct investor
within central Europe for most of the past decade, Siemens
AG of Germany, an engineering and telecoms firm, made
English its main “corporate language” in 1998. “German
companies are very pragmatic,” confirms Bernhard
Welschke, head of European policy at the Federation of
German Industry. They value a single language for business,
he says, even if it is not their own.
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If there is one German sector which begs to differ, it may
be the entertainment industry, whose exports are limited by
the international preference for English-language products.
About 200m music CDs are sold each year within Germany,
for example; but the country's most successful
international act, Rammstein, a heavy-metal group, has sold
only 6m CDs outside Germany in its ten-year history. “We
are being left behind,” complains Björn Akstinat, director of
the German Music Export Office, an industry association.
He believes central Europe could be a growth market for
German culture, and that the German government should
try harder in its cultural diplomacy. Even now some nonTeutonic bands sing in German, says Mr. Akstinat, pointing
to Ich Troje, which represented Poland in last year's
Eurovision song contest.
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The rise of English as a lingua franca will not necessarily
do much to diminish arguments over national languages
within or between countries, in places like the Balkans or
the Baltic states. Such arguments tend to be about the
division of political power between rival communities,
rather than about language as such. It may, on the other
hand, have a big impact on the institutions of the European
Union, and even on European integration. The EU
recognises an official language for every country, and
translates all main public documents into all 20 of those
languages. But civil servants and committees within the
EU's institutions use three main working languages:
English, French and German. French has long been fighting
a losing battle against English for “market share” among
the three, with German far behind. The arrival of more
countries favouring English will threaten to render French
almost as marginal as German.
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Among the Balts, Russian resists
An increased use of English within the EU institutions
will mean an increased use of it in the ministries of member
states, where officials spend much of their time working on
EU-related matters. Jean-François Deniau, of the Académie
Française, a linguistic watchdog, told Le Figaro newspaper
that English had conquered even the treasury directorate of
the French finance ministry, which he called “the heart, the
bastion, the stronghold of French power”. It now circulates
drafts of new regulations in English “because they will be
discussed in English in Brussels”.
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One big question now is whether the
generalised use of English as a first or second
language will accelerate the political integration
of the EU. The spread of English will lower the
language barrier which has, arguably, obstructed
pan-European political debate. It will open the
way to the formation of pan-European public
opinion, and to politicians with pan-European
appeal. But there have been empires, like the
Soviet one, which had common languages and
still fell apart. A language can help a good
political system work better, but it cannot rescue
a bad one.
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Unit 6
Tourist Industry
New words and phrases
生词和短语
Maori(新西兰的)毛利人, 毛利语
Predominant卓越的, 支配的, 主要的, 突出的, 有影响的
Bilingual能说两种语言的
Isolation隔绝, 孤立, 隔离, 绝缘, 离析
Prevailing占优势的, 主要的, 流行的
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Cultural background
文化背景
毛利人
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新西兰有15%的毛利人。在14世纪时,其土著民族毛利人在此
居住,1642年荷兰航海者到达。1769-1777年英国库克船长先
后5次到此,此后英国向这里大批移民,经过残忍的战争后,
1840年英与毛利人签约,规定新为英国殖民地。1907年成为英
国的自治领,1947年独立,为英联邦成员。1840年,英国当局
派遣特例与毛利人酋长们进行谈判,答应让酋长们完全拥有自己
部落土地的所有权。然而,殖民主义者没有遵守自己的承诺,反
而大肆掠夺毛利人的土地,这引起毛利人的强烈反抗,为此,爆
发了两次大规模的战争。迫于毛利人的反抗,英国殖民当局不得
不改变政策,并且让毛利人在参、众两院拥有自己的席位。后来,
毛利人与白人统治者的关系逐渐改善,毛利人也逐渐溶入新西兰
的大社会之中,但他们的独立性依然保持着,他们优良的民族传
统也没有丧失。
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由于毛利人没有文字,但又要使本
民族的传统和风俗习惯延续下去,
为此,他们在公共场合的演讲便成
为传播民族文化的工具。毛利人的
交往施“触鼻”礼,即两个毛利人见
了面后拥抱在一起,用鼻尖碰到对方
的鼻尖,眼睛在很近的距离对视,同时
发出“嗯-嗯”的鼻音。
纹身不仅是毛利人的一种装饰,同
时还是地位的象征。男的可以在脸
部、身体和臀部刺纹,女的只能在
嘴唇或颚部刺纹。毛利人大都信奉
原始的多神教,还相信灵魂不灭,
尊奉祖先的精灵。每遇重大的活动,
他们都要到河里做祈祷,而且还要
相互泼水,以此表示宗教仪式上的
纯洁。
毛利人热爱歌舞, 他们用歌舞来表达
喜怒哀乐。 毛利人的歌唱的非常动
听, 令人陶醉。 男子跳的为哈卡舞,
女子跳的为波依舞。
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新西兰简介
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在《魔戒》之前,新西兰只算得上
一个大家吵着移民的地方。而《魔
戒》的出现,使新西兰多了一个称
呼——“中土世界”。
人口: 383万(2000年7月15日止)
土地面积: 266,171平方公里
首都: 威灵顿 (40万)
第一大城: 奥克兰(100万)
语言: 英语
电压: 230V.(50-60赫兹)插头呈八字
扁平型
交通:靠左行,人均拥有0.64辆汽车,
世界第二,仅次于美国
阳光: 阳光明媚,每年日照时间超过
2500小时
空气: 很清新,经常是蓝天碧云或者
万里晴空,能看到很远的地方
自来水: 可生饮
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Exercises
练习
Is it necessary to develop tourism?
Arguments
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1. It is necessary to develop the tourist trade, for it contributes
a lot to increasing understanding between nations.
2. As the saying goes, “Seeing is believing.” Only a trip to an
unfamiliar land can help us understand the people and
culture there.
3. Since tourism helps increase understanding between
people, it will finally wipe out prejudice against other
nations, and make the world a more peaceful one.
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4. Tourism contributes significantly to many countries’ GNP
(Gross National Product). The economy of some nations is
based on the tourist industry.
5. Tourism helps develop a nation’s commerce because
tourists are most likely to buy souveniors wherever they go.
6. Tourism provides jobs for many people and helps solve or
ease the social problem of unemployment.
7. Tourism also helps promote the catering trade.
8. Tourism helps improve the transportation system of a
nation.
9. Tourism helps accelerate a city’s construction and its
embellishment.
10. Contact with tourists from afar widens the horizon of the
local people.
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11. The tourist trade gives people a chance to enjoy the
beautiful scenery of the world and the wonders of mankind.
12. Tourism will help people learn about different cultures of
the world.
13. Travel can widen one’s horizon and make one more openminded.
Counter-arguments
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1. Tourism cannot increase understanding between nations
because tourists are often trapped in big hotels and only
gaze at the natives from a distance.
2. Tourism does not wipe out prejudice, but leads to the
persistence of national stereotypes because when traveling,
you notice only characteristics which confirm your
preconceptions.
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3. It is true that foreign friends can make people
understand stereotypes are absurd and harmful,
but the tourist trade prevents people from making
foreign friends.
4. Since tourists do not have time to mix with the
local people, they cannot have a full view of the
local culture.
5. Tourism makes some parts of the world too
crowded a place to live in.
6. Tourism creates pollution and has destroyed
many beautiful scenic spots.
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7. Tourists cannot have a full enjoyment of the
beautiful scenery because the places they visit
are restricted by organizers.
8. As the saying goes, “Travel makes a wise man
better, but a fool worse.”
9. Contact with and assimilation of other cultures
will reduce the uniqueness of one’s own culture
and make the world less colorful than before.
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参考问题:
1.What are the advantages of developing the tourist trade?
2.What should be done to improve China’s tourist industry?
3.How can people of different countries truly understand
each other?
4.What do you hope to do when you visit an unfamiliar place?
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Work out an outline of your own viewpoints. The outline
should consist of major statements and supporting
evidence and examples. Speak according to your outline, or
give spontaneous speeches when you disagree with your
partner or when you want to support your own group with
similar opinion.
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You are expected to extend your ability to agree or disagree
with other people’s opinions and to ask them to explain
their points of view:
That’s just what I was thinking.
I agree entirely.
I’d go along with you there/
Well, possibly.
What I mean is that…
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I really can’t agree.
I’m afraid you are wrong.
Yes, but isn’t it also true to say that…
I see what you mean, but …
Well, I am not so sure about that.
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Tips for you to listen to
口语贴士
训练会话能力
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众所周知,对话是提高口语能力最有效的方法,所以应该抓住一切
机 会 和 讲 英 语 的 人 士 对 话
。
⑴要有开口说话和提问题的胆量,不要怕丢面子。要敢于用外
语说话,尤其不要放弃能接触外国人并与其进行交谈的机会。不
要怕出错,当别人指责你的错误时,也不要难为情,更不要泄气。
⑵对于基本交际,包括如何开始谈话,如何进行谈话,如何结束谈
话,谈话进行中如何纠正、重复、打断、话题澄清等,可以多记
一些套语(routines),过渡性、装饰性词语和插入语句。
⑶要有备而谈。会话前做好主题准备工作,包括了解话题、查找所
涉及的单词和必要的常用句型。随身携带15000词左右的英汉小
词典和1万词条左右的汉英小词典以进行查找。话题准备应该不
限于一个,以免谈话僵持。
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⑷要温故知新,会话完后把从会话中学到的单词、表达法、句型进
行总结,并背下来。且看郑板桥在《自叙》中所说:“人咸谓板
桥读书善记,不只非善记,乃善诵耳。板桥每读一书,必千万遍。
舟中,马上,被底,或当食忘匕著,或对客不听其语,并自忘其
所语,皆记书默诵也。书有弗记者乎?”一代大师尚且如此,更
何况我辈凡人。
⑸要建立自己的核心词库和句子库。在阅读过程中、从书本例句中、
从对话中看、听到地道、标准、典型、或优美的句子、诗歌、短
文摘抄下来,与相关的核心词一起分类总结,经常大声朗读背诵
直至达到脱口而出的地步,在谈话中即可信手拈来。
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Additional reading materials
辅助阅读
世界各地旅游胜地
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Asia 亚洲
The Himalayas 喜马拉雅山
Great Wall, China 中国长城
Forbidden City, Beijing, China 北京故宫
Mount Fuji, Japan 日本富士山
Taj Mahal, India 印度泰姬陵
Angkor Wat, Cambodia 柬埔寨吴哥窟
Bali, Indonesia 印度尼西亚巴厘岛
Borobudur, Indonesia 印度尼西亚波罗浮屠
Sentosa, Singapore 新加坡圣淘沙
Crocodile Farm, Thailand 泰国北榄鳄鱼湖
Pattaya Beach, Thailand 泰国芭堤雅海滩
Babylon, Iraq 伊拉克巴比伦遗迹
Mosque of St, Sophia in Istanbul (Constantinople), Turkey 土耳其圣索
非亚教堂
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Africa 非洲
Suez Canal, Egypt 印度苏伊士运河
Aswan High Dam, Egypt 印度阿斯旺水坝
Nairobi National Park, Kenya 肯尼亚内罗毕国家公园
Cape of Good Hope, South Africa 南非好望角
Sahara Desert 撒哈拉大沙漠
Pyramids, Egypt 埃及金字塔
The Nile, Egypt 埃及尼罗河
Oceania 大洋洲
Great Barrier Reef 大堡礁
Sydney Opera House, Australia 悉尼歌剧院
Ayers Rock 艾尔斯巨石
Mount Cook 库克山
Easter Island 复活节岛
Europe 欧洲
Notre Dame de Paris, France 法国巴黎圣母院
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Effiel Tower, France 法国艾菲尔铁塔
Arch of Triumph, France 法国凯旋门
Elysee Palace, France 法国爱丽舍宫
Louvre, France 法国卢浮宫
Kolner Dom, Koln, Germany 德国科隆大教堂
Leaning Tower of Pisa, Italy 意大利比萨斜塔
Colosseum in Rome, Italy 意大利古罗马圆形剧场
Venice, Italy 意大利威尼斯
Parthenon, Greece 希腊巴台农神庙
Red Square in Moscow, Russia 莫斯科红场
Big Ben in London, England 英国伦敦大笨钟
Buckingham Palace, England 白金汉宫
Hyde Park, England 英国海德公园
London Tower Bridge, England 伦敦塔桥
Westminster Abbey, England 威斯敏斯特大教堂
Monte Carlo, Monaco 摩洛哥蒙特卡罗
The Mediterranean 地中海
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The Americas 美洲
Niagara Falls, New York State, USA 美国尼亚加拉大瀑布
Bermuda 百慕大
Honolulu, Hawaii, USA 美国夏威夷火奴鲁鲁
Panama Canal 巴拿马大运河
Yellowstone National Park, USA 美国黄石国家公园
Statue of Liberty, New York City, USA 美国纽约自由女神像
Times Square, New York City, USA 美国纽约时代广场
The White House, Washington DC., USA 美国华盛顿白宫
World Trade Center, New York City, USA 美国纽约世界贸易中心
Central Park, New York City, USA 美国纽约中央公园
Yosemite National Park, USA 美国尤塞米提国家公园
Grand Canyon, Arizona, USA 美国亚利桑那州大峡谷
Hollywood, California, USA 美国加利佛尼亚好莱坞
Disneyland, California, USA 加利佛尼亚迪斯尼乐园
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Las Vegas, Nevada, USA 美国内华达拉斯威加斯
Miami, Florida, USA 美国佛罗里达迈阿密
Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City, USA 纽约大都会艺术博物
馆
Acapulco, Mexico 墨西哥阿卡普尔科
Cuzco, Mexico 墨西哥库斯科
古代世界七大奇迹
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巴比伦空中花园 The Hanging Gardens of Babylon
阿尔忒弥斯神庙 The Temple of Artemis(Diana) at Ephesus
宙斯神像 The Statue of Zeus
摩索拉斯陵墓 The Mausoleum at Halicarnassus
罗德岛太阳神巨像 The Colossus of Rhodes
亚历山大灯塔 The Pharos(Lighthouse) of Alexandria
埃及金字塔 The Pyramids of Egypt
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extreme tourism 极限旅游
“十一”就要到了,许多朋友可能又在计划出游的路线
(itinerary)或是出游的方式。有些人喜欢参加由旅行社包办的
旅游项目(packaged tour),有些人则偏好自己独行
(venture out)。
无论是老少皆宜的休闲观光(leisure travel),还是旨在扩展
视野的异域之旅(exotic travel),只要有一些时间、金钱、精
力、心情或同行伙伴,绝大多数的朋友一定会选择外出旅游。
近年来,有一种旅游吸引了不少人,那就是:extreme tourism
(极限旅游)。
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单从名称上,我们就可以知道这种旅游不是老少皆宜、合家欢
式的轻松之旅。“extreme”一词意味着“极度、极端、激烈”,
而extreme tourism也正是指这样的一种旅游方式:
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“Tourism that involves travelling to dangerous places or
participating in dangerous events.”
还有人将这种旅游做如下的解释:
"Ah, vacation! Balmy breezes, ice-cold margaritas,
compliant snipers. Snipers? Yep. The newest kick for jaded
tourists who have hit all the world's hot spots is to hit the
world's really hot spots. The idea behind what some are
calling terror travel or extreme tourism is basically to take
the U.S. State Department's travel advisory warning list and
make an itinerary out of it."
—Justin Doebele, "Club Dead," Forbes, December 15,
1997
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Unit 7
Love and Marriage
Love is holding hands in the street
Marriage is holding arguments in the street
Love is dinner for 2 in your favorite restaurant
Marriage is Chinese take-out
Love is cuddling (拥抱)on a sofa
Marriage is deciding on a sofa
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Love is talking about having children
Marriage is talking about getting away from children
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Love is going to bed early
Marriage is going to sleep early
Love is a romantic drive
Marriage is a tarmac (停机坪)drive
Love is losing your appetite
Marriage is losing your figure
Love is sweet nothings in the ear
Marriage is sweet nothing's in the bank
Love is a flickering flame
Marriage is a flickering television
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Love is 1 drink and 2 straws (麦杆,吸管)
Marriage is "Don't you think you've had enough!"
