New English Language Development
and Common Core State Standards
Institute
Practices that Support ELLs in Rich
CCSS Aligned Instruction
June 27, 2013
Introductions
Lydia Stack
ESL / EFL Educational Consultant
Understanding Language
Stanford University
Goal
Prepare every English learner for
college and career success!
Objectives
• Examine the critical role language plays in the new
Common Core State Standards and the Next
Generation Science Standards for English Language
Learners (ELLs)
• Identify specific teaching strategies that support ELLs
access and success with authentic Common Core
aligned complex texts.
• Explore ways to engage English Learners in high levels
of discourse in Language Arts classrooms
Major Shifts in New Standards
ELA
•
•
•
Regular practice with
complex text and its
vocabulary
Building knowledge
through content-rich
informational texts
Emphasis on reading,
writing, and speaking
that is grounded in
evidence from the text
Math
•
•
•
Provide opportunities for
student access to the
different mathematical
(discourse) practices
described in the CCSS
Support mathematical
discussions and use a
variety of participation
structures
Focus on students’
mathematical reasoning,
NOT on students’ flawed
or developing language
Science
•
Developing and using
models
•
Constructing
explanations (for
science) and developing
solutions (for engineering)
•
Engaging in argument
from evidence
•
Obtaining, evaluating,
and communicating
information
Mostly
vocabulary,
Grammar
Old Paradigm
Content
Language
New Paradigm
Content
Extended Discourse
Discussing Complex
Text
Explanation
Argumentation
Purpose of Text
Analyzing Text
Structures
Complex Sentences
Targeted Vocabulary
in Context
Language
Realizing Opportunities for English
Learners (Bunch, Kibler, Pimentel)
• ELLs should not be removed from the
challenges set out in the standards.
• ELLs can meaningfully participate in
instruction through “imperfect” language.
• Instruction must build on -- and build –
students’ existing resources (L1, background
knowledge, interests and motivations),
precisely in order to expand them.
Realizing Opportunities for English
Learners (Bunch, Kibler, Pimentel)
• Instruction must immerse students in
meaning-making language and literacy
activities with both micro- and macroscaffolding (Schleppegrell & O’Hallaron, 2011).
Theoretical and Pedagogical
Shifts
From a conception of
To an Understanding of
• Language acquisition
as an individual
process
• Language acquisition as a
social process of
apprenticeship that takes
place in social contexts
• Language as
structures or functions
• Language as action and
use, subsuming structure
and function
• (Ellis & Larsen Freeman,
2010; van Lier &
Walqui,2012)
Theoretical and Pedagogical
Shifts
From a conception of
To an Understanding of
• Language acquisition
as implying the linear
and progressive
building on forms and
structures, or functions,
aimed at accuracy,
fluency, and
complexity
• Language acquisition as
non-linear and complex
developmental process
aimed at
communication and
comprehension
 Use of simple and/or
simplified texts
• Use of complex,
amplified texts for all
students
Theoretical and Pedagogical
Shifts
From a conception of
To an Understanding of
• Use of activities that
pre-teach the
content, or simply
“help students get
through texts”
• Use of activities that
scaffold students’
development and
their autonomy, so
that the knowledge
gained is generative
in nature and
applicable to novel
learning contexts
Persuasion Across Time and Space:
Analyzing and Producing Complex Texts
“ A Unit Developed for the Understanding Language
Initiative by WestEd’s Teacher Professional
Development Program
• Unit Authors: Aida Walqui, Nanette Koelsch, and
Mary Schmida
• In Collaboration with Understanding Language’s
English Language Arts Working Group: George C.
Bunch (Chair), Martha Inez Castellón, Susan Pimentel,
Lydia Stack, and Aida Walqui
Persuasion Unit
• Illustrates how ELA CCSSs can be used to
deepen and accelerate the instruction of
ELLs in middle schools.
• Is based on the notion that ELLs develop
conceptual and academic understandings
as well as the linguistic resources to express
them simultaneously, through participation
in rigorous activity that is well scaffolded
(Walqui & van Lier, 2010)
CA ELD Standards
Part I: Interacting in Meaningful Ways
1. Exchanging information/ideas
• Students will contribute to class, group, and
partner discussions by following turn‐taking
rules, asking relevant questions, affirming
others, adding relevant information, and
paraphrasing key ideas.
CA ELD Standards
3. Supporting opinions and persuading others
• Negotiate with or persuade others in
conversations (e.g., to provide counter‐
arguments) using learned phrases (I agree
with X, but . . ), and open responses.
CA ELD Standards
7. Evaluating language choices
• Students will explain how well writers and
speakers use specific language to present
ideas of support arguments and provide
detailed evidence (e.g., showing the clarity
of the phrasing used to present an argument)
when provided with moderate support.
