Today: A Few things linked
loosely through persuasion.
Deception, Visual
Communication Strategies,
and Persuasion in
Interpersonal Relationships
Can you detect a liar? Sometimes.
– Stereotypical behavior…
Key: Speakers try to control some of their
nonverbal behaviors when deceiving
 Ekman & Friesen – Channels high in sending
capacity are less likely to reveal deception
– High capacity: Some parts of our body are
monitored more closely; used more extensively in
communication (face)
• These are the easiest to control
– Low capacity: Adaptors –leg/foot movements,
random hand-to-face movements are rarely,
intentionally used in communication
Leakage can occur in paralanguage as well
as body language
Visual Communication
Question of the Day:
Would pictures or words be easier to
encode into memory?
Visual Communication
and Persuasion
General Assumptions:
– Language is processed in a linear, analytic
– Visuals are processed in a spatial syncretic
Influence Arguments
Magnitude Equal
Persistence Longer
Resistance Stronger
The short term persuasive
impact of visual information
might be increased through
repetition (ex: advertising)
Repetition over
time would
move the
information of
attributes from
memory to longterm memory.
Ad from:
Emotional arousal and mood
are found to affect long term memory
(ex. Flashbulb memory)
Shortcuts to
meaning, calling
to mind past
or teaching
"the communication
pattern that
preceded a
particular desired
behavior should,
upon its repetition,
elicit the behavior
again: the same
arguments should
touch the same
responsive chord."
(Burgoon, 1981)
-mass media
teaches people
about the world
-controls access
to information
-structures the
public’s agenda
by making
covered seem
Applying agenda setting to advertising:
products that are advertised constantly
seem popular (social proof, bandwagon)
This is known as “status conferral”
Advertising focuses
the attention of
consumers on what
values/attributes or
products/brands to
consider when
attitudes and
arriving at purchase
(Sutherland and
Galloway, 1981)
Krugman (1965) suggests that ". . . persuasion.
. . i.e. overcoming a resistant attitude. . . " is a
nonfactor when evaluating the impact of
advertising on the purchase behaviors of
consumers. Instead, advertising leads to an
“overlearning” effect, where recall of product
attributes are practically conditioned into
Axelrod (1968)
found top-ofmind brand
awareness testing
provides a "...
sensitive and
stable predictor
of purchase..."
Image Vividness
• Increases attention
and retention
• Use of vivid,
saturated colors,
shocking photos.
• Image Salience
• Positions main
object near less
interesting objects,
so it stands out by
distraction leads
to increased
Persuasion in
Interpersonal Relationships
CLARCCS Cues (Cialdini, 1980)
CLARCCS is an acronym comprised of 7
heuristics (peripheral route) that impact the
persuasion process
Comparison (Social proof)
CLARCCS: Comparison (social
Comparing your behavior to that of
others and adopting the group norms
 Can manifest in two types of effects:
– Anchoring and Contrasting
Works best when:
– People are unaware they are being
– People are not knowledgeable in the area
CLARCCS: Comparison (social
proof; cont’d)
People continuously scan the
environment to see what norms apply
 Norms can be:
– Descriptive: what is the normal thing to do?
– Injunctive: what is the morally correct thing
to do?
Doing what someone asks because you like
them, even if they take advantage of you
 Works best if you think the person likes you
 Works better with attractive people; but not if
they have abrasive (dislikable personalities)
 How does this “liking” heuristic relate to
Ingratiation – strategies for
increasing likeability
4 Types of Ingratiation:
– Complimentary; “other enhancements”
– Selective Self-presentation
– Opinion Conformity
– Rendering Favors
Ingratiation Strategies (cont’d)
With flattery, the ingratiator must control the
types of attributions the target is likely to
make about why the praise was given
 Unwanted Attributions:
– You have ulterior motives
– You always compliment people
– The compliment is normative for the social setting
The 2nd Best attribution to hope for?