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Warm-up
热身练习
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Work in pairs. Discuss the quotations below. What do you
think they mean? Which ones do you agree with? Which do
you disagree with? Which do you find amusing?
Love conquers all things. —Virgil
Love is blind.—English proverb
Marry in hast. Repent at leisure. —English proverb
When a girl marries, she exchanges the attention of many
men for the inattention of one. —Helen Rowland, American
writer
Marriage is like a dull meal with the dessert at the
beginning. —Henri, Comte de Toulouse-Lautrec
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Cultural background
文化背景
美国独特的婚礼习俗
很多美国人似乎将婚礼选择在刚刚过去的六月份里举办。说起
来这跟罗马神话还有关系。6月英文里是JUNE,这源自罗马神话
中主管爱情和婚姻的女神朱诺(JUNO)的名字。
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早期的美国新娘通常是穿她们最漂亮的礼服结婚。这些礼服的
颜色式样可谓五花八门,有方格图案的或者黑色的。但是到了19
世纪末,新娘们都开始穿白色婚纱结婚。卡罗尔·华莱士说,传统
上白色代表着圣洁和纯真。但是英国维多利亚女王当年穿白色婚
纱结婚,也是人们纷纷效仿,穿起白色婚纱的另一个重要原因:
“她的这一形象广为传播。人们看到她穿白色婚纱,因此群起而
仿效。随着媒体影响力的增长,上层社会的婚礼以及新娘身穿白
色婚纱的图片传播得越来越广,结果人人都开始穿白色的婚纱
了。”
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婚礼上吃蛋糕也变得越来越普遍,蛋糕也越来越精
美。但是尽管英国人对水果蛋糕情有独钟,美国人则
由于制作多层白色蜜糖蛋糕而闻名。这是起源于和客
人一起掰面包的古老传统.
在美国一般是女方操办婚礼。
在美国不少地方的传统婚礼中,对新娘的婚礼服有
一种特殊的要求,即必须具有新、旧、借、蓝四个特
色。所谓新,就是新娘所穿的白色婚礼服必须是新的。
标志着新生活的开始;所谓旧,则是新娘头上戴的白
纱必须是旧的。而且是母亲用过的旧纱,表示永不忘
父母的养育之恩;而借则是指新娘手中拿的白手帕必
须是从女友那里借来的,寓意是不忘朋友的情谊;至
于蓝,则新娘身上披的绸带必须是蓝色的,象征着新
娘对爱情的忠诚永不变心。
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Exercises
练习
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1.Complete the text below with the correct form of these words:
last contest sign break split up break down work
In the USA couples sometimes___ a contract before they
get married called a “prenuptial agreement’, which puts in
writing what will happen to their money and possessions if
the marriage___. It doesn’t surprise me that some of these
marriages don’t___ long. Before it has even started, the
happy couple are already planning what to do when the
marriage doesn’t___. And, of course, a prenuptial
agreement only works if both partners are reasonable. But
what happens if one person doesn’t want to ___ and ___
the divorce? Or what happens if someone tries to___ the
contract? Well, what is really means is lots of work—and
money—for the lawyers!
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2.Is romantic love the most important condition for marriage?
Arguments
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A. Marriage is the result and extension of love. Therefore,
romantic love is the most important condition for marriage.
B. Love should be the most important condition for marriage
because a marriage without love is like hell in which the
couple suffer for the rest of their lives.
C. Romantic love will enable the couple to conquer any
difficulties in their life together.
D. In feudal society, many people suffered from arranged
marriages because love was never an element for
consideration in marriages at that time.
E. Romantic love can lead to the healthy psychological
development of the couple.
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F. Marriages based on romantic love will bring forth beautiful
and intelligent children.
G. Marriages based on love tend to create a happy and
harmonious atmosphere in the family which is good for the
development of children.
H. A happy marriage helps one to achieve more in one’s career.
I. A marriage without love is worse that being single.
J. Marriages without love are most likely to end in divorce
which creates many social problems.
Counter-arguments
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A. Love is not the most important condition for marriage
because love is romantic whereas marriage is practical.
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B. Lack of money in a new marriage might bring trouble and
chronic quarrelling.
C. Education is the most important condition for a good
marriage because a couple whose educational levels do not
match are not likely to have much in common.
D. A marriage based on romantic love alone will not last long,
for a sense of responsibility is most essential to a
successful marriage.
E. Age is a very important condition for a happy marriage
because, if the couple belong to different age groups, they
tend to have different interests and find it hard to
understand each other.
F. Love is not the most important condition for a happy
marriage because, when the choice is carefully and wisely
made, it’s usually a good one.
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G. Health is a very important condition for a good marriage. If
either party of marriage suffers from poor health, then
happiness is impaired.
H. As the saying goes, love blinds a man to imperfection, so a
marriage based on love alone is only a bet for happiness.
I. Parental approval is important for marriages because it
creates unity in a family. Moreover, the experience of
parents can often correct and restrain the headstrong and
distorted choices of inexperienced youth.
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J. Love is not the single, most important condition for a
successful marriage. It requires the combination of many
conditions, all of which are important.
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参考问题:
1. What are Chinese young people’s conditions for marriage?
Comment on them.
2. Do you think a Marriage Bureau can help people find true
love? Why (Why not)?
3. What are the advantages and disadvantages of a group
date?
4. How do marriages in the east and in the west differ?
Work out an outline of your own viewpoints. Speak
according to your outline. You are expected to extend your
ability to agree or disagree with other people’s opinions
and to ask them to explain their points of view:
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That’s just how I see it.
That’s a good point.
I’d go along with you there.
I guess you could be right.
What I mean is that…
Yes, that’s quite true, but…
I’m not so sure really.
No, I don’t think so really.
I am afraid you are wrong.
Don’t’ be so silly.
3. Brainstorm on different types of love (not just for people,
but for nations, places, things, activities) and different ways
of showing love.
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答案:
⑴Sign⑵breaks down⑶last⑷work⑸split up⑹contests⑺break
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Tips for you to listen to
口语贴士
训练口译能力
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口译是听、说、读、写、译的综合体现和升华,口译不
仅体现了一个人的英语水平,而且体现了一个人的中
文造诣、思维、表达、反应、学术功底等多方面的功
底,需要较强的听记能力和语言表达能力。训练方法
如下:
⑴在日常生活中,尽可能心译你接触到的东西,如广告,
新闻,甚至是别人聊天的内容。积极筛选内容,把现
实中最有用的知识和技能进行优先学习和重点训练。
对实际工作和生活中出现频率较高的词汇、句型和表
达方法采取聚焦式目标训练,学会两种语言的传译能
力。
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⑵口译汉英对照(或英汉对照)的小说或其它读物.首先我
们先读汉语部分,然后逐句直接口译成英文,完成一小段
后,去看书上的对应英文部分并与我们的口译进行比较,
可以马上发现我们口译的失误和不足。开始可能较慢,
费时较多,但要坚持。在选材上,开始阶段所选资料的
内容要具体生动,有明确的情节,生词量不要太大,
可以选择小说,幽默故事或好的短文练习,使我们有足够
的兴趣坚持下去。
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⑶听译法-角色互换:三人一组,模拟翻译实战.一人将汉语,
一人将英语,扮演老外,一人作翻译.练习一段时间后互
换角色.我们还可以在听广播或看电视或开会时,把所听
内容口译英文。
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Additional reading materials
辅助阅读
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恋爱英语经典句
I am crazy about Joe.
我发狂地爱着乔。
I got a kick out of dating her.
我对和她约会着了迷。
I have my heart set on him.
我一心牵系着他。
I have fallen in love with him.
我爱上了他。
He is a heart throb.
他令人心动。
My heart beat speeds up at the sight of him.
一见到他我
就心跳加速。
We are as close as two peas in a pod.
我们如漆似胶。
They go steady.
他们的恋爱关系确定了。
I knew him a long time before I fell in love.
我爱上他之前
已认识他很久了。
Looks like he‘s kinda grown attached to me.
看起来他有
点喜欢我了。
He courted me for 3 years.
他追求了我三年。
He 's really keen on me.
他确实钟情于我。
He's deeply attached to me.
他被我深深打动。
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He makes eyes at me.
他对我暗送秋波。
He lost his heart to me.
他爱上我。
He ‘s very fond of me.
他很喜欢我。
I’ll take just a few minutes of his time.
我只要占用他几分
钟的时间。
I‘d prefer to explain that to him directly.
我想我最好直接
对他本人讲。
恋爱一族约会词汇
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1. have a crush on 迷恋某人
A: I'm having this huge crush on Ted. I'm going to try and
see if I can ask him out this weekend.
A: 我最近好喜欢 Ted 喔! 我想看看能不能约他这个周末出来。
B: Well...But I heard that he is already seeing somebody.
B: 嗯....但是我听说他已经有了交往的对象了!
美国人关于交友的用词和我们有些不同。这里的 "he is seeing
somebody" 有可能指他刚正开始和某人交往, 也可能指他和对方
已经交往了一阵子。
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还有一个美国人常用来形容他们的「感情状况」的字是
“relationship”。到目前为止, 我还不能找到一个很贴切的中文
来代替它。不过, 如果例句中的“...But I heard that he is
already seeing somebody.” 改成 “...But I heard that he is
already is a serious relationship with somebody.” 就惨了。
因为那表示这个叫Ted 的男生不但是「死会」了, 而且是「非常
地死会」。 各位应该可以大致抓到它的意思吧。
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2. play hard-to-get 欲擒故纵
A: So she stood you up last night.
A: 结果, 她昨晚放你鸽子啦?
B: Well, I guess she's trying to play hard-to-get.
B: 嗯, 大概想跟我玩「欲擒故纵」的游戏吧!
"stand someone up" 是「放某人鸽子」的意思。
"play hard-to-get" 也可以说成 "play tough-to-get"。
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3. hook up 介绍、送作堆
A: Hey, how come you‘ve never told me you have a cute
sister...
A: 嘿! 你为什么从来没告诉我你有一个这么漂亮可爱的妹妹?
B: What are you trying to say?
B: 你想说什么呢?
A: Well, you can hook me up, maybe?
A: 嗯..也许你可帮我介绍一下?
B: No way.
B: 休想!
"How come?" 是口语上经常被用来代替"why"的字, 是「为什么」
的意思。但是“how come” 跟“why”的用法是不同的。 用
“how come”时, 句子的构造很接近中文: 如: “How come you
didn‘t call me last night?” (你为什么昨晚没打电话给我呢?)。
这句话如果换成用“why”就须要用一般的问句型式, 而成 “Why
didn’t you call me last night?”了。美国人对于亲属辈份关系的
区分, 并不像我们那么清楚。这里的 “sister” 可能指「姊姊」,
也可能指「妹妹」; 须要另外问才清楚。
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"hook up" 是"connection"的意思, 相当于中文里的「介绍、
认识」之类的词, 并不单指男女之间的认识。比如某人正在找份
工作, 他的朋友刚好认识比尔盖兹(Bill Gates)。他就可以跟这位
朋友说"Hey! Since you're a friend of Bill's, why don't you
hook me up?" (嘿! 既然你是比尔的朋友, 帮我介绍一下吧!)
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4. break up 分手
A: How are Bob and Pat doing?
A: Bob 和 Pat 近来如何?
B: They broke up last summer.
B: 他们去年夏天分开了。
"break up" 是「关系中止」的意思, 不限于男女之间的关系。
"break-up" 是分手的名词形。如: "They had an ugly breakup." (他们很不愉快地分手了。)
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5. date (男女间的)约会; 约会对象
A: Dude, did you see that babe over there? I‘m dating her.
A: 老兄!看见那边那个美女没有? 我正在跟她约会喔!
B: Man, you’re lucky.
B: 你真是运气好!
“babe” 是「令人垂涎」的美女或俊男。
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和某人约会除了用 "date" , 还可以用 "romance"这个字。比如:
"Beck and Ada have been dating for years." 可以说成:"Beck
and Ada have been romancing for years.", 都是「Beck 跟
Ada 爱情长跑多年的意思」。
注意名词的" date" 和 "appointment" 不可混用? appointment"
是男女以外的约会, 如医生、工作面谈的约。万一你跟你的医生
说:"I'd like to have a date with you.", 他可能会眼睛、嘴巴都张
得很大。
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经典英语爱情诗
Here are some classical English love poems, some of
them are really touched. Love, the everlasting topic.
这里是一些经典英语爱情诗。感受这些感人的诗句吧。爱情,
这永恒的话题。
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Without you?I'd be a soul without a purpose.Without
you?I'd be an emotion without a heart.I'm a face without
expression,A heart with no beat.Without you by my side,I'm
just a flame without the heat.
没有你? 我将是一个没有目的的灵魂;没有你? 我的情感将没
有了根基;我将是一张没有表情的脸;一颗停止跳动的心;没有
你在我身边;我只是一束没有热量的火焰。
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If you were a teardrop;In my eye,For fear of losing you,I
would never cry.And if the golden sun,Should cease to
shine its light,Just one smile from you,Would make my
whole world bright.
如果你是我眼里的;一滴泪;为了不失去你;我将永不哭泣;如果金
色的阳光;停止了它耀眼的光芒;你的一个微笑;将照亮我的整个世
界。
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If I were to fall in love,It would have to be with you.Your
eyes, your smile,The way you laugh,The things you say and
do.Take me to the places,My heart never knew.So, if I were
to fall in love,It would have to be with you.
如果说我已陷入情网;我的情人就是你;你的眼睛,你的微笑;
你的笑脸;你说的一切,你做的一切;让我的心迷失了方向;所
以,如果说我已陷入情网;我的爱人就是你。
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Forgive me for needing you in my life;Forgive me for
enjoying the beauty of your body and soul;Forgive me for
wanting to be with you when I grow old.
原谅我生活中不能没有你;原谅我欣赏你躯体和心灵的美丽;原谅
我希望永生永世和你在一起。
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Unit 8
Women in Modern Times
男人怎么看待女人
The nice women are ugly.
好女人不靓
The beautiful women are not nice.
靓女人不好
The beautiful and nice women are general stupid.
又靓又好的女人一般都很愚蠢
The beautiful, nice and clever women are married.
又靓又好又不愚蠢的女人都结婚了
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The women who are not so beautiful but are nice women
are born in poverty.
不是很靓但是很好的女人都出身贫寒
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The women who are not so beautiful but are nice women
born in
noble think we are only after their lordliness.
不是很靓但是很好又出身高贵的女人会认为我们看上的是他们的
权势
The beautiful women without lordliness are after our
lordliness.
而没有权势但是很靓的女人看上的是我们的权势
The clever women, who are not so nice and somewhat
beautiful don
‘t think we are clever enough.
不是很好但是很漂亮又很聪明的女人却嫌我们不够聪明
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The women who think we are clever, that are nice,
somewhat clever
and have lordliness have a lot of pursuers.
又好又聪明又出身高贵又觉得我们聪明的女人都有很多追求者
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The women who are somewhat
beautiful, somewhat nice and
have some lordliness and thank
God are clever are ALWAYS
MAINTAIN MANY
CANDIDATES!!!!!
又好又靓又出身高贵而且又聪明的
女人总是脚踩几条船
The women who always maintain
many candidates, automatically
complain us when we stand off
them.
那些脚踩几条船的女人一旦我们疏
远她们就对我们充满怨言抱怨
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NOW… WHO IN THE HELL
UNDERSTANDS WOMEN?
现在……到底有谁了解女人这东西?