LESSON 2
Persuasion in Historical
Context:
The Gettysburg Address
•Gettysburg Address
LESSON 1
Advertising in the
Contemporary World: An
Introduction to Persuasive
Texts
•Can you live with dirty water?
UNIT
Persuasion Across Time
and Space:
Analyzing and Producing
Persuasive Texts
LESSON 3
Ethos, Logos, & Pathos in Civil Rights
Movement Speeches
•MLK “I have a dream”
•Robert Kennedy “On the Death of
Martin Luther King”
•George Wallace “The Civil Rights
Movement: Fraud, Sham, and Hoax
“
LESSON 4
LESSON 5
Putting it Together:
Analyzing and Producing
Persuasive Text
•The Girl who Silenced the World for Five
Minutes
Persuasion as Text:
Organizational,
Grammatical, and Lexical
Moves in Barbara Jordan’s
All Together Now
•Barbara Jordan “All Together Now”
Lesson 2: Persuasion in Historical
Context: The Gettysburg Address
• Demonstrates the tripartite nature of lessons:
Preparing Learners, Interacting with Texts,
Extending Understanding.
• Build schema about the time, place, and the
political context of Lincoln’s famous speech
through the reading of informational text.
• Discover how cohesive and coherence ties
work together to create meaning.
3 Moments in the Reading of the Gettysburg Address
PREPARING LEARNERS
Task 1
Task 2
• Jigsaw Project: Era Envelope
• Clarifying Bookmark
• Base Group Share
• Wordle Partner Share with Round Robin
Task 3
Task 4
INTERACTING WITH TEXT
Task 5
TEXT
TEXT
Task 6
Task 7
• Close Reading
• Reading in Four Voices
• Literary Devices Dyad
• Wordle, Part II
Task 8
EXTENDING UNDERSTANDING
• Vocabulary Review Jigsaw
• In Our Own Words
Task 9
Task 10
© WestEd, Quality teaching for English Learners, 2012
Preparing and Scaffolding
Learning
• Era Envelope (Background readings and photos)
• Jigsaw and “focus chart” for building
essential background knowledge
(“sourcing”)
• Clarifying Bookmark (to support students in
reading the background material and to
develop metacognitive skills for reading)
• Viewing Photos for discussion
• Wordle with roundtable discussion on images that
the words provoke
Era Envelopes - Scaffolding
• Three different ways to scaffold the Era
Envelopes
Option 1: Groups work independently – no
scaffolding
Option 2: Groups jigsaw the readings –
moderate scaffolding
Option 3: The Teacher works through the
readings with students – maximum
scaffolding
Clarifying Bookmark
Era Envelope: Discussion
• After completing the Jigsaw Reading and
their section of the handout on page 8,
students return to their base groups
• Students take turns sharing responses textby-text, adding to or revising responses as
needed.
• Students discuss readings using the
Clarifying Bookmark.
Photo Task
• Each student picks a photo from the
envelope.
• Students take turns talking about their photo.
• The group picks one photo and completes
HO #7.
• Together they write a caption for the photo
and post it on the wall
Era Envelope and Photograph
Response
• Minimal and moderate scaffolding:
Groups review photos and select one
for further analysis
• Maximal scaffolding: Teacher selects
and guides response to one photo
Word Clouds: Wordle
Students work with a partner to:
• Pick two or three words
• Discuss images or ideas that come to
mind when they think of the words
Round Robin
• Each student in the group shares at
least one word and image/idea
associated with it. They do not discuss
or comment until everyone has shared.
Interacting with the Text
•
•
•
•
Close reading with guided questions
Reading in Four Voices
Literary Device Matrix (in dyads)
Wordle, revisited
– What images do you associate with the words
now
– Look for variations of similar words (e.g. dedicate
and dedicates)
• Dedicate matrix
The Gettysburg Address –
Multiple Readings
• Listen to a version of the Gettysburg
Address
• Read the Gettysburg Address in Four
Voices
• Close reading with guided questions
• Partner reading of the text for Literary
Devices
• Group Analysis - In our own words
Interacting with the Text
• Para. 1: Lincoln refers to “our fathers” creating a
new nation. Who is he referring to here?
• Para. 2: When Lincoln refers to a “nation so
conceived and dedicated,” to which phrase in
Paragraph One is he referring? How do you know?
• What does Lincoln
mean when he states
that the living must
“be dedicated to the
unfinished work” of the dead
soldiers? Which lines in the speech tell
the living what their “unfinished work” is?
Literary Device Matrix
Work with a partner to find examples of repetition
in the Gettysburg Address. The first example has been
done for you.