– You are making the compliment because you are
a nice person
– This leads to only moderate increases in liking
The Most Desired Attribution?
– The target believes your praise is actually sincere
Ingratiation Strategies (cont’d)
Jones and Wortman (1973) found five ways
to increase the probability that people will
believe the praise is sincere
– Make the praise credible
• Reduce the perceived dependency on the target person
to reduce the suspicion of sought benefits
• Have the praise delivered by a third party, and appear
unaware that the praise was repeated
• Make the praise plausible – you have to find a quality in
the person where praise would be believed
– Praise an attribute that the target is insecure about
• This will increase their self-esteem, resulting in bonus
liking points for you
Ingratiation Strategies (cont’d)
Jones and Wortman 5 ways to make
praise seem sincere (cont’d)
– Appear Discerning
• There are three strategies you can use to
appear more discerning:
– You can use a two-sided message (with positive
comments in an area where the target is insecure,
and some negative comments; BUT NO negative
comments in an area of insecurity)
– Make the target believe that you have high standards
in the area where you are praising them
– Appear neutral or even aloof when meeting people,
and act friendlier to them over time. They will believe
that they won and deserve your admiration rather
than thinking you are just friendly to everyone
Ingratiation Strategies (cont’d)
Jones and Wortman 5 ways to make praise
seem sincere (cont’d)
– Make sure the praise does not seem merely
• Key: Make praise as unique and different as possible
– Avoid other negative effects
• Don’t make the target feel awkward if the praise sets up
a difficult social situation
• Don’t let praise imply a low level of expected
• Praise may lead to apprehension about future
interactions if the praise leads to the target’s belief that
you are constantly evaluating them
And now… back to CLARRCS cues… this
was part of liking (#2)
CLARCCS: Authority
Complying with a source because it
holds a position of authority
– Keep in mind this would have peripheral
route impact unless someone were to
stress this feature of the source within the
context of the message
Example: Milgram Experiments
CLARCCS: Reciprocity
Based on societies’ norm that you are
obliged to give something back to
someone when they give you something
– The “That’s not all you get” technique
• I’m doing my part, I’m knocking down the cost
of that phone—even though I’m not supposed
to… now it is your turn… sign up for a measly
2 year contract
CLARCCS: Reciprocity
Other option is less obvious: The “Door-inthe-Face” Technique
– Takes advantage of the fact that people are
generally uncomfortable saying no
– 7 Steps:
• The original request must be rejected (make it a big one;
difficult to comply)
• The target should not make a self-attribution after the
rejection (why did I do that? TOO LATE)
• The original request should not cause resentment, anger
or hostility
• The second request must be clearly smaller
• There should be no time delay between the two requests
• The cause should be a legitimate one (e.g. prosocial, to
cause psychological stress—Imbalance)
• The same source should make both requests
Once you take a public stand, advocating a
position or supporting a cause, you are likely
to maintain your support in the future
 Works because of our need to be consistent
and maintain consonance
 Examples:
– Foot-in-the-door
– Lowball and Bait and Switch
The “Foot-in-the-door” Technique works best
– The first request is much smaller, it induces
compliance and commitment
– The second request cannot be too large (few will
comply) or too small (first request would be
– If self-perception attributions occur then different
people can make the second request
– If the targets feel they were externally pressured,
the effect will not occur
The “Foot-in-the-door” Technique works best
when (cont’d):
– The effect is larger for legitimate causes
– Timing is important for the success of the effect
– Any method which increases self-perception and
personality attributions will facilitate the effect
– Face-to-face requests will be more successful
– Likeable, polite and positive sources will be more
– Offering less ground for excuses increases
success (social legitimacy, credible, committed
“The Lowball Technique”
– Gets the target to commit to a decision before they
learn the full cost of the compliance (they may feel
committed and responsible to their obligation)
– Ex. Telemarketers—I just wanted to verify a little
information; “You get one free month of service”
– Related to the Bait and Switch
• Sign out front advertising a sale; advertising foreclosed
lots in the newspaper
CLARCCS: Scarcity
Our behavior can be shaped by:
– The desirability of scarce objects
• The case of planned scarcity
Works on our belief that rare is good
– Related to “false uniqueness bias” in
Attribution Theory
– Related to Psychological Reactance
Theory… how?