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Cultural background
文化背景
女士优先
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在国外,尤其是在西方国家的人际交往中,人们讲究女士优先,它要
求成年的男子,在社交的场合,要积极主动地以个人的举止言行,去尊
重妇女,关心妇女,照顾妇女,保护妇女,并且时时处处努力为妇女排
忧解难。能够这样做的人,会被人视为教养良好。如走路时,要让女士先
进。乘电梯让妇女先进。乘公共汽车、电车时,要让女子先上。斟酒要给
女宾或女主人先斟。丈夫通常要偕同妻子参加各种社交活动,而且总是习
惯先将妻子介绍给贵宾认识。男女一起进房间,男的要替女士开门。进
房间或进餐馆大多是女子在前,除非男的必须在女士的前头去选餐桌、
开车门或做其他效劳。在街上行走,或过马路时,男子要走在女士身旁
靠来车方向的一侧,以免发生危险时,保护妇女免受伤害。 如果一个男子
和两个女士一起走,他应当走在两者当中。如果男主人或女主人或者两
者同坐一辆车来接客人去吃饭,客人应该挤在汽车的前座,让后座空着,
因为司机就是男主人或女主人。在宴会上,主人把客人领进客厅时,如
果客人是位女士,她进客厅时,厅中的大多数男子都要站起来以示敬意。
如果女主人的女儿在,她要把客人给女儿作介绍。通常是把男士介绍给
女士,除非他年长得多或地位高得多。一般的惯例是年轻的介绍给年长
的。不管进入客厅的是男士还是女士,在客厅里就座的女士都不必起身
为礼。宴会开始,男士们为女士们拉开椅子,帮女士入座。
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Exercises
练习
1 Do you think men and women should compete with each
other on equal terms? Why(Why not)?
2 Do you think that women in China have got ample
opportunity to develop their potential? Why(Why not)?
3 What changes have taken place in Chinese women’s life
since 1949?Give Examples.
4 Why are there many more top career men than women in this
world?
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Work out an outline of your own viewpoints. The outline
should consist of major statements and supporting
evidence and examples. Do not write down every word of
your speech.Speak according to your outline, or give
spontaneous speeches when you disagree with your
partner or when you want to support similar opinions.
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Language devices:
You are expected to extend your ability to agree or
disagree with other people’s opinions and to ask
them to explain their points of view.
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I’ m with you there.
Absolutely true.
I take your point.
There’s something in
that, I suppose.
Well, possibly.
I can’t agree with you
there.
Don’t be so silly.
Oh, come on.
I’m not so certain.
What I mean is that…
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Consider:Should women be treated the same as men?
Arguments:
A Prejudice against women violates the fundamental principle
that all people are created equal.
B Women should not be treated differently from men since,
according to statistics, there is no basic difference between
the standards and quality of work performed by men and
women who do the same work.
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C This is an unfair world:most of the top positions in
society,like company directors,judges,university professors
and so on are occupied by men.
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D This is a male-dominant world. Over centuries men have
been training and educating women to consider themselves
inferior and to accept their superior position. As a result,not
only men are prejudiced against women,but some women
are also prejudiced against themselves because they
believe they are really inferior and only fit for household
chores.
E Women should no longer be treated as the inferior sex. They
should stand side by side with men and define their role in
society, in which they can choose to work outside or stay at
home and in which they will have more time to develop their
own interests.
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F It is a shame in the modern world to confine women to the
home and block their way to the full exploitation of their
capacity and potential.
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G Women should be given an equal chance of education in
order to compete with men on an equal footing.
H Men should take an equal share in housework so as to
liberate women from the kitchen.
I It is unreasonable for authorities to refuse to promote able
women to important posts just because they have children
to bring up.
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Counter-arguments
A Since we all admit that women belong to a different sex, we
shouldn’t complain about the different treatment to women.
B The fact is that most housewives are content to be
housewives. They don’t feel that housekeeping is
something imposed upon them by men.
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C Women are by nature good at housekeeping since the
biological function of a woman is first to bring children into
the world and then to bring them up. Women shouldn’t
attribute the exploitation of their biological advantage to
men’t discrimination against them.
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D The different(women use the word “unequal”) treatment to
women is, in fact, the division of labor both at home and in
society.
E If staying at home taking care of household chores is a sort
of discrimination against women, do women agree to work
outside while their husbands do the housework at home?
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F Actually women today have already got as much freedom as
they could possibly want.They enjoy the right to vote;they
can to universities;they can compete with men in any
professional field on equal terms.It is groundless and
unreasonable to raise the issue of unequal treatment of
women in social life.
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G Women are born to be attentive and tender,Their talents lie
in being mothers instead of in other directions.
H It has been proved that women are not good at business
management,political administration and so on.That is why
women don’t hold many important posts in social and
economic life.
I Most women are family-oriented by nature.Not to put them in
important positions is just to show consideration for their
natural inclination.
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J Women should not attribute their inferior social status to
unequal treatment by men.They have to look at their own
incompetence and inability for an answer.
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K The fact is that women have received too much special
treatment in society at men’s expense.Women should
realize that men are in an unfavorable position and are
discriminated against.
L Women shouldn’t complain about their so-called “double
burden”
(work and household chores) because men have always
asked them to take only one of the responsibilities, such as,
taking care of the family. It is women themselves who
choose to take up both.
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Tips for you to listen to
口语贴士
英语思维的培养(一)
用英文思维是许多英语学习者都希望达到的一种境界,因为这是用
英语流畅地表达思想的基础。训练方法有以下几种:
⑴大量根据图片来了解生词的含义,故事的情节。
⑵坚持使用英-英字典而不是英-汉字典。
⑶加强听力训练,尤其是听全英文授课。
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⑷如果没有机会拥有封闭的语言环境的话, 就最好尝试一下自我封闭
语言环境的创造与训练.如:强迫自己在一周内所有要表达的话,全
部用英语表达。
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⑸坚持大量阅读是实现这一目标最有效的途径之一。 首
先要选好难易程度适中的原文书籍:一般以每页(大
32开)不超过八个生词为宜。其次是阅读方法:要像
读中文小说那样快速浏览,不默读,不查字典,更不
通过翻译来理解原文的意思。遇见不认识的生词,要
根据上下文来推测。第三是要坚持天天都读,而且要
给自己规定每天必须完成的阅读任务。只要坚持下去,
肯定会看到成效。
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⑹坚持用英语写日记。用英语写日记无论是对提高口语
还是提高英语其他方面的能力都是一个行之有效的好
方法。
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Additional reading materials
辅助阅读
Understanding Women
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If you kiss her, you are not a gentleman 吻她吧,不够君子
If you don't, you are not a man 不吻吧,不象汉子
If you praise her, she thinks you are lying 夸她吧,说你欺骗
If you don't, you are good for nothing 不夸吧,说你笨蛋
If you agree to all her likes, she is abusing 顺她吧,说你气管炎
If you don‘t, you are not understanding 不顺吧,不善解人意
If you make romance, you are an 'experienced man' 太浪漫,疑
你老练
If you don't you are half a man 太规矩,魅力不足
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If you visit her too often, she thinks it is boring 常看她,招她厌烦
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If you don't, she accuses you of double crossing 少去点,怨你
猎艳
If you are well dressed, she says you are a playboy 穿得好,说
你花心
If you don't, you are a dull boy 邋遢些,缺个心眼
If you are jealous, she says it's bad 吃醋吧,你太狭隘
If you don't , she thinks you do not love her 大度点,说你不爱
If you attempt a romance, she says you didn't respect her 求欢
吧,不够尊重
If you don't, she thinks you do not like her 安分吧,不够爱宠
If you are a minute late, she complains it's hard to wait 你晚了,
她等得烦
If she is late, she says that‘s a girl’s way 她晚了,女孩特权
If you visit another, she accuses you of being a heel 你访友,
是你堕落
If she is visited by another, 'oh it's natural, we are girls' 她聚会,
天性其乐
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If you kiss her once in a while, she professes you are cold 少亲
她,你太冷淡
If you kiss her too many, she yells that you are taking
advantage 老亲她,便宜你占
If you fail to help her in crossing the street, you lack ethics 过
街不管,道德有缺憾
If you do, she thinks it's just one of the man's tactics 领着她走,
男人耍手段
If you stare at other, she accuses you of flirting 你看别人,是挑
逗风情
If she is stared by others, she says that they are just admiring
别人看她, 是仰慕佳绝
If you talk, she wants you to listen 你要说话,它让你听
If you listen, she wants you to talk 洗耳恭听,她逼你开言
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Oh God! you created those creature called "WOMAN' 上帝啊!为何拆
我骨头造女人?
So simple, yet so complex 简简繁繁
So weak, yet so powerful 弱弱强强
So confusing, yet so desirable 我晕头转向,我魂牵梦扰
“O LORD, tell me what to do. AMEN” 上帝啊!求你告诉我怎么办?
[精选诗歌]-Mother
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"M" is for the million things she gave me,
"O" means only that she's growing old,
"T" is for the tears she shed to save me,
"H" is for her heart of purest gold;
"E" is for her eyes, with love-light shining,
"R" means right, and right she'll always be,
Put them all together, they spell
"MOTHER,“
A word that means the world to me.
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Unit 9
Getting China to Buy
It can buy a house
But not a home
It can buy a bed
But not a sleep
It can buy a clock
But not time
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Do you know these words?
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A current account
A deposit account
To pay interest
To make a profit
High/low interest rates
Savings
Investment
Hire purchase
Budget
Borrow money
An overdraft
A credit card
A piggy bank
Currency
To owe money
A loan
To pay cash
In debt
To make a loss
I can’t afford it
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Warm-up
热身练习
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1 Make sure you understand the meanings of those words we
mentioned before.
2 Work with a partner.Assume that you are a married couple
without children.Decide how much you will have to spend
on the following items if you are to have a good standard of
living.
*Housing:e.g. 2 bedroomed flat
*Transport:e.g. 1 car
*Holidays:e.g. a fortnight abroad in summer
*Entertainment:e.g. restaurant meals,theatre
*Food and drink:e.g. caviar and champagne
*Clothes:e.g. seasonal fashions
*Household goods:e.g. dishwasher
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New words and phrases
生词和短语
Credit balance贷方余额
Consecutive连续的, 联贯的
Deposit存款, 押金, 保证金
GDP(General Domestic Product) 国内生产总值
Slump消沉, 衰退, (物价)暴跌
Count on依靠, 指望
Woo尽力得到;引诱或诱惑
Durable耐耗品可使用较长时期而不被耗尽的产品,如汽车或家用
电器
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Cultural background
文化背景
Shopping mall:
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超大型购物中心。作为现今国际上风行的商业业态,它伴随汽
车家庭化和住宅郊区化而诞生,属于一种新型的复合型商业业态。
这种购物中心在世界各国都取得了长足的发展。从发展模式上看,
欧美购物中心起源早,已进入成熟期,日本、东南亚以及我国的
香港和台湾大体上于上世纪80年代兴起,目前已进入了快速成长
期,但还是有相当大的发展空间。真正的MALL有三大特征,一
是大,占地面积大,建筑面积大,停车面积大。二是多,行业多,
店铺多,功能多。三是高,购物环境要求高,档次高,顾客群购
买力高。
Parson:
百盛百货是金狮集团于1987年创立的,在近十年的时间里发展
显著。连锁百货商店遍设马来西亚各主要城市,至今已开设了三
十四间购物中心和超级市场,以及近百余家便利店和精品专卖连
锁店,成为全马百货店兼超级市场最大、最成功的零售连锁集团。
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Exercises
练习
1 Most people have a time in their lives when they want to
buy something special and expensive,or go on the holiday
of a lifetime,or perhaps they just need to pay off an
overdraft because they have already spent too much.
When this happens most people need to save money,or at
least spend less.
Think of a time when you had to save money or reduce
your spending.Make a list of all the things you did to
achieve your aim.Share your ideas with your partner.What
do you think was the most successful solving way?Why?
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2 Imagine that you and three friends in your class have, as a
group,just won £750,000 on the football pools.You have
decided to have a meeting to help and advise each other on
how best to share out and use the money.
Make a plan of how you personally think the money should
be used.It could include:
Immediate personal needs
Ideas for investment
Donations to charity
Help for family and friends
Extravagances and luxuries
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3 “The only thing people are interested in today is earning
more money?
Argument:key words
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1 Once upon a time:young woman,young man;poor,in love
2 Parents objected to marriage:good job,good prospects first
3 Young people complied:could get married
4 Still poor:borrowed money for house,furniture,car and so on
5 Lived happily ever after paying off debts;modern romantic
fable
6 We live in materialistic society;trained to be acquisitive
7”Mine”, “yours” concepts from early childhood
8 Success measured by money
9 Keeping up with the Joneses: e.g. new TV; new car
10 Jones and neighbours spending borrowed money,paying
interest rates.
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11 Not only affluent societies want more money; consumer
goods desirable everywhere.
12 Modern industry creates new markets.
13 Materialism influences education
14 No knowledge for its own sake; purpose,more money
15 Big firms compete;recruit students:big salaries, “fringe
benefits”
16 Brain drain:services to highest bidder
17 Wealthy nations deprive poorer neighbours of talented
people
18 Rich get richer:poor,poorer
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Counter-argument:key words
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1 Interest in earning money not a modern phenomenon,but
people not interested only in that
2 Young people borrow money:a satisfactory
arrangement:independent of parents,can start lives
3 The argument proves nothing:only that living standards are
better
4 People interested in living decent lives consistent with
human dignity
5 Education is not money-orientated; it’s kill-orientated;
necessary because of modern technology
6 Technology requires professionals,not amateurs
7 Brain drain:skilled people are not always after more money
but better work facilities
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8 A marked swing away from scientific studies has been
noted:return to humanities; knowledge for its own sake
9 Many young people not motivated by money: many reject
materialistic values
10 Many voluntary organizations (e.g. Peace Corps): idealistic,
work without reward
11 A marked reluctance to work long hours for money: desire
to enjoy life
12 Social welfare in many countries makes it unnecessary for
people to struggle for money.
13 State provides: education,medical services and so on
14 High taxes: a disincentive
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Tips for you to listen to
口语贴士
英语思维的培养(二)
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培养英语思维(Think in English)不可能一蹴而就,必须从一定
的技能入手,才能达到一定的效果。因此,需要掌握六种技巧:
一是如何界定?
美国人在界定事物时习惯于先给出本质的属性,再添枝加叶使其
概念具像丰满。例如“蛋糕”用中文界定为:面粉加鸡蛋兑水调
匀,经烘烤得到的甜食;而在英文中的界定可以是:a kind of
food baked with flour,eggs and water。再如我们称飞碟做
“不明飞行物”,最后一个汉字才指出它是一个物体,而英语中
的界定a flying object,nobody knows where it comes from
正好与中文词序相反;
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二是如何解释?
能够用不同方式表达同一意思。我们用母语可以自如地交流,原因是当我
们说一件事卡壳的时候,我们总能找到另一种方式来表达。而用英文交
流时,如果对方对我们所说的不太清楚时,我们就没办法换种方式再说
了。其实,只要表达同一意思,使用哪些单词或句法没有太大关系。这
就引出一个背单词的问题。许多人只是照着单词表很机械地背单词的拼
写和中文意思,并没有把单词学活并用起来。其实记单词应该是这样的,
记一个单词,还要能同时说出一到两个它的同义词、近义词、反义词等,
这才叫记住了。举个极端的例子:假设你女友在你对她说:I love you
时不理解何为love,你光是举例诸如Mike loves Jane. Lucy loves
Jack是毫无用处的。这时你可提供多种表述,总有一种表述可以促成她
的顿悟。你可以这样来解释:love就是a kind of feeling,是它使得你
母亲每天早上摸黑起床为你和你的父亲准备早饭;是它使得你的母亲辛
苦操劳而毫无怨言,相信这样的解释会使你的女友明白何为love了;
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三是如何描述?
与中国人不同,美国人喜欢从自我出发来安排描述的顺序。最明显的例
子莫过于中英文书信地址的不同写法:前者按区域由大到小锁定某一地
点,后者则采取了截然相反的方式;
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四是如何使用成语?
美国成语是美国文化的浓缩,如果能在恰当的场合加以利用的话,就可
以在思路上接近美国人;习语是一种语言具备某一国家或地区风格的重
要因素。通俗地说,就是每个单词你都认识,但把它们组合在一起,你
就不知道是什么意思了。通过学习美式英文中的习语,可以深入了解美
国文化;而如果能在适当的场合加以运用的话,能让你的口语听起来十
分地道。因此,积累相当数量的有效的习语是非常重要的。习语可以通
过看美国电影来习得。
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五是如何猜测?
