Scaffolding Instruction
Support for Learners
Adapted (with permission) from:
From Apprenticeship to
:
Scaffolding
the Development of Academic Language by
English Learners
K-16
Appropriation
Wested, Teacher Professional Development, 2003
What is scaffolding?
Wested, Teacher Professional Development, 2003
Think-Jot Down-Share or Reflect
• What comes to your mind when you think
of a scaffold?
• Name two purposes scaffolds are used for.
Wested, Teacher Professional Development, 2003
Type of Scaffold
1. Modeling
Wested, Teacher Professional Development, 2003
Modeling Language for Text Discussion
I think this phrase means…
This part reminds me of the time…
I agree with… I also think…
I have the same opinion as… I also think…
I disagree with… I think that…
I think differently than… I think that….
Why do you think…
What is your evidence that…
Can you give me one example that supports your notion that…
Wested, Teacher Professional Development, 2003
Phrases for Students To Use When They
Don’t Understand
Questions:
Will you please repeat that word/sentence/question?
What do you mean by….?
Would you mind going over that again a little more slowly?
Can you explain that another way?
Can you give me another example of that?
Can you tell me more about that?
Responses:
I don’t understand that idea/word/remark/question.
So you mean that…(paraphrase).
In other words, you are saying that…(paraphrase)
Wested, Teacher Professional Development, 2003
Why would you model these phrases?
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Type of Scaffold
2. Bridging
Wested, Teacher professional Development, 2003
Anticipatory Guide
Read the following statements and decide whether you agree with them
or not.
1.
2.
3.
Some people in Wisconsin are farmers.
Farming is often hard work.
Farm families may raise cows, pigs, and chickens.
Why Anticipate?
The idea here is that having children predict
first helps them think and helps them focus
when they read or write.
Wested, Teacher Professional Development, 2003
Revisiting Our Initial Impressions
Extended Guide
Now that you have read the story about farming, go back to your original
impressions and decide whether the text supports them or not. If it
does not, indicate why not using your own words.
Support No Support
1.
X
2.
X
3.
X
4.
X
Why? Explain using
your own words.
This is a model of explicit instruction.
Anticipating and revisiting are necessary for
ESL and many other learners.
Type of Scaffold
3. Contextualization
Wested, Teacher Professional Development, 2003
Context
Surrounding new concepts with a sensory
environment, thus clarifying them.
Wested, Teacher Professional Development, 2003
Images are not dependent on
language.
They are important scaffolds.
Wested, Teacher Professional Development, 2003
Other Ways of Contextualizing
• Use metaphors from students’ funds of
knowledge.
• Use selected video clips with or without sound.
• Play music connected to the theme to be read.
Wested, Teacher Professional Development, 2003
Type of Scaffold
4. Schema building
Wested, Teacher Professional Development, 2003
Schema
Clusters of concepts that are interconnected.
Wested, Teacher Professional Development, 2003
Compare/Contrast Matrix
Appropriate for similarities and differences between
• Two things (or more)
Name 1
• People
Attribute 1
• Events
• Ideas, etc.
Attribute 2
Key considerations:
What things are being compared?
How are they similar?
How are they different?
Wested, Teacher Professional Development, 2003
Attribute 3
Name 2
Sequence of Events Chain
What happened?
1st?
2nd?
…
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The students can draw
pictures or write in the boxes
after talking together with the teacher.
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Type of Scaffold
5. Metacognitive Development
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Metacognition
• Thinking about the thinking process
involved in an action
• Conscious monitoring of strategic behavior
• Planning strategic behavior
• Self-assessment
Wested, Teacher Professional Development, 2003
Types of Question-Answer Relationships
1.
Right there
The reader can immediately identify the answer because it is
stated explicitly in the text.
2.
Think and search
The answer is implicit in the text. The reader must analyze,
infer, draw logical conclusions, etc.
3.
On my own
The reader has questions related to the topic that are not
included in the text.
4.
Writer and me
If the reader were right in front of the author, what questions
would s/he ask?
Wested, Teacher Professional Development, 2003
Think Aloud
1.
Read the title
ANTICIPATE:
Review your knowledge of the topic.
2.
Read the first sentence
STOP:
Put content in your own words.
Connect it to concepts you already know.
3.
Read the next sentence
Rephrase
Connect
Visualize
NEW WORD?
1st time: Guess! No solution? Put on hold!
2nd time: Guess! No solution? Put on hold!
3rd time: No answer? Now check the dictionary!
Wested, Teacher Professional Development, 2003
STOP :
Self-Assessment
• Think about the many new ideas we have
discussed in class this week. Try to
categorize them.
Perfectly clear:
More or less clear:
I need to work more on:
Wested,Teacher Professional Development, 2003
Make all students write.
• Who needs scaffolded instruction in your
class?
• How often and how much scaffolding do
these children need?
• Is this a language issue, a social class
issue, and/or a learning issue?
• Why?
Wested, Teacher Professional Development, 2003
Review of Scaffolding
•
•
•
•
•
Modeling
Bridging
Contextualization
Schema Building
Metacognition
Conditions for Scaffolding
1. CONTINUITY
Tasks are repeated with variations
and are connected to one another.
2. SUPPORT FROM CONTEXT
Exploration is encouraged in a safe,
supportive environment. Access to
means and goals is promoted in a
variety of ways.
3. INTERSUBJECTIVITY
Mutual engagement, meanings are
co-constructed by participants.
Wested, Teacher Professional Development, 2003
4. CONTINGENCY
Task procedures depend on actions of
learners, participants, orient teacher’s
actions.
5. HANDOVER/TAKEOVER
Learner autonomy increases as skills and
confidence grow. Teachers attend to
learner's readiness to take over
increasing parts of the action.
6. FLOW
Skills and challenges are in balance.
Participants are focused on the task and
“in tune” with it.
Support for Academic Learning
• Scaffolding supports academic learning for
many learners and using scaffolding during
instruction is vital to successful teaching.
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Adapted from: Successful Practices with English Learners