Persuasion in Conflict
Conflict Management
The Four most commonly used forms:
– Negotiation – a communication situation in which
two or more parties make a series of concessions
to forge a mutually agreed upon settlement
– Mediation – a third party manages the
communication so the disputants can reach a
– Arbitration – disputants agree to have a third
party hear each side, and then make a judgment
about the dispute
– Litigation – lawyers represent the disputing
parties and then a jury or judge makes a ruling
We will primarily focus on Negotiation
Definitions and Key Concepts
Negotiation = Bargaining
– A communicative process between independent
parties with differing goals who are attempting to
produce a joint decision
Bargaining Structure (components)
– Resistance Point = maximum amount a party will concede
(possibly the point just before net loss)
– Bargaining Range = difference between the parties’
resistance points
– Status Quo Point = when parties cannot reach a
settlement, cease bargaining and return to their initial
– Aspiration Level = a party’s realistic preferred outcome
– Utility Schedule = comprised of resistance point, status quo
point, and aspiration level
Prisoner’s Dilemma
Groups of Four
 Take out a piece of paper
 The Rules
 Talk to eachother for a few minutes,
develop strategy
 Ready?
The Winner’s Choice…
Which one will you choose?
Let’s Continue…
Let’s Continue…
Let’s Continue…
Negotiation Research Perspectives
Different variables in the analysis require
different perspectives
– Structural Analysis – examines the distribution of
power and the relationship between reward
– Integrative Analysis – has a developmental
orientation and examines what happens over time
– Strategic Analysis – employs game theory and
matrix games to analyze how predetermined
options influence people’s decision making
– Process Analysis – examines the link between
concession making and outcomes
– Behavioral Analysis – examines bargainers’ goals,
personality traits and predispositions
Effects Models
Effects approach examines the impact
of communication on negotiated
 4 classifications:
– Independent
– Mediating
– Moderating
– Limited
Effects Models (cont’d)
Classifications (cont’d)
– Independent effects model predicts that
communication directly impacts the outcome
(independent of other variables-after controlling for
– Mediating effects model predicts that
psychological, cultural and social variables impact
communication, which then impacts outcomes
• Different personality types will communicate differently
Effects Models (cont’d)
Classifications (cont’d)
– Moderating effects model predicts that
communication will only influence outcomes in
certain conditions
– Limited effects model predicts that
communication is basically error in the negotiation
• Does not typically examine interaction, just likely initial
choices based on pre-negotiation information
Effects Models Diagrammed
Psych, Soc,
Bargaining Strategies and Tactics
Negotiation Plans
 Prenegotiation Accounts
 Arguments
 Threats, Promises, Commitments
 Initial Bids, Concession Rates
Strategies and Tactics:
Negotiation Plans
Literally, a plan providing strategies for action
that will overcome perceived obstacles
– Pop tart commercial
Can be:
– Adaptive: revising the initial plan to strengthen it
• May include lowering one’s aspiration level, shifting to
coercive actions, and creating time pressures for the
– Interactive: offense and defense
• Considers needs, expectations and desires of opponent
• Allows development of counterstrategies to expected
objections, Allows development of obstacles to prevent
opponent from achieving goals
– Collaborative: all parties jointly construct the plan
• Typically only deals with procedural details (metanegotiation)
Strategies and Tactics:
Negotiation Plans (cont’d)
3 main goals of most bargainers
– Commodity goals – resource gains
• 4 Components to examine for successful
– Goals should be defined as interests, not singular
– Goals should be operationalized (quantifiable range)
– Goals should be flexible when considering type and
number of commodities
– Goals should be challenging (to retain commitment)
» If the goals are simple, why try hard?