口语与书面语的不同在于前者是一次性的并且有严格的时间限制,若是
因为某个单词没听清楚就卡在那里,再往后肯定是听不下去的;这时就
需要猜测的能力,与对方交流时能够根据上下文推测对方的意思的能力。
在很短的时间内根据上下文对不解之处有一个笼统模糊的认识,需要采
取不求甚解的战术,才不至因为拘泥于一步棋而乱了全盘;在英语听、
说、读、写、译中,大家一致反映听、说最难。因为这时候的内容一现
即逝,无法慢慢推敲研究。所以猜测能力就尤为重要了。培养良好的猜
测能力,需要不断地磨练。比如,可以每天选一段带有一些生词的阅读
材料,快速浏览,迅速得出其大体的意思。
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六是怎样实现英汉之间的转义?
处理好母语与外语之间的关系,可以在两种语言的相互辅助中加深
对美语思维的认识。例如在汉语里我们说:“缺了一条腿。”英语中相
应的表达却是:with only one leg,一个强调“有”一个强调“无”,
思维习惯上的差异明显,用心体会英汉表达上的差异定会获益不浅。
养成良好的汉语、英语的双语转换习惯。常常听到这样的说法:用
英文交流时要远离汉语思维。王强认为这种说法是错误的,一个人的母
语是怎么也无法忘记的。语言都是有其共性的,比如汉语和英语的主谓
结构就是一致的,不同的是定语、状语的位置,汉语的定语都在所要修
饰的词之前,英语则将最重要的定语放在所要修饰的词前,其余的都在
该词后。
因此,学英语时不要认为自己是在学一个从未接触过的东西而产生
无力感,也不要总认为自己的英文程度没有达到能表达现有的汉语水平
的程度而不敢开口。其实,大多数英语学习者所掌握的英语词汇都足以
表达目前的生活和思想了,关键在于,不要一开始就想对应的英文怎么
说,而是降低自己的汉语水平:先拆解汉语,直到拆解成最小单位,这
样,在每个词的意思都确定以后,然后才想英语中对应的东西。事实上,
把汉语拆成最小单位的时候,英语已经在那儿等着了。比如,把“我们
不是近亲结婚”翻译成英语,看起来似乎很难。现在不管英语怎么说,
先拆解汉语。
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Patterns for reference
参考句型
用于结尾的句型:
To sum up
I will conclude by saying that
On the whole
Therefore,we have the reason to believe that
Last but not least
In a word
用于表达对比的句型:
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In contrast
…whereas…
On the other hand
On the contrary
…conversely…
By contrast
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English Learning Games
英语学习游戏
Spending money
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Procedure : Step 1: Each student writes down what he would
spend a given sum of money on, e.g. ¥100, ¥20, ¥55, ¥3,000,
¥8888.
Step 2: Students sit together in small groups and describe
what they have decided to buy with a particular amount of
money and why they would like to make this purchase.
Variations: Students are given a choice of five to eight items
for each sum,e.g. for ¥20 you could buy:
A a cinema ticket for the latest James Bond film
B a novel of Harry Potter
C a T-shirt
D a CD with a selection of pop songs
E a delicious meal
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Additional reading materials
辅助阅读
英语“钱”的表达方法
初学英语的人,常用expense来表示一切“费用”。其实expense主
要是“花费”、“开支”之意,如current expenses“日常开支”,
selling expenses“销售费用”,travelling expenses“旅费”等等。在
现实生活中,各种“费用”有各种不同的表达法:
一、admission (n.)指入场费。
如:admission by ticket only凭票入场
二、charge (n.)“原价、要价”。
常用复数,主要用于一次性劳务所收取的费用,如服务费、行李超
重费、旅馆费等等。
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如:What are the charges in the hotel?
这家旅馆收费多少?
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三、cost (n.)本义为“成本”、“原价”。
常常用来表示对已取得的货物或劳务所支付的费用。
如:The cost of seeing a movie is seven dollars.看一场
电影要花七美元。
四、fare (n.)指旅客乘公共汽车、出租车、火车、\\*\\*\\*\\*
船、飞机等所支付的费用。
如:All fares, please.
(公共汽车售票员用语)请买票。
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五、fee (n.)医生、律师或其它专门职业的佣金及会费、手续
费、停车费等。
如:My lawyer’s hourly fee is 130 dollars.
我的律师的佣金是每小时130美元。
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六、freight (n.)运费,指海运、空运、陆运的费用。
如:Who will pay the freight on this order?
谁支付这批定货的运费?
七、postage (n.)指邮费。
如:How much postage do I need to send this package?
寄这个包裹须付多少钱?
八、rent (n. )土地、建筑物、房舍、机器等定期的租费。
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如:The student owed three months’rent for my house.
那学生欠我三个月的房租。
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九、tip (n.)小费。
如:I gave my barber a fat tip.
我给理发师优厚的小费。
十、toll (n.)道路、桥梁、港口、市场的捐税、通行费及电话
费等。
如:This month I had to pay 200 yuan toll call.这个月我
要缴200元的电话费。
十一、tuition (n.)学费。
如:John took out a loan to pay his tuition.
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约翰贷款交付学费。
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Shopping
购物
Type of shops 商店种类:
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Supermarket: a large shop that sells food and household
items.
Department store: a large shop that sells many different items
in different department.
Grocery store: a shop that sells food.
Greengrocer: a shop that sells fresh fruit and vegetable.
Butcher: a shop that sells fresh meat.
Baker: a shop that sells fresh bread and cake.
Fishmonger: sells fresh fish.
Delicatessen (deli): a shop that sells specialist food not
normally found in supermarkets. For example, an Japanese
deli, an Italian deli.
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Hardware store: sells hard goods, such as nails and screws.
Drugstore: sells medicines and toiletries.
Pharmacy: sells medicines.
Stationer: sells stationery.
Optician: sells glasses or contact lenses.
Bookstore: sells books.
Newsstand: sells newspapers and magazines.
Market: a group of market traders have their own stalls that
sell fruit and vegetable, clothes, household item.
Pets shop: a shop that sells pets and pet food.
Flea market: a group of stalls selling old furniture or clothes.
Tea shop: sells tea and cakes.
Gas station: sells gasoline, car products and sometimes food.
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Asking things at shop购物时可能用到的句子:
You: "Do you have any...?" or "I am looking for..." or "I wonder
if you could help me...""Will you please help find..."
Sale person: "May I help you?" or "Is anything I can help?"
"Are you looking for anything in particular?" "Do you need
my help?"
Your reply: "I'm just looking, thank you." or "I'm just browsing,
thank you." "Oh, yes, could you please..."
Shopkeeper: "I'm sorry, it’s just out of stock." or "I am sorry,
that's the last one." or "I'm sorry, that's all we have left."
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Unit 10
Environmental Protection
世界自然基金会WWF
爱护动物基金会
中国环保
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Cultural background
文化背景
当今世界面临的十大环境问题:
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a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)
g)
h)
i)
j)
全球气候变暖
臭氧层破坏
生物多样性减少
酸雨蔓延
森林锐减
土地荒漠化
资源短缺
水环境污染严重
大气污染肆虐
固体废弃物成灾
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中国环境保护徽图案设计及使用说明
(1)中国环境保护徽是中国环境保护的标志,象征地球,说明地
球只有一个,这是我们全人类赖以生存的大环境,人们要共同保
护它。
(2)徽标上端图案基本结构与组合同联合国环境保护徽相近,说
明环境保护事业是全球性的,它为全世界所关注。在当今时代,
日益恶化的环境告诫人们:环境保护事业与全人类生存休戚相关。
(3)上端图案绿色橄榄枝,既代表和平、安宁,又代表一切植物
和生态环境,象征绿色在召唤,人们应当知道:绿色的消失,就
会使生态失去平衡,就是对人类生存的严重威胁。
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(4)图形的蓝色块,代表蓝天与碧水,泛指大气与水体,太阳代
表宇宙空间,山与水借用中国象形文字并使之图案化,从形象上
增强中国特色。说明我们环境保护工作者的任务,就是要通过对
污染的监督与治理,使天长蓝、水长清、山长绿,让人们永远生
活在美好环境中。图案基本色调采用明快,洁白的颜色,代表洁
净,无污染的大气。
(5)下端ZHB为Zhong Guo Huan Bao(中国环保)的缩写,标明
这是环境保护徽。
(6)中国环境保护徽可在中央及地方各级环境保护机构的建筑物
上悬挂;可在各级环境监测站、各级环境科研单位及有关环境保
护单位使用;可在各类环境保护会议上悬挂;可在各种环境保护
报刊的报头、杂志的封面上使用,亦可喷涂于环境监测车、船及
飞机上。
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Tips for you to listen to
口语贴士
灌输文化背景知识
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语言是文化的一部分,同时又是文化的载体,语言与文化密
不可分。文化不仅影响言语的得体性,还会影响言语的准确性。
由舒曼提出的文化适应假说从文化与语言的关系出发,把第二语
言习得的过程看作是文化适应的一部分,认为第二语言学习者对
目的语文化的适应程度决定该目的语掌握的程度。完全正确地理
解和使用一门语言必须具有相应的目标语文化认知系统。因此要
提高英语口语,增强交际能力,就要熟悉英语的主流文化,要比
较和深刻理解西方文化和本民族文化的异同。
首先可以从称呼、打招呼、告别、谦虚、道歉、道歉、表扬、
表示关心、谈话题材和价值观念等方面进行比较。如果不了解文
化差异就会造成语言选择上的失误,就会出现把中文礼貌用语套
用到英文中的现象,出现中文式英语。
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试比较一下中西方人寒喧问候用语:中国人见面喜欢问姓名、
籍贯、年龄,甚至工资多少,还有“哪里去”或者“吃过饭没有”
等,这对于西方人则是很不习惯的。在西方工业国家,人们大部
分住在城市,彼此不相识,甚至在乡村,邻居之间也隔膜得很,
再加上英美等国家强调个人价值(Individualism)至高无上,所以
寒喧时不喜欢被问及年龄及婚姻状况,更不喜欢别人问及收入情
况 。 问 候 方 式 常 常 是 中 性 、 抽 象 的 打 招 呼 (Good
morning/afternoon/day,或者是谈论有关天气或一些热门赛事
之类。因此要多阅读有关西方文化的书籍材料,熟悉西方人在文
化取向,价值观念,思维方式,社会规范等方面的内容。
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一次在一堂电脑课上,铃响后,系里的女秘书突然跑到教室
来宣布:“Dr. Walker has a touch of the Hong Kong dog and will
be here a little bit late.”
听完宣布后,我一脸正经的向坐在隔壁的美国朋友抱怨说:
“Dr. Walker 怎么可以抚弄他的爱犬以至于来不及上课呢?”
老美听完后居然大笑着说:“真是太好笑了!The Hong
Kong dog 并非指一种狗,而是指某人吃坏了肚子、拉肚子的意
思。”这一解释让我尴尬得无地自容。
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Patterns for reference
参考句型
用于话题开头的句型:
As we know
First of all
To begin with
In the first place
Generally speaking
用于表达举例的句型:
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Abundant new examples may be added
…no better illustration of the idea than the example …
Take…for example
There is …about …
Here is one more example
For instance
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…for example, …
The film gives us a vivid description of
The story presents us a picture of
The film tells us a story about
The film gives an account of
…unfolds before us a scene of…
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English Learning Games
英语学习游戏
Taboo word description
Aim: to practice speaking
Procedure: One student thinks of a certain word in his mind
and describes it without mentioning any words related to it.
For example, with the word "book," you cannot mention the
words: book, letter and paper. Another student acts as
judge. Other students listen. If the student mentions those
taboo words, he will lose. The winner is the student who
can talk the longest time without using taboo words.
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Problem Solution
Aim: to encourage students to think logically
Procedure: One person describes a problem and asks a group
of students to indicate how to solve it. Example: You are in
an elevator. It stops between floors & you cannot get the
door open. - Discuss what to do. What happens?
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Exercises
练习
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1 China has listed environmental protection as one of its top
priorities.What are the policies of the Chinese government
in implementing this priority?
2 What has China done to improve its ecological environment
over the past 50 years?
3 How many levels have been formed in China’s environment
over the past 50 years?
4 Elaborate on China’s cooperation with the international
community in the field of environmental protection.
5 What are China’s environmental protection objectives for
the year 2010?What does China plan to do in the next 50
years to reverse the trend of ecological deterioration?
6 Can you name the major environmental problems facing the
world in the new century?What,in your opinion,should be
done to bring them under control?
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Additional reading materials
辅助阅读
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环境意识 Environmental awareness
大气组成Atmospheric composition
温室气体Greenhouse gases
氧气Oxygen
臭氧层Ozone layer
空气污染Air pollution
酸雨Acid rain
空气污染物Air pollutants
气候变化Climatic change
全球变暖Global warming
温室效应Greenhouse effect
淡水保护Conservation of freshwater
水资源保护Water resources conservation
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可再生资源Renewable resources
不可再生能源Non-renewable energy resources
生态发展Ecodevelopment
环境质量指标Environmental quality indicators
环境激励措施Environmental incentives
污染责任Pollution liabilities
电池处理Battery disposal
废物转化技术Waste conversion techniques
污染物的危害Hazards of pollutants
环境事故Environmental accidents
环境健康影响评价Environmental health impact assessment
贸易对环境的影响Trade impact on environment
能源保护Energy conservation
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[精品文摘]-拥抱生态旅游
关
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键
词
ecotourism n. 生态旅行
We should protect our natural environment and support
ecotourism.
我们应该保护自然环境,支持生态旅游。
pristine adj. 原始的
The forests on the Alps are still in pristine region, unspoiled by
industrialization.
阿尔卑斯山的森林仍是原始林区,未遭工业破坏。
span v. 横跨,跨越
The government spent two years building a red bridge spanning
the gorge.
政府花了两年的时间建造一座横跨那座峡谷的红桥。
elevation n. 海拔
The lake on the mountain at an elevation of about 350 meters is
our first stop.
山里那座海拔三百五十公尺左右的湖泊是我们的第一站。
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leach v. 过滤
Nitrogen is easily leached from soil because it is more
easily dissolved.
氮因为较容易溶解,所以很容易就可以从土壤中过滤出来。
toxic adj. 有毒的
People in Nazi concentration camps were slaughtered
using toxic gas.
纳粹集中营里的人们惨遭毒气杀害。
prominent adj. 著名的,重要的
Lili played a prominent part in the case.
莉莉在这件案子里扮演举足轻重的角色。
magnate n.(实业界)巨头,巨子
The press magnate decided on a merger with another
company to expand his empire.
那位报巨子决定与另一家公司合并,以扩展他的企业王国。
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Aremote Patagonian town that’s just beginning to prosper by
guiding tourists through the virgin forests nearby is being shaken
by the realization that it’s sitting on a gold mine. Literally. More
than 3,000 worried Esquel residents recently took to the streets in
protests aimed at assuring that their neat community of 28,000
beco mes an ecotourism center, not a gold-rush town.
Esquel’s plight is winning attention from international
conservation and environmental groups such as Greenpeace. In
Argentina, the town has become a national symbol in the debate
over exploitation vs. preservation of the country’s vast natural
resources.
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About 3.2 million acres already are under contract for mineral
exploration in poor and sparsely settled Chubut Province, where
Esquel is, near the southern tip of South America. Whether
Meridian Gold Corp. gets its open-pit gold mine outside Esquel
could determine the fate of mining in Patagonia, a pristine region
spanning southern Argentina and Chile.
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Meridian’s project, about 5 miles outside Esquel at a higher
elevation, is about 20 miles from a national park that preserves
rate trees known as alerces, a southern relative of California’s
giant sequoia. Some of them have been growing serenely in the
temperate rain forest for more than 3,000 years.
The greatest fear is that cyanide, which is used to leach gold from
ore, will drain downhill and poison Esquel’s and possibly the
park’s water supplies. The mine will use 180 tons of the deadly
chemical each month. Although many townspeople and some
geologists disagree, the company says any excess cyanide would
drain away from Esquel.
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“We won’t allow them to tear things up and leave us with the toxic
aftermath,” said Felix Aguilar, 28, as he piloted a boatload of
tourists through a lake in the Alerces National Park. “We take care
of things here, so that the entire world can hear and see nature in
its pure state. The world must help us prevent this.”
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American Douglas Tomkins, the founder of the Esprit clothing line
and a prominent global conservationist, has bought more than
800,000 wilderness acres in Chile to preserve alerces and protect
what’s left of the temperate rain forest. Ted Turner, the
communications magnate, also has bought land in Argentine
Patagonia with an eye to conservation.
