Week Four
MONGOLIANS LEARN TO SAY
“PROGRESS” IN ENGLISH
And
Into Thin Air
Information about Mid-term Exam
 April 7 (Week 7)
 Chapter 1 “English as a Universal Language”
 Chapter 1—“Mongolians Learn to Say ‘Progress’ in
English”
 Chapter 2—“Into Thin Air”
 Vocabulary will cover all words in listening
quizzes.
Types of the Questions
 1. Listening 30%
 2. Match (definition of words) 30%
 3. Grammar (21%)
 4. Translation (English  Chinese) 19%
What matters today?
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Listening practice
Answers to Previous Test and Exercise
Response to “MONGOLIANS LEARN TO SAY
“PROGRESS” IN ENGLISH”
Preparation for Oral Presentation/Mid-term I
Homework
Listening practice (This Week)
 Listening practice: BBC Learning English
 http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/learningenglish
/
Answers to Previous Test and Exercise
 Breaking News English
 http://www.breakingnewsenglish.com/index.html
 Listen, Read, and Think…
answers
 A new study has discovered that alcohol is a
more dangerous drug than heroin and
cocaine.
 The report is from Britain’s Independent
Scientific Committee on Drugs. Its research
classified drugs on the basis of the harm they
do in our society.
 Alcohol came top of the list, with heroin
second and cocaine third.
answers
 Researchers created nine categories of harm
that drugs can do "from death to damage to
mental functioning and loss of relationships,"
and seven types of harm they do to others.
 Experts in Britain are now calling for new
laws to control alcohol.
Check the Answers
 Don Shenker from the group Alcohol Concern said:
“The government should now urgently ensure
alcohol is made less affordable and invest in
prevention and treatment services to deal with the
rise in alcohol dependency that has occurred."
 The research was led by a former government
drugs advisor, Professor David Nutt.
answers
He has been calling for a change in the way Britain
classifies drugs for many years.
He was fired in 2009 for his views and claimed the
government was more interested in politics than
scientific evidence.
 Any laws that make alcohol a dangerous drug would
cause harm to any government trying to win an
election.
 However, the current study is very extensive and
strongly suggests he was right to call for a
reclassification.
answers
 Professor Nutt told Britain’s Guardian newspaper:
"We need to rethink how we deal with drugs in
the light of these new findings." One suggested
change is that cigarettes are put in the same category
as cocaine, because they cause as much harm to
the individual and society.
Q&A
“Mongolians Learn to Say
‘Progress’ in English”
p.16-18
Listen and answer the following questions.
List the features about Mongolia.
List countries mentioned in this article.
The primary concern of this article.
List languages which has ever been
used in Mongolia.
Features of Mongolia
Flag and Emblem
Deer stones in Mongolia
geography
religion
 More than 90 percent of Mongolian citizens
subscribed to some form of Buddhism, mostly
Tibetan Buddhism with traditional Shamanism.
 5% of Mongolia are Muslim
 More than 4 percent of the population practices
Christianity….
 Roman Catholics and members of the Russian
Orthodox Church together account for the remaining
1 percent
清帝國古蹟/慶寧寺
Mosque in Ölgii
Russian Orthodox Church in Ulaanbaatar
From wikipedia
 官方語言為喀爾喀蒙古語,目前通行文字為以西里爾
字母 (Cyrillic,斯拉夫語系)拼音寫成的蒙古文。
 在蒙古,在1990年蘇聯瓦解之前,蒙古人被限定除了
俄文不準學習其他外語,因此老一輩人學習的外語多
為俄語,隨著近年不少蒙古人到韓國打工,新一輩人
開始學英語,日文及韓語
 然而面對中國近年經濟成長力道強勁,學習漢語的蒙
古人士正逐漸在增加。
 除了官方語言外,另有15%人口說其他蒙古方言,少
數民族使用突厥語族語言。最大的少數民族是哈薩克
族,多數是克烈與乃蠻部。
Official language
 The official language of Mongolia is Khalkha
Mongolian, and is spoken by 90% of the
population.
 The Russian language is the most frequently
spoken foreign language in Mongolia, followed by
English, though English has been gradually
replacing Russian as the second language
 Korean has gained popularity as tens of thousands
of Mongolians work in South Korea.
Official language: Mongolian
蒙古族-語言文字
 http://www.godpp.gov.cn/wmzh/2007-
09/19/content_11193325.htm
 詞彙方面,有漢語借詞,也有一些突厥語、滿語、藏
語、梵語、阿拉伯語、波斯語、希臘語、俄語和英語
借詞。
What is not mentioned in the text…
 在蒙古,韓國語能力考試應試生甚至比英語能力考試
(TOEFL)應試生還要多。自1999年首次引進韓國
語能力考試以來,原本為年均200名左右的應試生到
2005年增至487名,2006年為584名,2007年更是達
到了925名。本月20日舉行的上半年考試的應試生超
過了去年應試生總數的一半,預計2008年的應試生總
數將超過1000名。
In our text…
Please underline the phrases
or words in various colors
and check their meanings
and usage .