Example: New any nation
nation
this nation
Extending Understanding
• Vocabulary review jigsaw
• In our own words
Vocabulary Review Jigsaw
• Form groups of four
• Label a piece of paper “The Gettysburg Address”
and number 1to 12 on the paper
• Each person at the table gets a card
• Person with card A calls out a number, teammates
find that number on their paper. “A” reads the
sentence with that number
• Next “B” reads the sentence with that number
• Then “C” reads the sentence with that number
• Finally “D” reads the definition and team members
complete the word.
Vocabulary Review Jigsaw
VOCABULARY REVIEW JIGSAW
THE FRENCH REVOLUTION
Student D
VOCABULARY REVIEW JIGSAW
1. It means
Ņins trument developed to kill prisoners speedily
and efficiently.
THE FRENCH REVOLUTION
2. It means
Ó
VOCABULARY REVIEW JIGSAW
Ņone of the most popular leaders of the F rench
Revolution.Ó
Student B
3. It means
Ņbuilding that s ymbolized oppress ion f or the
THE FRENCH REVOLUTION
people.Ó
1. This word has
THREE
2. This word has
TWO syllables.
3. This word has
TWO syllables.
syllables.
4. It means
Student C
Ņname given to a member of the ass embly w ho had
conservative opinions.Ó
5. It means
Ņname give
n to a member of the as sembly who had
revolutionary ideas .Ó
4. This word has
5. This word has
6. This word has
7. This word has
8. This word has
9. This word has
10. This word has
T WO syllables.
Ņluxurious palace constructed by Louis XV.Ó
7. It means
Ņhead of the Committee for Public Safety.Ó
8. It means
Ņone of the three ideals of the French Revolution.Ó
9. It means
Ņthere w ere three of s uch social clas ses.Ó
10. It means
Ņthe only estate
paid
taxes.Ó
1. that
This
word
starts with the letter
11. It means
Ņthey were the
who starts
developed
2. thinkers
This word
withthe
theideals
letter
TWO syllables.
THREE
THE FRENCH REVOLUTION
syllables.
THREE
syllables.
12. The first word is
t
er of this word is
t
s
G
7. The last letter of this word is
e
D
8. The last letter of this word is
y
9. The last letter of this word is
s
d
B
Ņass embly that abolis hed the monarchy and established the
Fre nch Revolution
e
4. The last lett
6. The last letter of this word is
of the F rench Revolution.Ó
12. It means
3. The last letter of this word is
5. The last letter of this word is
TWO syllables.
3. This word starts with the letter
11. This word has
n
Student A
syllables.
ONE syllable.
e
2. The last letter of this word is
VOCABULARY REVIEW JIGSAW
6. It means
TWO syllables.
THREE
1. The last letter of this word is
4. This word starts with the letter
R
10. The last letter of th
5. This word start
L
11. The last letter of this word is
THE .
s with the letter
6. This word starts with the letter
V
7. This word starts with the letter
R
8. This word starts with the letter
L
9. This word starts with the letter
E
10. This word starts with the letter
T
11. This word s
P
tarts with the letter
12. This name has three words.
is word is
12. The second and third word have
s
three syllables
.
In Our Own Words
• Assign partners or small groups one
sentence from The Gettysburg Address to
translate into modern English.
• Completed sentences are transferred to
poster paper.
• Speech is reassembled.
• Teacher leads discussion of consistency in
tone and voice
• Students revise sentences and repost
What about Beginning English
Learners?
• This unit is designed for English Learners in ELA classes
who are at the intermediate or above proficiency
levels. Beginners should be placed in appropriate ESL
classes.
• One size does not fit all! ELPD standards apply in
these cases. Expectations should be based on those
standards for each student’s correct PROFICIENCY
level.
• English Learners can be given the same assignments,
however product expectations should be based on
the proficiency level of each student.
• Scaffolding is key to student success.
Discussion Questions
What shifts did you see evident in the
unit?
What would be necessary for teachers
to move in this direction for English
Learners?
How can initiatives like Understanding
Language be of help?
References
Ellis, N. & Larsen-Freeman, D. (Eds.) (2009). Language as a complex
adaptive system. Language Learning, 59, Supplement 1.
van Lier, L., & Walqui, A. (2012, January). How teachers and
educators can most usefully and deliberately consider
language. Paper presented at the Understanding Language
Conference, Stanford, CA.
Walqui, A. & van Lier, L. (2010). Scaffolding the academic success
of adolescent English Learners. A pedagogy of promise. San
Francisco: WestEd.
Walqui, A., & Heritage, M. (2012, January). Instruction for diverse
groups of English language learners. Paper presented at the
Understanding Language Conference, Stanford, CA.
Questions?
Thanks you for your participation
Lydia Stack
[email protected]
Understanding Language Website
Ell.stanford.edu
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