A young English botanist named Charles Darwin, the author of
the theory of evolution, was the first European to see alerces, with
trunks that had a circumference of 130 feet. He gave the tree its
generic name, Fitzroya cupressoides, for the captain of his ship,
Robert Fitzroy.
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Argentina, pressed by the United States, Canada, the World Bank
and other global lenders, rewrote its mining laws in the 1990s to
encourage foreign investment. Mining companies received
incentives such as 30 years without new taxes and duty-free
imports of earth-moving equipment.
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Argentina took in more than $1 billion over the past
decade by granting exploration contracts for precious
metals to more than 70 foreign and domestic companies. If
the country were to turn away a major investor, the
message to its mining sector would be chilling.
Residents also complain that Argentina hasn’t given
nature-based tourism a chance. “If the government
invested in us a tenth of the effort they put into mining,
things would be a lot different here,” grumbled Randal
Williams, 73, who rents tourist cabins in Esquel.
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Forest ecologist Paul Alaback, a University of Montana
professor who studies the alerces, said Argentine
authorities could gain from Alaska’s successful naturebased tourism. “Nature-based tourism would mean less
jobs immediately but would be sustainable. You’d be
building on something that is going to grow, not going to
go away,” he said.
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拥抱生态旅游!
巴塔哥尼亚一处偏远的小镇因为发展附近一处原始林的观光业
正渐趋繁荣,在这个节骨眼,却如晴天霹雳般得知,当地原来蕴
含金矿。没错。三千多位忧心如焚的艾斯圭尔居民最近走上街头
抗议,要求将这处拥有两万八千居民的净地作为生态旅游中心,
不要沦为淘金城。
艾斯圭尔的窘境正获得“绿色和平”等国际保育及环保团体的
高度关切。在争论阿根廷丰富的自然资源究竟该开发或保育的议
题上,该镇俨然成为全国的象征。
艾斯圭尔位于接近南美洲大陆极南点、贫穷而人烟稀少的丘布
省内,矿物探勘合约涵盖了该省近三百二十万亩的土地。巴塔哥
尼亚高原是横跨阿根廷与智利两国南部的化外之地,而该地采矿
业的命运,将取决于MDG公司能否取得艾斯圭尔外围露天金矿的
开采权。
MDG公司计划开采的地点约在艾斯圭尔五里外海拔高一点的地
方,跟一座国家公园约二十里,这座国家公园保育着稀有的落叶
柏科树木,一种美国加州红木的南方品种。有些柏树已在这片温
带雨林安然度过三千多年了。
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最严重的威胁是,在矿砂滤取黄金的过程中使用的氰化物将会向
下排放,污染艾斯圭尔、甚至国家公园的水源。开矿过程每个月
会使用一百八十吨的这种致命化学物质。尽管许多镇民和部分地
质学家不同意,该公司表示,所有过量的氰化物将全数排出艾斯
尔圭。
二十八岁的菲力克司亚奇拉在带领一船旅客浏览落叶林国家公
园一座湖泊时说:“我们不会允许他们把事情搞砸,把毒害留给
我们。有我们悉心呵护这里的一切,全世界才得以欣赏饱览此地
纯朴的自然之美。世界应该和我们一起守护这里。”
美国服饰品牌Esprit的创始人,也是国际知名自然保育人士的杜
格拉斯,汤姆金斯,为保育落叶林及温带雨林内仅存的生物,买
下智利八十多万亩的土地。媒体巨子泰德·透纳着眼于环境保育,
也买下阿根廷巴塔哥尼亚土地。
进化论的发表人—年轻的英国植物学家查尔斯·达尔文,是第一
位见识落叶柏树干圆周长达一百三十尺的欧洲人。他似他船长的
名字罗伯费兹·洛伊,为这种树取了学名“费兹洛柏”(即:智利
柏)。
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受到美国、加拿大、世界银行及全球其他债权者频频施压的阿根
廷,为了促进外商投资,在九○年代修订了矿业法令。给予矿采
业的奖励措施包括三十年免征新税与免税进口矿业开采设备等等。
阿根廷过去十年内与国内外七十多家业者签订贵重矿物开采合
约,获得十亿美元以上的利润。如果拒绝主要投资客户,阿根廷
的采矿业将面临萧条的景况。
当地居民也抱怨阿根廷政府不肯给自然观光业机会。在艾斯圭
尔经营观光小屋出租,现年七十三岁的蓝道·威廉斯抱怨:“当初
如果政府肯花他们投资采矿业资金的十分之一在我们身上的话,
事情就会改观了。”
蒙大拿大学教授,也是研究落叶植物的森林生态学者保罗,雅
勒贝克表示,阿根廷当局可以仿效阿拉斯加自然旅游业的成功之
道。“在当下,发展自然旅游业的确意味着工作机会立即减少,
但它却能永续经营。你应该要去建设会茁壮成长的东西,而非日
渐消逝的事物。”
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Unit 11
Foreign Trade
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New words and phrases
生词和短语
International trade国际贸易
Direct trade直接贸易
Carrying trade转口贸易
Bilateral trade双边贸易
Multilateral trade多边贸易
Barter trade易货贸易
Counter trade对销贸易
Compensation trade补偿贸易
Technology trade/transfer技术贸易/转让
Project contracting工程承包
Turn key project交钥匙工程
Processing on imported materials来料加工
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Processing according to the designs and samples provided by the
importer来样定制
Samples provided by the importer assembling of the imported
components来件组装
Import-led export“以进带出”
Wholly foreign invested enterprise外商独资企业
Joint venture合资经营(企业)
Cooperating production合作生产(企业)
Industrial property工业产权
Ownership of trade marks商标权
International balance of payment国际收支
State monopoly国家垄断
Most-Favored Nations Treatment(MFNT)最惠国待遇
World Intellectual Property Organization(WIPO)世界知识产权组织
World Trade Organization(WTO)
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Language points
重点难点分析
Trade一词的搭配法:
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例:foreign trade has developed rapidly
the rapid increase in foreign trade
Trade还可以和以下动词连用:
Build up a (world) trade (in …years)
Carry on/conduct one’s trade
Do a brisk trade in
Have a flourishing trade garments
Open (up) trade with Japan
Open up the European trade
Push/extend one’s trade into
Stimulate/encourage/promote trade
ruin one’s trade
Trade has expanded/grown/languished/revived
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Cultural background
文化背景
不可不知的国际贸易术语
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国际贸易的价格表示方法,除了具体金额外,还要包括贸易术语,
交货地点及所使用的货币。 如 USD150 FOB Hongkong, STG2000
CIF Liverpool, 其中USD指的是以美金作价,而STG为英镑;香港 和利
物浦为交货地点;FOB 与 CIF 则为 两个较为常用的贸易术语。
以下是国际商会出版的《2000年国际贸易术语解释通则》中规定的
全部贸易术语的分类。
第一组:E组 (卖方在其所在地点把货物交给买方)
Ex Works (named place) 工厂交货(指定地点)
第二组:F组 (卖方须将货物交至买方指定的承运人)
FCA: Free Carrier (named place) 货交承运人(指定地点)
FAS: Free Alongside Ship (named port of shipment)
船边交货(指定装运港)
FOB: Free On Board (named port of shipment)
船上交货(指定装运港)
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第三组:C组 (卖方必须签定运输合同,但对货物灭失或损
坏的风险以及装船和启运后发生事件所产生的额外费用不承担责
任)
CFR: Cost & Freight (named port of destination)
成本加运费(指定目的港)
CIF: Cost, Insurance and Freight (named port of
destination)
成本,保险加运费(指定目的港)
CPT: Carriage Paid To (named place of destination)
运费付至(指定目的地)
CIP: Carriage and Insurance Paid To
(named place of destination)
运费保险费付至(指定目的地)
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第四组:D组 (卖方必须承担把货物交至目的地国家所需的
全部费用和风险)
DAF: Delivered at Frontier (named place) 边境交货(指定地
点)
DES: Delivered ex Ship (named port of destination)
船上交货(指定目的港)
DEQ: Delivered ex Quay (named place of destination)
码头交货(指定目的地)
DDU: Delivered Duty Unpaid (named place of destination)
未完税交货(指定目的地)
DDP: Delivered Duty Paid (named place of destination)
完税后交货(指定目的地)
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Additional Exercises
附加练习
1 Put a word or phrase from the box into each space.
Boom upturn grown higher pick up recession rapid
expanding
We have just started to come out of a long___.The
economy started to___just a few months ago. Since then it
has___steadily. Next year, the forecast is for the___to
continue with growth becoming more___.However, the
government will try to stop the economy from___too fast as
this would mean a consumer___which would lead to
___inflation.
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2 Topics for Discussion:
A What do you know about China’s development strategy for
its modernization?
B Why do you think China remained almost unaffected in the
Asian financial crisis?
C Comment on the decision of the Chinese government to
implement the strategy of developing the western regions.
D Why do you think so many foreign businesses have chosen
China for their investment?
E How much do you know about APEC? Comment on the role
of APEC in China’s bid to open up to the outside world.
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答案:
1 recession 2 pick up 3 grown 4 upturn 5 rapid 6 expanding 7
boom 8 higher
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Tips for you to listen to
口语贴士
常见语言漏洞
1必须养成习惯的一句话——Excuse me
课本上Excuse me 是每当问路或叫别人让路时用的话。殊不知
Excuse me是英语国家里极为重要的礼貌用语。在公共场所打喷
嚏﹑咳嗽﹑打哈欠﹑打嗝,甚至放屁都要对人说Excuse me。如
果你打了个超响的喷嚏后,吸吸鼻子,什么话都不说,会给别人
留下不好的印象。另外,别人打喷嚏怎么办?你应该说Bless
you(保佑你)!
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2必须慎用的一句话——Of course
Of course的字面意思是“当然”,但是它的潜台词是“明知
故问”。如果有人向你问问题,最好不要用Of course来回答,
否则别人会认为你很不礼貌。例如:别人向你问路,问你是不是
向左走,你说Of course。然后别人又问,是不是到第一个拐角
转弯,你又回答Of course,别人就会很生气。因为你老是在说
“明知故问“这个词。那么,什么时候应该用Of course呢?当
别人请求你帮忙时,或是你在向别人介绍情况,对于有逻辑关系
的结果进行描述时,你都可以用Of course。
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3应当少用的一句话——Do you understand?或者Understand?
这句话的潜台词是“你的理解能力跟不上我的解释水平”,有
一点责备的意思。一般很少用。其实有很多方法来问对方是否理
解你所说的内容。比如说:Did I make sense?意思是“我解释
得清楚吗?”这样一来,即使对方不清楚,听上去你也是把过错
推给了自己。是你的解释能力有问题,而不是对方的理解能力不
好。这样就会比较礼貌。其他类似的表达很多:Do you follow
me?潜台词是,“我是不是解释得太快了”,或者“我的跳跃
性太大了”。如果真的遇到理解能力超烂的人,你也可以婉转地
问:Are you on the same page(with me)?你和我看的是同
一页内容吗?或者Do you read me?你了解我的意思了吗?
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4应该准确运用的一句话——I know
遇到你不懂的问题时可别不懂装懂,“I know”可能是中国人
用得最多,而美国人最不能接受的一句话。。当一美国教师向你
解释某个问题时,你如果连说两遍“I know”,我敢保证,他不会
再跟你说什么了。用 “I got it ”就顺耳得多,要是不懂就说
“I’m not clear about it .” 不过如果你会说“It’s past my
understanding”或“It’s beyond me .”你的教师定会惊讶不已
的。I know的潜台词是:我早就知道了。记得KITKAT广告里的
女主角吗?别人打电话过来,她一个劲地说I know, I know,表现
出非常无聊的样子。因为电话那头的人所说的东西她早就知道了。
在和同学做Group meeting(小组活动)的时候,你一定要注意
别说错话。如果别人为一个问题讨论了半天,最后终于得出结论
的时候,你冒出一句“I know”,别人会火冒三丈的。认为你早
就知道干吗不说?在这种情况下,要表示会意,你应当说:I see。
这句话的潜台词是:哦,这下我终于知道了。表示我知道,我明
白的用语还有很多。比如:I understand。特别是当别人处于困
境时,你可以说:I really appreciate your situation——我明白
你的困境
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Patterns for reference
参考句型
用于表达原因的句型:
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Because
What is interesting…is that…
One of the most enjoyable things
There are numerous reasons why…
A second reason for me to prefer
For one thing…and for another…
Because of
As…
Since…
…because…
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I find…a lot of fun
It’s really relaxing/entertaining to
It’s a lot of fun
I was greatly impressed by
…remind…of…
…bring…back…
用于表达观点的句型:
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As I see it…我认为…
If I’m not mistaken…如果我没有弄错的话…
I really do not think…我决不认为…
Although…for one thing…for another…尽管…
Compared with…与…相比…
On the whole…总的来说…
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English Learning Games
英语学习游戏
Buzz
Aim: to practice numbers
Procedure: Students sit in a circle and count in turn 1, 2, 3, 4
but are not allowed to say any number that contains a 5 o r
a multiple of 5. Instead, they must say "Buzz." If they make
a mistake or hesitate too long, they are eliminated. After
elimination, the following student starts again at 1. This is
the easy version; it is more fun using multiples of three and
making the students change direction every so often.
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Adverts
Aim: to develop fluency in using descriptive language
Preparation: collect newspapers and magazines (ideally in
English)
Procedure:
1. Put the learners in groups.
2. The group discusses the following questions written on the
board: a. What product/service is each advert trying to sell?
b. How does it try to do this (colors, images, etc) c. Who is
the audience for the advert? d. Would you buy this product?
3. Each group does a mini-presentation explaining one of their
adverts.
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Additional reading materials
辅助阅读
外经贸类词汇
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摆脱亚洲金融危机的影响shake off the impact of the financial crisis
帮助人才脱颖而出help excellent talents find way to distinction
备件spare parts
部长级会议ministerial meeting
采取积极财政政策 proactive fiscal policy
出口创汇型/外向型产业 export-oriented industry
垂直兼并vertical merger
倒爷profiteer
抵免offset
东盟自由贸易区 AFTA:ASEAN Free Trade Area
东南亚国家联盟 ASEAN:Association of South-East Asian Nations
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对外项目承包foreign project contracting
反倾销措施anti-dumping measures against ……
防伪标志anti-fake label
放松银根ease monetary policy
非配额产品quota-free products
非生产性投资investment in non-productive projects
风险管理/评估risk management/ assessment
风险基金venture capital
风险准备金loan loss provision/ provisions of risk
岗位培训on-the-job training
港元的联系汇率制the linkage system between the US dollar and the
HK dollar
搞活国有大中型企业revitalize large and medium-sized state owned
enterprises
工程项目engineering project
工业增加值industrial added value
公正合理equitable and rational
固定资产投资investment in the fixed assets
广开就业门路increase employment opportunities; create jobs in every
possible way; open up more channels of employment
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常见缩略:
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C&F(cost&freight)成本加运费价
T/T(telegraphic transfer)电汇
D/P(document against payment)付款交单
D/A (document against acceptance)承兑交单
C.O (certificate of origin)一般原产地证
G.S.P.(generalized system of preferences)普惠制
CTN/CTNS(carton/cartons)纸箱
PCE/PCS(piece/pieces)只、个、支等
DL/DLS(dollar/dollars)美元
DOZ/DZ(dozen)一打
PKG(package)一包,一捆,一扎,一件等
WT(weight)重量
G.W.(gross weight)毛重
N.W.(net weight)净重
(customs declaration)报关单
EA(each)每个,各
W (with)具有
w/o(without)没有
FAC(facsimile)传真
IMP(import)进口
EXP(export)出口
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MAX (maximum)最大的、最大限度的
MIN (minimum)最小的,最低限度
M 或MED (medium)中等,中级的
M/V(merchant vessel)商船
S.S(steamship)船运
MT或M/T(metric ton)公吨
DOC (document)文件、单据
INT(international)国际的
P/L (packing list)装箱单、明细表
INV (invoice)发票
PCT (percent)百分比
REF (reference)参考、查价
EMS (express mail special)特快传递
STL.(style)式样、款式、类型
T或LTX或TX(telex)电传
RMB(renminbi)人民币
S/M (shipping marks)装船标记
PR或PRC(price) 价格
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PUR (purchase)购买、购货
S/C(sales contract)销售确认书
L/C (letter of credit)信用证
B/L (bill of lading)提单
FOB (free on board)离岸价
CIF (cost,insurance&freight)成本、保险加运费价
GMO (genetically modified organism)转基因组织
CAGA (compound annual growth average)年复合增长率
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Unit 12
Reform and Opening-up
New words and phrases 生词和短语
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Bank account银行(往来)帐户
Current/demand deposit活期、定期存款
Current/deposit account活期、定期帐户
Open/close an account 开立、取消帐户
Postal savings邮政储蓄
Check book支票本
Bank (pass-) book/savings存折
account book
Credit card信用卡
National bond公债(国家债券)
Treasury bond国库券
Mortgage按揭(抵押贷款)
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Language points
重点难点分析
reform一词的搭配法:
例:have carried out a reform in economic structure
This reform was first applied in the rural areas
The introduction of price reform
Reform has gradually paid off
While intensifying the rural reforms
To undergo reform
Reform还可以和以下动词连用:
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accomplish/effect/initiate/make/start reforms
bring about reforms
carry a reform into effect
advocate/propose/urge reforms
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“深化改革”在我国出版的英语报刊上常译成deepen reform.