A
 As she searched for the English words to
name the razortooth fish swimming
around her stomach on her faded blueand-white T-shirt, ten-year-old
Urantestseg hardly seemed to embody
an urgent new national policy.
B
 Father shark, mother shark, sister shark,”
she recited carefully. Stumped by a
smaller, worried-looking fish, she
paused and frowned. Then she cried out:
“Lunch!”
C
 Even in the settlement of dirt tracks,
plank shanties, and the circular felt
yurts of herdsmen, the sounds of English
can be heard from the youngest of students,
part of a nationwide drive to make it the
primary foreign language learned in
Mongolia.
shanties
D
 “We are looking at Singapore as a model,”
Tsakhia Elbegdorj, Mongolia’s prime
minister, said in an interview, his own
American English honed at graduate
school at Harvard University.
 “We see English not only as a way of
communicating, but as a way of
opening windows on the wider
world.”
E
 Camel herders may not yet refer to each
others as “dude,” but Mongolia,
thousands of kilometers from the nearest
English-speaking nation, is a reflection
of the steady march of English as a
world language.
F
 Fueled by the Internet, the growing
dominance of U.S. culture, and the
financial realities of globalization,
English is now taking hold in Asia, and
elsewhere, just as it has done in many
European countries.
G
 In Korea, six “English villages” are being
established where paying students can
have their passports stamped for
intensive weeks of English-language
immersion, taught by native speakers
imported from all over the Englishspeaking world.
H
 The most ambitious, an $85 million
English town near Seoul, will have Western
architecture, signs, and a resident
population of English-speaking foreigners.
I
 In Iraq, where Arabic and Kurdish are to
be the official language, there is a growing
movement to add English, a neutral link
for a nation split along ethnic lines.
J
 In Iraqi Kurdistan, there is an explosion in
English-languages studies, fueled partly by an
affinity for Britain and the United States, and
partly by the knowledge that neighboring
Turkey may soon join the European Union, where
English is emerging as the dominant language.
K
 In Chile, the government has embarked on
a national program of teaching English in
all elementary and high schools.
 The goal is to make that nation of 15 million
people bilingual in English within a
generation.
 The models are the Netherlands and the
Nordic nations, which have achieved virtual
bilingualism in English since World War II.
L
 The rush toward English in Mongolia has
not been without its bumps.
 After taking office after the elections here
in June, Elbegdorj shocked Mongolians by
announcing that it would become a
bilingual nation, with English as the
second language.
M
 For Mongolians still debating whether to
jettison the Cyrillic alphabet imposed by
Stalin in 1941, this was too much, too fast.
N
 Later, on his bilingual English-Mongolian
website, the prime minister fine-tuned
his program, drawing up a national
curriculum designed to make English
replace Russian next September as the
primary foreign language taught here.
O
 Still, as fast as Elbegdorj wants the Mongolian
government to proceed, the state is merely
catching up with the private sector.
 “This building is three times the size of our old
building,” Doloonjin Orgilmaa, director general of
Santis Educational Services, said, showing a visitor
around her three-story English school, which
opened in November near Mongolia’s Sports
Palace.
 The first private English school when it started in
1999, this Mongolian-American joint venture now
faces competition on all sides.
P
 With schools easing the way, English is
penetrating Ulan Bator through the electronic
media and at Mongolian International University,
all classes are in English . . .”
 If there is a shortcut to development it is English,”
Munh-Orgil Tsend, Mongolia’s foreign minister,
said in an interview, speaking American English,
also honed at Harvard.
 “Parents understand that, kids understand that . . .”
Q
 Increased international tourism and a growing number
of resident foreigners explain some moves, like the
two English-language newspapers here and the
growing numbers of bilingual store signs and
restaurant menus. . . .
 Foreign arrivals are up across the board, with the
exception of Russians, who experienced a 9.5 percent
drop.
 Their decrease reflects a wider decline here of Russian
influence and the Russian language. Until the collapse
of the Soviet Union, Russian was universally taught
here and was required for admission to university in
Mongolia . . .
R
 So far, Beijing has adopted a laissez-
faire stance to Mongolia’s flirtation with
English, even though China is now the
leading source of foreign investment, trade,
and tourism.
 Such a stance is easy to maintain, because
Chinese language studies are also
undergoing a boom here.
S
 A trading people famed for straddling
the east-west Silk Road, Mongolians
have long been linguists, often learning
multiple languages.
T
 After attempting during the 1990s to retrain about
half of Mongolia’s 1,400 Russian language teachers
to teach English, Mongolia now is embarking on
a program to attract hundreds of qualified
teachers from around the world to teach here.
 “I need 2,000 English teachers,” said Puntsag
Tsagaan, Mongolia’s minister of education, culture,
and science.
 A graduate of a Soviet university, he laboriously
explained in English that Mongolia hoped to
attract English teachers, not only from Britain and
North America, but also from India, Singapore,
and Malaysia.
U
 Tsagaan spins an optimistic vision of
Mongolia’s bilingual future.
 “If we combine our academic
knowledge with the English language, we
can do outsourcing here, just like in
Bangalore,” he said.

Homework
 Reading P.31-33
 E2 (p.29-30)
 E3 (p.34)
 E4 (p.35-36)
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Week Three