Strategies and Tactics:
Negotiation Plans (cont’d)
3 main goals of most bargainers (cont’d)
– Commodity goals (cont’d)
• 3 common Obstacles to commodity goals
– Bargainer’s perceptions of the opponent
» Negotiation plan may be based on incorrect
– The bargainer
– Pressures of the negotiation context
Strategies and Tactics:
Negotiation Plans (cont’d)
3 main goals of most bargainers (cont’d)
– Relational goals
• necessary when productive relationship must remain
– Parent-child, husband-wife, etc.
• Difficult to achieve when bargainers do not like each
other, have more attractive alternative relationships
available or perceive little in common
– To overcome, must present friendliness, cooperative
bargaining moves, expressions of similarity and minimizing
appeal of other relationship options
Strategies and Tactics:
Negotiation Plans (cont’d)
3 main goals of most bargainers (cont’d)
– Face goals
• Positive face goals can maintain or restore
positive self-image and opponent-image
• Negative face goals can be used to make the
other person feel guilty about the negative
– Using accountability (judgment by the group)
Strategies and Tactics:
Prenegotiation Accounts
Such accounts are used to diffuse
conflict, but are preemptively planned
 3 Key components in effective accounts:
– Timing of delivery
– Perceived adequacy of the account
– Perceived sincerity of the account giver
• Baseball singing
Strategies and Tactics:
Prenegotiation Accounts (cont’d)
One typology (Bies) describes accounts used
by superiors to reduce reaction by subordinate:
– Causal Accounts
• Placing blame elsewhere (external locus of control)
• This course is not a W.
– Referential Accounts
• Referring to social, temporal or aspirational factors
– Others got the same answer; this is not the time; you should
rethink your career
– Ideological Accounts
• Appeal to shared values, belief systems
• Increase common ground, while decreasing perceived
• Emphasizing normative component
Strategies and Tactics:
Argumentative form (types of claims, reasons
and qualifiers) is adaptive
 Can study arguments and/or process
 Largely based on:
– Argumentativeness
• Personality trait that predisposes people to recognize
controversial topics and take a strong stance
– Verbal Aggressiveness
• Predisposition to attack opponent’s self-concept rather
than their position (like which logical fallacy?)
Strategies and Tactics:
Threats, Promises and Commitments
Threat – communicates an intention to
punish the target if it fails to concede
 Promise – a pledge to do, or not to do
something for the target
 Commitment – tells the opponent that
the bargainer will not budge, so the
opponent must do so
Strategies and Tactics:
Threats, Promises & Commitments
Credibility influences likelihood of success
when using threats and promises
– Consistent enforcement of threats/promises
(follow-through) will make future threats/promises
more credible
– A high status source will be more credible
– Credibility decreases when the threat/promise is
perceived by the opponent to be too costly to the
• I promise I will buy you all a trip to WDW
• I promise I will send you a postcard from WDW
• Monopoly
Strategies and Tactics:
Initial Bids and Concession Rates
What do I offer? What do I accept?
– Largely based on utility schedule
• Resistance points/aspiration level
– Influenced by image loss
• Bargainers who are concerned with image loss (in eyes
of constituents) will exhibit face-saving behavior (higher
demands, lower concessions)
– Time pressure and amount of elapsed time
• MLB lockoutS / WNBA
– Also influenced by opponent’s reaction to your
• The Plumbers
Strategies and Tactics:
Initial Bids and Concession Rates
Effects of Demands and Concessions
– Lower initial demands and faster concession rates
by one or both parties will increase timeliness of
• Unless opponent doesn’t reciprocate moves
– Large initial demand and slower concession rates
will modify the opponent’s aspiration level
– Inverted U-shaped relationship between initial
demands and average outcomes
Conflict Management
ADR = alternative dispute resolution
– You probably don’t want this; you’d rather solve
the dispute without lawyers, right?