一般说deepen做及物动词时常与knowledge, understanding一
类词连用。“深化改革”中的“深化”就是“进一步”的意思,
可译成:
intensify the rural reform
further carry out reforms
as the reform further develops/is carried forward/is pushed
forward
“改革开放”的表达法
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“改革开放”可译成the policy of reform and opening up 或
the reform and the open policy。切不可与the open-door
policy(“门户开放”政策)混淆。“进一步开放”或“门要开
得更大”可译成reform and opening up went one step further;
further reform and opening up。
“加快改革开放的步伐”可译成accelerate the pace of
reform and opening up。
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Cultural background
文化背景
改革开放,中国20世纪后期提出国策之一,是近
几百年来中国第一个对外开放的国策,彻底改变了闭
关锁国的国策,改变了国内百姓的生活,调整了国际
上的形象,促进中国高速发展。
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Tips for you to listen to
口语贴士
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地道英语这样说
要想使自已的英语口语多姿多彩,魅力无穷,并能很快吸引对
方,仅仅流利快速是不够的。许多英语专业毕业生在同外国人交
流过程中,经常出现尴尬的场面,两个人都无法准确理解对方。
中国学生语速倒是很快,但由于用词的不准确,表达方式的不贴
切以及过分追求难词造成的歧义都会使双方感到交流的不畅快,
所以,外国人评价中国学生的口语是“Too strange to be
true !”(太奇怪,不真实)或“Too beautiful to be natural !”(用
词华丽但不自然)使言谈增色,就需要你灵活运用外国人经常使
用的习惯说话,包括习语,不过时 的俚语及大量的富有特色的语
句。不要害怕模仿,只要运用得当,你尽可以引经据典,洋洋洒
洒。
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(一)当别人在你旁边罗嗦个没完,你烦透了,说“You are so
boring “.(你真烦!)。“Shut up !”(闭嘴!)自然没错,可人
家受得了吗?不如来一句“Oh, come on .Give me a break !”
(帮帮忙,让我歇歇吧!)这多地道、多幽默。
(二)要想说人“气色好”。“You look fine !”当然不错,可
如果你说”You’re in the pink !”就妙得多了,实际上,在英语
口语中,表示颜色的词用起来非常形象生动。
(三)“他精力充沛”美国人说:“He is bouncy.”而不说
“He is energetic ”,牢记一些日常对话中的活句式是你一把必备
的钥匙。
如:久仰,“I get mind of you “.比”I heard a lot about you.”
轻松得多。
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(四)代问他人好当然能用”Please remember me to your
sister .” 或”Please give my best wishes to your father ”不
过,若是很好的朋友,何不说,“Please give my love to
Jim。”
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(五)在中国可不能随便说“我想你”,然而,当和西方人分手
时说“I will miss you .”要比说“Good-bye”或“See you
soon”有趣得多,不妨一试。
(六)有人开会迟到了,你若对他说 “You are late .”,听起来
象是废话,若说“Did you get lost ?”,则更能让他歉然,可别
说成“Get lost!”那可是让人滚蛋的意思。
(七)别人征求你的意见,问能否开窗户等,你要说“You can
do that .”就有点土了,用一句“Do you have the time? ”实际
上,问他人的姓名,地址都可以这么用:“May I have your
name?“要比”What’s your name ? ”礼貌得多,不过警察例外。
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(八)别人问你不愿公开的问题,切勿用“It’s my secret ,Don’t
ask such a personal question .”回答,一来显得你没有个性,
二来也让对方尴尬。你可以说“I would rather not say .”(还是
别说了吧!)。
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(九)有时候,你想说什么,可是想不起来,你可以说
“Well …”“Let me see” “Just a moment ”或“It’s on the tip
of my tongue.”等,相比之下,最后一个句型是最地道的。
(十)交谈时,你可能会转换话题,不要只说“By the way ”,实
际 上 , “ To change the subject” , “ Before I forget” ,
“While I remember”,“Mind you ”都是既地道有受欢迎的表
达。
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English Learning Games
英语学习游戏
Repeat and Add
Aim: to practice speaking
Procedure: First, one student says a sentence of an
improvisational(即兴) story. The next student repeats the
sentence and adds another one. The 3rd student repeats
the sentences and adds one more sentence. This continues
until a student fails to repeat all the sentences correctly.
Typically, this will make a funny story. The student who can
repeat the story fully will win.
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Add A Word
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Level: upper beginner to intermediate
Materials: Writing surface or blank word cards
Aim: to practice sentence building
Procedure: The teacher writes a short, simple sentence on the
board. One by one, the students give the teacher one word
and indicate where it fits into the sentence. It is then added
and the next student takes a turn.
Variation: Students may be allowed to add two or three words.
Students may be allowed to replace a word with two words.
The board can become crowded. To avoid this, words can
be written on cards and the sentence constructed from the
word cards.
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Additional reading materials
辅助阅读
改革开放部分词汇
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保证重点支出 Ensure funding for priority areas
被兼并或挤掉 annexed or forced out of business
补发拖欠的养老金 Clear up pension payments in arrears
不良贷款 Non—performing loan
层层转包和违法分保 Multi-level contracting and illegal
subcontracting
产值 output value
城乡信用社 Credit Cooperative in both urban and rural areas
城镇居民最低生活保障 A minimum standard of living for city
residents
城镇职工医疗保险制度 The system of medical insurance for urban
workers
抽样调查 data from the sample survey
出口信贷 Export credit
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初步建立社会主义计划商品经济新体制。 to establish at a preliminary
level a new system of socialist planned commodity economy.
贷款质量 Loan quality
贷款质量五级分类办法 The five-category assets classification for bank
loans
第一产业 primary industry
第二产业 secondary industry
第三产业 tertiary industry
独资企业 wholly foreign owned/funded enterprise
发电量 electric energy production
发挥市场的调节作用 to give play to the regulatory role of the
market
发展过快 excessive growth
防范和化解金融风险 Take precautions against and reduce financial
risks
防洪工程 Flood-prevention project
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非法外汇交易 Illegal foreign exchange transaction
非公有成分 non-public sectors
非贸易收汇 Foreign exchange earnings through non trade channels
非银行金融机构 Non-bank financial institutions
费改税 Transform administrative fees into taxes
分配形式 forms of distribution
风险资金 risk funds
副业 sideline production
改革是"社会主义制度的自我完善和自我发展"。 Reform is "the selfperfection and self-development of the socialist system."
改革重点转移到城市 the focus of reform is shifted to the cities
改善经济环境 improve economic environment
搞活企业 invigorate/ revitalize/ rejuvenate enterprises
各尽所能,按劳/需分配。 from each according to his ability, to each
according to his work/needs.
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Unit 13
Special Economic Zones
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Cultural background
文化背景
经济特区
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指国家设立的特定的经济区域。中国大陆的实行改
革开放之初,在缺少对外经济交往经验、国内法律体
系不健全的形势下,设立经济特区为国内的进一步改
革和开放、扩大对外经济交流起到了极为重要的作用。
设立经济特区是改革开放之初邓小平的改革开放思想
的重要内容之一,经济特区作为对外交流的窗口,在
一定时期内通过中央政府给予的政策优势和区位优势
二者合力,经济以超出一般地区很多的速度成长,其
人均经济实力接近或超过中等发达国家(地区)的水
平。
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1979年7月,中共中央、国务院同意在广东省的深圳、珠海、
汕头三市和福建省的厦门市试办出口特区。1980年5月,中共中
央和国务院决定将深圳、珠海、汕头和厦门这四个出口特区改称
为经济特区。当年8月,第五届全国人民代表大会常务委员会第
十五次会议批准《广东省经济特区条例》,这些经济特区相继兴
建。1984年邓小平考察了深圳、珠海、厦门三个经济特区。
经济特区实行特殊的经济政策和经济管理体制,建设上以吸
收利用外资为主,经济所有制实行以社会主义公有制为主导的多
元化结构;经济活动在国家宏观经济指导调控下,以市场调节为
主;对外商投资予以优惠和方便;特区拥有较大的经济管理权限。
1985年以前,四个经济特区主要进行以创建投资环境为重点的基
础设施建设,从1986年起,致力于发展以工业为主、工贸结合、
农牧渔和旅游业并举的外向型经济。1988年4月,第七届全国人
民代表大会第一次会议通过决议,批准海南岛为海南经济特区,
实行更加灵活开放的经济政策。
中国大陆现有的五个经济特区:
• 深圳,珠海,厦门,汕头和海南
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area地带,地区解析:【同】district,zone,
region【辨析】
area表示面积,地区(面积较大,但不指行政单位)如the
area of your hand;
region指在地理上有天然界限或有自己特色的一个单位,或
自治区等行政单位,也可指领域(同sphere,realm);
district性质较region相近,但一般比region小,如县级区
用district;
zone是个环绕区域,有严格的边界,如经济特区
a recreation area重新改建的地区
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tropical regions of South America南美的热带地区
a residential zone居住区
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Tips for you to listen to
口语贴士
中国学生的典型语言错误
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一、人称的混用
由于中文口语中“他、她”的发音毫无区别,导致中国学生在
讲到一位女性的时候,有用“He”的习惯,或是He和She的混用。
就看图说话一题,明明是一个男士在购物,就有很大一部分人用
She。因为人称的准确运用是一个最基本的技能,因此中国学生
人称混用的问题,在美国人看来是一个非常荒唐的错误。如何来
克服这个问题呢?
练习的方法是:在与英语时有意识把说话速度放慢,并留心正
在谈到的人是男性还是女性,从而正确地运用He和She。经过一
段时间的练习,就会培养起正确运用He和She的习惯。
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二、动词第三人称加“S”
中国学生在说英语时普遍存在第三人称He、She和It后忘记加S
的问题。正如人称的混用一样,动词第三人称后忘记加S能反映
出沉重英语基本功的薄弱。美国人对类似错误的重视程度从托福
文法考试中大量主谓一致题目的考核上就可以看出。
练习的方法与纠正人称混用相同,与英语时放慢速度注意第三
人称后动词形式的正确选用。
三、动词时态的错误
学生在英文作文中存在着大量动词时态的错误,在口语表达上
动词时态的错误就更为普遍。因为动词在每句话中都起重要的作
用,对时态的正确选择就显得尤为重要。一个美国人很容易判断
时态的正确和错误。从语法角度来说,能正确运用动词时态是取
得各类考试高分的必要条件。动词时态的错误可以分为两类:一
类是动词时态错误,比如:He catch a cold last week.其中的
catch就是时态错误。第二类是动词时态形式的错误,比如:He
catched a cold last week..其中的catched就是动词形式的错误。
catch的正确过去式为caught。应该说没有一个美国人能明白
catched的意思。
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四、表达思想内容空洞
中国学生表达思想时往往太空洞。具体来说就是表达思想时只
陈述一个中心思想,如谈到一个大学的好坏时,会说“The
university has a good library.”“The university has excellent
sports facilities.”就此就停止了,而没有据地展开。
要想避免表达思想内容空洞就一定按照上面大学图书馆一例
来把自己的想法展开。需要展开到多细,可以根据你的知识面而
定,但这种表达思想的思路是至关重要的,这就是说,文章一定
要有细节。现在请你把“The university has excellent sports
facilities.”展开。
五、文化背景差异
在阐述思想时能把中国文化中普遍认同的东西表达出来,却没
有能够把中国人为何普遍认同这种东西其背后的原因和条件讲出
来。因为美国人对其背后的原因和条件一无所知,就无法明白你
想表达的思想观点,甚至会认为你所表达的观点是荒唐的。比如
说,一个学生在谈到在中国用什么交通工具最好这一问题时,阐
述了这一观点“Only the very wealthy people can afford to
buy a car.”为了使美国人真正理解这句话,就必须按下边方法来
交代原因和条件:
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The living standard in China is very low. The average monthly
income per person even in large and affluent cities is about
100 U.S. dollars. This income is just enough to cover the
family expenses, without any money let for savings.
Furthermore, cars in China are far more expensive than in
the United States. The cheapest car in China would be
about 10,000 dollars. Very few people in China can save
enough to purchase a car, not to mention the cost of car
maintenance.
六、用词的问题
学英语时尽可能地扩大词汇量是必要的,问题往往地词汇量虽
大却不知如何准确地选用,而造成用“大词”和“用词不当”的
问题。一个人的应分为阅读词汇、听力词汇、写作词汇和口语词
汇。因此在你已掌握的词汇中一定要“精练”那些美国生活当中
最常用的语汇,注意生活中小词多用和活用的现象。
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Patterns for reference
参考句型
用于比较的句型:
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There are many differences between…and…(You can use it in
the opening.)
…not so…as…(When you need more details.)
The most obvious distinction between them is that…(You must
use this kind of pattern to stress some features.)
They are different. First, this…, but that…Second…(There are
several differences for you to say.)
Both of them are attractive. They just differ in style. (You just
give a general description.)
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用于表达文化对比的句型:
All in all, …
Compared with…
By and large, …
Generally speaking, …
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English Learning Games
英语学习游戏
Word Spelling Cards
Aim: To review and memorize the English words students
have learned.
Preparation: Make at least 100 cards with the following written
on them: letters, roots, suffixes(词缀), such as, -tion, ment, and -or prefixes, such as, -un, -im and –ir, clusters of
vowels, such as, -ow-, -ight and -oo- and consonants(辅
音), such as, th-, ch- and sp-.
Procedure: Two or more than two students can play this game.
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1) Put all cards in random order in a pile on the table with
students sitting around.
2) Each student takes 4, 5, or 6 cards from the pile one by one.
(Students determine the number of cards they hold in their
hands before the game starts. The bigger the number, the
easier the game is.)
3) The object is to construct meaningful words (a word found
in the dictionary) by putting the cards together. When
successful, the student shows the word to the other players
and puts the cards aside. At the same time, he/she gets the
same number of additional cards from the pile.
4) The first player tries to form more words, which he/she
shows to the other players. If he/she cannot form a
meaningful word, he/she can take another card from the
pile.
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5) If he/she still fails to form a word, he/she chooses one from
his/her cards and gives it to the next person.
6) The next person can get this card if he/she can form a word
with the other cards. Each time a word is formed, the
student shows the card(s) to the other players and puts the
card(s) aside.
7) If the player cannot form a word with the card given by the
previous player, he/she can get one from the pile and try to
form a word. Again, if a player fails to form a word, he/she
selects one of his/her cards and gives it to the next person.
The next person will do the same.
Finally, the person who gets the most meaningful words wins.
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Unit 14
Corporation Management
Please, come in and take the load off your feet.
Please, grab a chair and take the load off your feet.
Please, go inside and take the load off your feet.
Please, come into my office and take the load off your feet.
Please, find your way to the sofa and take the load off your
feet.
Please, don't hesitate to find a chair and take the load off
your feet.
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请进来坐,歇歇腿。
请拿张椅子坐,歇歇腿。
请进去坐,歇歇腿。
请来我办公室坐,歇歇腿。
请自己找沙发坐,歇歇腿。
请不要迟疑找张椅子,歇歇腿。
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New words and phrases 生词和短语
Multinational多国的, 跨国公司的, 多民族的;多国籍公司, 跨国公司
multi-表示“多,多种,多个”之义
multi-industry多种经营的
multi-ply多重的
multi-purpose多用途的,多功能的
multi-user
multi sphere
Multiaccelerator
EEC欧洲经济共同体
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Cultural background
文化背景
欧洲经济共同体
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欧洲经济共同体,英文名称为European Economic
Community,简称EEC,它是法国、联邦德国、意大利、荷兰、
比利时、卢森堡根据1957年3月25日签定无限期有效的《罗马条
约》而建立的,该条约于1958年1月正式生效。以后陆续加入的
有:英国、爱尔兰、丹麦、希腊、西班牙、葡萄牙。在欧洲经济
共同体成立之前,已经有1952年生效的欧洲煤钢联营组织
(ECSC)。《罗马条约》不仅建立了欧洲经济共同体,而且还
建立了欧洲原子能共同体(Euratom),1967年7月欧洲煤钢联营
组织、欧洲原子能共同体和欧洲经济共同体合而为一,组成了统
一的管理机构,该称为欧洲共同体(简称欧共体,European
Community)。
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欧洲经济共同体的宗旨是促进经济活动的和谐发展、平衡的
经济增长,增强经济的稳定性,不断提高生活标准和密切成员国
之间的联系。欧洲经济共同体的首要目标是:消除关税壁垒和进
口配额;建立共同的对外关税体系和商业政策;实行人员资本和
劳务的自由流动;制定共同的农业和交通运输政策。
共同体成立以后,逐步朝经济一体化和政治一体化的目标推
进。在经济方面,已建立了关税同盟,对外实行统一的关税制度,
并开始实行共同农业政策,逐步形成一个货物、劳力、劳务和资
本自由流通的市场。在政治上,要求把共同体建成政治上统一的
欧洲联盟,加强协商制度。共同体合计国民生产总值仅次于美国。
该共同体和非洲、加勒比海和太平洋地区的发展中国家先后签定
了3个《洛美协定》,就发展中国家同西欧工业发达国家之间的
贸易经济关系作了规定。欧共体对世界经济有着巨大的影响。
欧洲共同体设立了四个中央机构,他们是:欧洲议会、成
员国部长理事会、执行委员会和法院。当然还有一些其他的机构,
如经济和社会委员会、欧洲投资银行、欧洲社会基金、欧洲开发
基金等,总部设在布鲁塞尔。
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Tips for you to listen to
口语贴士
英语“卡壳”之解决法
有时候我们说英语用词不对,或者说法不地道,造成误解或者
不解。那么我们就有必要换一种说法解释清楚,让人明白。
以下是几种在日常英语中能把问题解释清楚的地道说法:
1、重组语句,换一种说法
"What I meant to say was…"
"Let me rephrase that…"
"Let me put this another way…"
"Perhaps I'm not making myself clear…"
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2、从头再说一次
"If we go back to the beginning…"
"The basic idea is …"
"One way of looking at it is…"
"Another way of looking at it is…"
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3、如果想不起来用英语怎么说
"I can't find the word I'm looking for…"
"I'm not sure that this is the right word, but…"
"What I want to say is…"
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4绕着弯儿说:
一位法国学生到伦敦度假,他对英语了解甚少,有一天中午他
又累又饿,来到了一家餐馆,他想要杯茶和几个鸡蛋,可是当服
务员问他“Can I help you, sir? (先生,你要点什么?)”时,他回
答说,“A cup of tea and…”他记不起“鸡蛋”该怎么说,这时他
看到邻桌上有本杂志,封面是一幅公鸡的图画,他指着这幅画问
侍者:
What‘s the English for this? What do you call a cock’s wife?
A hen, sir.And what do you call a hen‘s children?
Chicks, Sir.
And what do you call chicks before they’re born?
Eggs, Sir.
此时学生说:Very well, bring me two eggs and a cup of tea,
please.
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又比如,在谈论王洛宾的歌时:“带着你的妹妹,
带着你的财宝,赶着马车来”,其中treasure(财宝)这
个词不会说,就用“money and gold(钞票和黄金)”来
代替。
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5 说话停顿
即说话时语流上的间歇。因为话不能达意或后续
说法尚未形成时,可略作停顿以考虑下文。如:
Excuse me, do you happen to know-----Oh, I
know you! It’s Ashley, isn’t it?
I remembered clearly that----that I’d turned off the
light.
你还可以借助嗓音填空,常用的er, mm, mmm,
um, uh, ah, ahh等
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Patterns for reference
参考句型
用于衔接上下文的句型:
A more interesting thing is that…
However, the difficulty lies in…
In other words, …
One thing which is equally important is that…
What is more, …
For no other reason that…
用于表达喜好和重要性的句型:
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Prefer…to…喜欢…甚于喜欢…
No matter how…不管怎么…
Imply that…意味着…
It’s important to…重要
Why we say…is important is that…说…重要是因为…
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English Learning Games
英语学习游戏
Word Association
Aim: to review vocabulary
Procedure: The teacher starts the game by saying a word such
as "Hotel." For example: Teacher: Hotel. Student A: Bed.
Student B: Room. Student C: Service. Student D: Food. As
you can see, any association is ok. If the student cannot
answer (5-second limit), he or she must stand up. The last
student seated is the winner. If the association is not
obvious, the student is asked to explain the association.
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Additional reading materials
辅助阅读
各经济贸易组织协会名称
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China Council for the Promotion of International Trade,
C.C.P.I.T.
中国国际贸易促进委员会
National Council for US-China Trade 美中贸易全国理事会
Japan-China Economic Association 日中经济协会
Association for the Promotion of International Trade,Japan
日本国际贸易促进会
British Council for the Promotion of International Trade 英国
国际贸易促进委员会
International Chamber of Commerce 国际商会
International Union of Marine Insurance 国际海洋运输保险协
会
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International Alumina Association 国际铝矾土协会
Universal Postal Union, UPU 万国邮政联盟
Customs Co-operation Council, CCC 关税合作理事会
United Nations Trade and Development Board 联合国贸易与
发展理事会
Organization for Economic cooperation and Development,
DECD 经济合作与开发组织
European Economic Community, EEC, European Common
Market 欧洲经济共同体
European Free Trade Association, EFTA 欧洲自由贸易联盟
European Free Trade Area, EFTA 欧洲自由贸易区
Council for Mutual Economic Aid, CMEA 经济互助委员会
Eurogroup 欧洲集团
Group of Ten 十国集团
Committee of Twenty(Paris Club) 二十国委员会
Coordinating Committee, COCOM 巴黎统筹委员会
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Caribbean Common Market, CCM, Caribbean Free-Trade
Association, CARIFTA
加勒比共同市场(加勒比自由贸易同盟)
Andeans Common Market, ACM, Andeans Treaty
Organization, ATO 安第斯共同市场
Latin American Free Trade Association, LAFTA 拉丁美洲自由
贸易联盟
Central American Common Market, CACM 中美洲共同市场
African and Malagasy Common Organization, OCAM 非洲与
马尔加什共同组织
East African Common Market, EACM 东非共同市场
Central African Customs and Economic Union, CEUCA 中非
关税经济同盟
West African Economic Community, WAEC 西非经济共同体
Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries, OPEC
石油输出国组织
Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries,
OAPEC 阿拉伯石油输出国组织
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Commonwealth Preference Area 英联邦特惠区
Centre National du Commerce Exterieur, National Center of
External Trade
法国对外贸易中心
People's Bank of China 中国人民银行
Bank of China 中国银行
International Bank for Reconstruction and development,
IBRD 国际复兴开发银行
World Bank 世界银行
International Development association, IDA 国际开发协会
International Monetary Found Agreement 国际货币基金协定
International Monetary Found, IMF 国际货币基金组织
European Economic and Monetary Union 欧洲经济与货币同
盟
European Monetary Cooperation Fund 欧洲货币合作基金
Bank for International Settlements, BIS 国际结算银行
African Development Bank, AFDB 非洲开发银行
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Export-Import Bank of Washington 美国进出口银行
National city Bank of New York 花旗银行
American Oriental Banking Corporation 美丰银行
American Express Co. Inc. 美国万国宝通银行
The Chase Bank 大通银行
Inter-American Development Bank, IDB 泛美开发银行
European Investment Bank, EIB 欧洲投资银行
Midland Bank,Ltd. 米兰银行
United Bank of Switzerland 瑞士联合银行
Dresden Bank A.G. 德累斯敦银行
Bank of Tokyo,Ltd. 东京银行
Hongkong and Shanghai Corporation 香港汇丰银行
International Finance Corporation, IFC 国际金融公司
La Communaute Financieve Africane 非洲金融共同体
Economic and Social Council, ECOSOC 联合国经济及社会理
事会
United Nations Development Program, NUDP 联合国开发计
划署
United Nations Capital Development Fund, UNCDF 联合国资
本开发基金
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United Nations Industrial Development Organization, UNIDO
联合国工业发展组织
United Nations Conference on Trade and Development,
UNCTAD 联合国贸易与发展会议
Food and Agricultural Organization, FAO 粮食与农业组织, 粮
农组织
Economic Commission for Europe, ECE 欧洲经济委员会
Economic Commission for Latin America, ECLA 拉丁美洲经
济委员会
Economic Commission for Asia and Far East, ECAFE 亚洲
及远东经济委员会
Economic Commission for Western Asia, ECWA 西亚经济委
员会
Economic Commission for Africa, ECA 非洲经济委员会
Overseas Chinese Investment Company 华侨投资公司
New York Stock Exchange, NYSE 纽约证券交易所
London Stock Market 伦敦股票市场
Baltic Mercantile and Shipping Exchange 波罗的海商业和航
运交易所
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Unit 15
Social Responsibility
Warm-ups
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1 Discuss the responsibilities of the people in the
relationships(A-G) listed below. You should consider the
responsibilities from both point of view, I.e. a company’s
responsibilities towards their workers and vice versa.
A doctors and patients
B teachers and students
C artists and their public
D footballers/rock stars and their fans
E police and the community
F politicians and the electing community
G citizens and their nation
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2 Brainstorm on jobs which demand great responsibility.
Compile a list, then you have to rank the four most
important. Possible contenders:
airline pilot, army commander in chief, doctor, judge,
mother, President, teacher. Just how responsible are such
people in real life?
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Exercises
练习
Writing:
“Sin with the multitude, and your responsibility and
guilt are as great and as truly personal as if you
alone had done the wrong.”
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Tips for you to listen to
口语贴士
口语表达技巧
(一)重音运用
生活中经常运用重音,重音在生活中必不可少。重音具有区别词
意的作用,读重读轻表达的意思不一样,重音可分为三种:1、
语法重音。是按句子的语法规律重读的音,2、逻辑重音。是根
据演讲说话的内容和重点自己确定。3、感情重音。是表达强烈
的感情或细微的心理来安排。重音不一定重,有时放轻也起了强
调的作用。重音有二种,一种是重重音,一种是轻重音。重音怎
样体现?一是加大音量,二是拖长音节,三是一字一顿,四是夸
大调值
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(二)停连掌握技巧
1、语法停顿。又叫自然停顿,一个词中间是不能停顿的。从语法上
说中心语与附加语往往有一个小小的停顿,书面语用标点符号表
示的地方要停顿,停的时间长短不一样,哪些地方该停呢?停顿
时间是:句号(包括问号、感叹号)>分号>冒号>逗号>顿号。
从结构上,是段落>层次>句子。
2、逻辑停顿。是根据要强调的停顿,是表达感情的需要。
3、感情停顿。又叫心理停顿,逻辑停顿为理智服务,感情停顿为感
情服务,表示一种微妙和复杂的心理感受而作的停顿。
4、特殊停顿。为加强某种特殊效果或应付某种需要所作的停顿。可
以变含糊为清晰,变平淡为突出,变平直为起伏,变松散为整齐。
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(三)节奏变化技巧
慢节奏:叙述一件事情,描写一处景物,表现一次行动的迟缓节奏
宜慢;表现平稳,沉郁、失望、悲哀情绪节奏宜慢。快节奏:表
现情绪紧张、热烈、欢快、兴奋、慌乱、惊惧、愤怒、反抗、驳
斥、申辩时宜快节奏。
节奏调度的几个原则:1、感情原则。2、语境原则。根据语言的环
境调整。3、内容原则。根据内容调整。
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(四)语气变化技巧
1、语气的感情色彩。是指语句内在的具体感情的积极运动的显露,
它表现在声音气息的变化上。一般说,表达“爱”气徐声柔,表
“憎恨”气足生硬,表“急”气短声促,表“喜”气满声高,表
“怒”气粗声重,表“悲”气沉声缓,表“惧”气提声滞,表
“疑”气细声黏。
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2、语调的基本类型。一般分四类:平直调,上扬,曲折,下降。用
不同的语调所表达的意思就完全不一样。平直调:多用于陈述、
说明的语句。表述庄重、严肃、回忆、思索的情形,表现平静、
闲适、忍耐、犹豫等感情或心理。下降调:多用于感叹。有些陈
述句,常表示祈求、命令、祝愿、感叹等方面内容,表现坚决、
自信、肯定、夸奖、悲痛、沉重等。上扬调:多用于疑问句、反
问句,或某些感叹句、陈述句。适用于提问、称呼、鼓动、号召、
训令等场合,表达激昂、亢奋、惊异、愤怒等情绪。曲折调:多
用于语意双关、言外之意、幽默含蓄、意外惊奇、有意夸张等地
方,表示惊讶、怀疑、嘲讽、轻蔑等心绪。在实际应用中四个语
调不是孤立的,语调变化不以句子为单位体现,而表现在语流中
的千差万别的变化。
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Patterns for reference
参考句型
用于表达原因及目的的句型:
It’s due to…that…由于
More importantly, …更重要的是
…a case in point, …例子
In order to…为了
…are available…可用的
If you wish to…如果你想
用于表达建议的句型:
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In my view, …
As far as I’m concerned, I think…
Well, according to me, …
It seems to me…
We’d better…
I think it’d be a great idea to…
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English Learning Games
英语学习游戏
Slap it
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Aim: to recognize words and listen for relevant information
Preparation: a set of 10-15 pictures of different kinds of food
items for each team of 4 to 6 people
Procedure: Put the items on a desk and the students sit
around the desk. The teacher describes the food item.
When a student has an answer, she/he slaps the card and
says the word aloud. If the student is correct, he/she gets a
team point. If the student is wrong, he/she is out of the
game. Alternatively, in each group each student plays
independently. If the student slaps the correct picture,
he/she keeps the card as a point. The person or team with
the most cards/points wins.
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Additional reading materials
辅助阅读
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German Magazine to Include Ethics Data in Product
Ratings
《洛杉矶时报》: 德国消费者评价商品又有新标准
(中文大意)
企业的社会责任也将与商品的使用性和价值一道被消费者评价。
德国的消费者在购物时将会大吃一惊。今年德国的主要消费者
杂志“检测”(Test)要开始让商品显现新的标准评价,其中包括
企业在生产中的活动究竟是否符合国际社会和劳工标准,企业活
动对环境究竟是有益还是有害。尽管首次进行包括这些道德规范
信息产品的试验似乎并不引人注意,主要在全天候夹克衫、洗涤
液和大马哈鱼三种产品,但易于让消费者理解该杂志提出的这些
标准的重要性。
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出版“检测”杂志的消费者组织Stiftung Warentest在决定将道德规
范信息作为评价标准后,的确在社会上搅起了一番论战,但杂志
月销65万测的规模也的确对消费者产生巨大影响。
German shoppers are in for a surprise. This year, Test, the
country's leading consumer magazine, will begin featuring
products assessed on new criteria — whether the practices used
in their production comply with international social and labor
standards, and whether they are good or bad for the
environment.
Though the first three pilot tests containing the ethics information
appear unspectacular — covering all-weather jackets, detergent
and salmon — it is easy to grasp the significance of their
inclusion in a magazine that is the buying bible for many
German households accustomed to reading about value-formoney and ease-of-use rankings. In Germany, issues that
companies are tackling under the broad banner of corporate
social responsibility are now finding their way out of the
battleground between business and campaign groups and into
the product pages of a mainstream consumer magazine.
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Stiftung Warentest, the consumer organization that publishes Test,
stirred controversy when it decided to include the ethics
information — not least because, with sales of 650,000 a month,
the magazine has a real effect on consumer choices.
"Depending on where you stand, our initiative has created either
hope or fear that these social and environmental issues will gain
extra weight in society if a major player such as Stiftung
Warentest addresses them in a more concerted way," said
Holger Brackemann, research coordinator for the consumer
group.
Stiftung Warentest has been slower than its European counterparts
to make the link between corporate social responsibility and
product tests. Consumer magazines in about 10 countries have
already published tests that include social, labor and
environmental criteria, according to Andrea Klag of the Londonbased International Consumer Research and Testing group,
which coordinates product tests for consumer magazines.
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Rob Harrison, editor of Britain's Ethical Consumer magazine, sees a
"general trend among mainstream consumer groups around the
world to satisfy the growing consumer appetite for information
on ethical issues."
Last year, the British consumer magazine called Which? included
social responsibility criteria in tests on running shoes and mobile
phones, and Consumentenbond, the Netherlands' main
consumer association, has published 20 reports containing such
information.
The trend creates challenges, such as how to assess the social
responsibility qualities of a product and how such assessments
should be presented to consumers. Companies, consumer
magazines and nongovernmental organizations all admit these
challenges will take time and effort to overcome.
"We are still in the learning phase in terms of methodologies, in
getting sufficient data from companies, and on whether
consumers can really use this extra information," said Jane
O'Brien, Which? magazine's head of research.
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Brackemann said that Stiftung Warentest's decision was consumerdriven. "It is clear from surveys that consumers are increasingly
interested in social and environmental issues, so we are
responding to that. Products are becoming more similar in terms
of quality, so consumers are looking for other ways of making
purchasing choices."
The first test with the criteria will be on all-weather jackets — a
good choice, according to Stiftung Warentest, as these are
made not in Germany but in Eastern Europe and Southeast Asia,
where production standards are often lower.
Stiftung Warentest has prepared a 20-page questionnaire with 39
criteria to be sent to companies with jackets in the main product
test. The questions cover a company's social, employment and
environmental policies, its relations with suppliers and whether
monitoring structures exist to check whether policies are being
properly implemented.
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The information from companies will be supplemented with data
from nongovernmental organizations and the media, and from
auditing companies commissioned by Stiftung Warentest to run
independent checks on what the company has said.
Brackemann stressed that, as far as possible, the criteria would
focus on the production processes behind specific products, not
on the companies that make them, as a company such as
Siemens with many products may perform better or worse on
telephones than on refrigerators.
The BDI, Germany's main industry federation, opposes Stiftung
Warentest's move because of the methodological difficulties in
gathering and presenting the data in a balanced way. This could
lead to "market distortion," said Marie Luise Eul, the BDI's
environmental policy expert. "We have high social standards in
Germany, but smaller companies in particular are unaware what
'corporate social responsibility' means."
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In contrast, Heinz-Dieter Koeppe, director of environmental and
social policy at retailer KarstadtQuelle, said the issue had
become "how, and not whether, such tests are done."
Brackemann at Stiftung Warentest said the focus would be "as
much on [corporate] policies … as on the realities on the
ground of how products are made."
Perhaps surprisingly, the Clean Clothes Campaign, which lobbies
clothing retailers to improve working conditions of their
suppliers, said magazines should avoid presenting
"oversimplified" information in the form of rankings or score
cards.
Said spokeswoman Ineke Zeldenrust: "The issues are complex, and
it is dangerous to present snapshots of company practices that
change over time. Fake consumer advice is of no use to
anyone."
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Unit 16
Information Technology
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New words and phrases
生词和短语
Database数据库
data 资料, 数据,datum的复数
Retrieval回收
retrieve寻回;取回
Vendor卖主
Convergence会聚
Disseminate传播
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Exercises
练习
Topics for discussion:
1 What major achievements has China scored in science and
technology over the past 50 years?
2 Can you name some of the most notable Chinese scientists
who have made outstanding contributions to the
development of China’s science and technology?
3 How many hi-tech programs are going on in China? Discuss
their significance to China.
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Tips for you to listen to
口语贴士
英语学习方法总论
1. We'd better develop our interest in English at the beginning
of our study. To develop interest in English study is not
very hard. We may have the feeling of satisfaction and
achievement from our English study when we are able to
say something simple in English, talk with others or
foreigners in English and act as others' interpreters.
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2. Plans are always very essential, so we must make some
elaborate and workable plans before study. And we should
certainly carry out these plans to the letter.
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3. Notes should be made whenever we study any book. We
may follow this advice: Don't read book without making
notes. As we know that notes are the summarization, the
core content, our understanding and the abbreviations of
the books. Our notes are much thinner than the books so
that we can learn them by heart easier and can often review
and read them. We may also record our notes on tapes so
as to often listen to them easier, to deepen our impression
and to lighten our burden of memory. Sometimes it is
needful to draw some tables and illustrations that are very
impressive, visual and concise.
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4. Watching English movies, English TV programs, listening to
English songs and learn English on some special
occasions are also excellent and vivid English learning
ways as we may combine English with some certain scenes
to deepen our memory.
5. Never just memorize single English words. Learn by heart
the whole sentences and the phrases that contain the new
words so we may know how to use the words.
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6. If time permits, we may read Mini Chinese-English
dictionary carefully from cover to cover, which may help us
widen our sight and master knowledge in all aspects.
7. Excellent personality is one of the decisive factors in
English study. Persistence, patience, self-confidence and
determination are badly needed.
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在英语学习之初,我们应该注重培养对英语学习的兴趣.培养
对英语的兴趣并不难.当我们可以说点儿简单的英语,用英语与别
人或与老外交谈,或作别人的翻译时,我们就可以从英语学习中得
到满足感和成就感,这样,兴趣就培养起来了.请注意,这种满足感和
成就感很重要!
制定英语学习计划太重要了,所以我们必须在学习前制定精细
的和可操作的计划. 并且我们一定要严格执行这些计划.请注意:千
万不要干没有计划的傻事,那等于在浪费生命.
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无论学习什么,我们都要作笔记.我们可以参照下面的忠告:不
作笔记就不要读书.如您所知,笔记是我们对所学课本的总结,中心
内容,我们的理解和课本的缩略.笔记要比课本薄的多,我们可以较
容易的记忆和经常复习他们.更胜一畴的做法是把笔记录成音,这
样我们可以经常听一听来加深印象和减轻记忆负担.
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看英文电影,收看英语电视节目,听英文歌曲和在某些特定场
景学习英语也是很棒和很生动的英语学习方式,因为这样我们可以
把所学英语与某些特定的场景联系起来以加深记忆.
请不要孤立地背英语单词.请背记包含生词的句子或词组,这
样我们才真正能运用这些词汇,而且印象更深.
如果时间允许,通读小小汉英字典对于英语学习也帮助很大.
他能帮助我们扩大视野并全方位地掌握所学知识.
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优秀的性格也是英语学习的关键因素之一,坚持,忍耐,自信和
坚定都是很重要的.当然如果兴趣培养得好, 可适当削弱这方面的
要求.
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English Learning Games
英语学习游戏
Hangman
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Procedure: First, the teacher thinks of a word and writes the
same number of dashes, as there are letters in the word on
the board.
Then, students begin to call out letters from the alphabet.
When a student guesses a correct letter, he/she will put the
letter in its proper place. The letter may be repeated. If a
letter that is in the word has not been mentioned, the
teacher will draw one stroke for the hangman. If they can
guess the word before the picture of the hangman is
finished, they will win. Otherwise they will lose.
Variation: This works best with phrases, not individual words.
Scoring need not be a hanged man. It can be any picture, or
word that has about 10 parts. The pictures can be drawn bit
by bit or erased bit by bit.
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辅助阅读
信息时代必知英文单词
一.电脑与互联网
【IT】(Information Technology)信息技术。是对计算机软硬件、
互联网、通信等领域技术的通称。
【PC】(Personal Computer)个人电脑。
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【PDA】个人数字助理(Personal Date Assistant)。个人数字助理。
是一种用来帮助人们进行商务和日常活动的可随身携带的电子产
品。1992年美国苹果公司的斯考利等人提出了PDA概念:一种轻
巧的掌上型计算机,个人信息管理是基本功能之一,主要靠手写
及其他定点设备输入,有的具有键盘及有线或无线通信功能。
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【ISP】(Internet Service Provider)互联网服务提供商,就是你拨
号上网的那家公司,如263等。以经营基本的互联网接入及相关
业务为主,其中一些ISP还可能建立起数据中心,承接主机出租、
分享、托管等业务。
【ICP】(Internet Content Provider)互联网内容提供商,主要是在
互联网上以网站的形式提供内容及信息,如Yahoo,Sohu等。
【IP】(Internet Protocol)互联网协议。可以理解为网络上的计算机
名称或地址,对于固定时刻和固定计算机来说,IP地址是惟一的。
计算机之间可以通过因特网打IP电话,电信公司也提供IP电话服
务。
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【BBS】(Bulletin Board System)电子公告牌系统。BBS就是一个
巨大的虚拟黑板报,用户可以留言对某些话题进行讨论。现在的
BBS已经成为虚拟社区,如车友会、俱乐部、论坛等。许多BBS
允许用户联机聊天,发送电子邮件,下载或上载免费软件和共享
软件以及访问Internet。
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二.电信业
【ISDN】全名“窄带综合业务数字网”(N-ISDN),它是以电话线为
基础发展起来的,可在一条普通电话线上提供语音、数据、图像
等综合性业务。其特点是只用一条用户线,在上网的同时,打电
话或收发传真两不误,如同拥有两条电话线。在普通电话线的基
础上,用户只需一个入网接口,电话、传真、可视电话等多样功
能一线通达,成为网虫们的最佳选择。
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【ADSL】即非对称数字用户线(Asymmetric Digital Subscriber
Loop),俗称“超级一线通”,是一种在普通电话线上进行宽带
通信的技术,具有上行、下行速度不对称的特点。ADSL安装简
单,只需在电话机接口旁安装一个小金属盒(俗称“大猫”),即
可宽带上网,上网打电话两不误。上网不收电话费,网费直接从
电话费扣走。
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【PAS】小灵通(Personal Access Phone System),无线市话的特
定称谓,是固定电话的补充和延伸。它是在日本“个人手持电话
系统”(PHS)基础上改进的一种技术,最早是UT斯达康公司手机
的专有名称。目前已被世界多国试验并采用。诱人之处在于单向
收费且价格低廉,与固话资费一样,却具有移 动性,在覆盖区内
可任意拨打和接听国际、国内电话,因而受到人们的青睐。
【MMS】彩信 MMS ,是Multimedia Messaging Service的缩写,
意为多媒体信息服务。彩信与短信相比最大特色是支持多媒体功
能,能传递丰富多彩的信息,包括文字、图像、声音、动画等多
媒体信息。
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【SMARTPHONE】由于手机功能的日益强大、无线因特网的引入
以及操作系统的逐渐智能化,业界形象地把这种下一代手机称之
为“智能手机”。与传统手机相比,智能手机最大的特点是具备
强大的多媒体视听功能和无线互联通信功能。它不仅能通话、发
短信和彩信,而且能在手机上观看电视新闻、电影、MTV,欣赏
MP3和各种在线音乐,玩在线游戏,用MSN和QQ在线聊天。
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【3G】3G是3rd Generation的缩写,指第三代移 动通信技术。相
对于第一代模拟制式手机1G和第二代GSM、CDMA等数字手机
2G,3G一般指将无线通信与互联网等多媒体通信结合的新一代
移 动通信系统。它能够处理图像、音乐、动画等多媒体信息。
【CDMA】CDMA是码分多址(Code-Division Multiple Access)技
术缩写。它最初源于美国,应用军事,而后逐渐民用,现已被美
国、日本、韩国等发达国家广泛采用。其具有低辐射、话音清晰、
掉线率低、保密性好、手机待机时间长等诸多优点,人们常常把
CDMA手机称为“绿色手机”。CDMA建网成本低,网络覆盖范
围大,所需基站少。目前,国内由中国联通统一负责CDMA网络
的建设和经营。
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【GPRS】GPRSGeneral Packet Radio Service)即为通用无线分
组业务,通俗地讲。GPRS用途广泛,可通过手机收发电子邮件,
上网浏览、下载信息等。它具有“永远在线”和高速的特点,下
载资料和通话可同时进行,用户按流量计费,速度可提升至56至
114Kbps。
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三.家电业
【MP3】MPEG1 Layer 3(播放器)MPEG1 Layer 3实际上是一种数
字音频压缩格式,自由传播和无损复制的特点,使它在被唱片公
司视为“公敌”的同时也在互联网上一夜成名。现在,MP3播放
器作为“跳动在掌心的随身听”,已经成为时下年轻人的“心头
好”。音乐爱好者可以充分享受DIY的乐趣:自由地制作、下载、
复制和共享MP3文件,个性化地定制歌曲的播放音效模式和显示
歌曲内容……
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【DV】Digital Video数码摄像机
1995年,家用数码摄像机一经问世,就以其达到专业水平的图
像、音质和能够与计算机联机,进行编辑的特性受到发烧友的追
捧。堪称“数码一族”中最能激发人们想象力的产品,为无数的
电影爱好者实现了自拍电影的梦想。
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【MD】MiniDisc迷你光盘(播放器)
说它迷你,是因为MD机一般只有巴掌大小,但这在MP3兴起后
也就不足为奇了。和MP3一样,MD是一种音乐存储媒体,分可
录型和单放型两种。与MP3不同的是,MD需要配备“卡
带”(MD碟),正是这一点限制了MD的发展。现在国内市场上的
MP3产品远比MD丰富。
【DVD】Digital Video Disc数字多功能光盘(播放器)
目前“家庭影院”的首选播放设备。图像清晰度高、音响效果
好、娱乐功能丰富,同时,兼容性极强,无论是DVD、VCD、
MP3或者游戏光盘,都不会使它“消化”不良。
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三戏说现代官职
CEO(Chief Executive Officer)首席执行官;最大的官,但有时也是
贬义词。
COO(Chief Operating Officer)首席运营官;就是干具体活儿的人。
CFO(Chief Finance Officer)首席财务官;管钱的人!
CTO(Chief Technology Officer)首席技术官;吃技术饭,也是吃青
春饭。
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CIO(Chief Information Officer)首席信息官;新官衔,信息时代的
产物。
CGO(Chief Government Officer)首席沟通官。得八面玲珑
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手机新词汇
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bluetooth:蓝牙技术(无线耳机接听)
Wi-Fi:wireless Fidelity 无线保真(即“小灵通”所采用的技术)
Hi-Fi: High Fldelity 高保真
3-G:Generation Three 第三代
PHS:Personal Handyphone System 个人手提移动电话系统
Walkie-Talkie:步话机
Gotone:全球通------这个应该太熟悉不过了吧
GPS:Global Positioning System 全球定位系统
Monternet:Mobile+Internet 移动梦网
GPRS:General Packet Radio Service 通用分组无线业务--这个
很重要哦,要掌握
SMS:Short Message Service 短信服务---------最最流行的service
MMS:Multi-media Messaging Service 多媒体信息服务
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SIM卡:Subscriber Identity Module 客户身份识别卡-------现在知
道SIM的全称是什么了吧,
GSM:Global System For Mobile Communications 全球移动通
信系统
WAP:Wireless Application Protocol 无线应用协议(即使手机具
有上网功能)
PAS:Personal Access System 个人接入系统(如“小灵通”)
CDMA:Code Division Multiple Access 码多分址-----------超级重
点哦
pre-paid Phone Card:储值卡
Roaming:漫游
Voice Prompt:语音提示
WLANs:Wireless Local Area Networks 无线局域网
DV:Digital Video 数码摄像机
3-D:Three-Dimension 三维
LCD:Liquid Crystal Display 液晶显示
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学习结束!
谢谢!
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