Always start by trying to negotiate a
cooperative (win-win) solution
– Sometimes the “win” for the other party costs
nothing to you, such as building self-esteem
Two factors that make cooperation more
– Central Authority Figure (who can reward or
punish both parties)
– Shared ownership in the outcome
• (create a “straw man” to attack together and build trust)
Conflict Management (cont’d)
Two general types of bargaining:
– Competitive
– Cooperative
Competitive Bargaining
– Do competitive bargaining approaches always
result in one party “losing”?
– How do you compete without destroying the
relational goals? 4 suggestions :
• Use competitive tactics to defend basic interests rather
than a particular solution
• Signal concern and flexibility to the opponent along with
your competitive intentions
• Insulate competitive tactics from cooperative
– Good cop – bad cop
• Employ deterrent threats rather than compellent threats
– This connotes dissatisfaction for opponent’s position,
without implying necessity of a specific solution
Conflict Management (cont’d)
Cooperative Bargaining
– 5 suggestions (Fisher and Ury, 1981):
• Separate the people from the problem
– Address the person, not your people
– Listen to your opponent (do not prepare your next point)
– Misunderstanding/Misinterpreting can decrease success
• Focus on Interests rather than positions
– Again, the refrigerator
• Invent options for mutual gain
– Cuban Missile Crisis… (Thirteen Days)
• Employ objective criteria (standards) to measure each
party’s success by
• When opponent is more powerful… develop a BATNA
Conflict Management (cont’d)
BATNA stands for Best Alternative To a
Negotiated Agreement
– Before you begin a negotiation, know what
your options are
• Can you walk away from the deal?
• If so, when should you? What other choices do
you have?
• Consider the BATNA of your opponent
Persuasion in
Organizational Contexts
Influence Tactics
Why comply with your superior?
– People report perceptions of legitimacy
and expertise highest (and coercion
– Expert power shows the most consistent
relationship with high performance
– Coercive power was related to low
productivity and unrelated to performance
Three Types of Managers
 Bystanders
 Tacticians
Three Types of Managers
– Utilize an above-average amount of each
type of tactic (assertiveness, ingratiating,
upward appeals)
– They want to get a great deal out of others
in an organization
– Might come across as impetuous
Three Types of Managers
– Try not to get in the way of work (this can be good)
– In extreme instances, they risk being seen as
lacking power or competence
– Rely solely on reason
– Use facts and data in logical arguments
– Project an image of being rational and reasonable
Which supervisor is most effective?
Tactician approach is usually the best
 Major reasons why some supervisors are
more effective than others (Jablin, 1979)
– Better supervisors are more “communication
minded,” enjoy conversing in meetings and with
– Better supervisors are willing, empathic listeners;
they are approachable
– Better supervisors tend to ask or persuade rather
than tell, or demand
– Better supervisors are predisposed to give
subordinates more information; explanations for
– Better supervisors are considerate
Feedback and the SuperiorSubordinate relationship
Jablin (1978) examined such feedback with 5
general types of messages:
– Confirmation (providing the source with positive
content and positive relational feedback)
– Disagreement (negative content feedback positive relational feedback)
– Accedence (positive content feedback – negative
relational feedback)
– Repudiation (negative content feedback –
negative relational feedback)
– Disconfirmation (irrelevant content feedback and
irrelevant relational feedback)
Feedback and the SuperiorSubordinate relationship
General Conclusions from Jablin:
– Disconfirming messages were not
acceptable in these relationships
– Subordinates preferred message
responses from superiors that provided
positive relational feedback
– Reciprocity generally exists for confirming
messages, regardless of the openness of
the relationship
Upward Influence
The typical employee attempting to have
influence on the organization communicates
directly with the supervisor
 Both subordinates and superiors believe that
logic is the most common method of influence
 Superiors prove quite resistant to
subordinates who threaten or challenge the
authority of the superior (going over their
head, etc.)
 Subordinates believe that because of their
ideas, they were successful, while superiors
believe it was because of their relational
dynamics and their open-mindedness
Upward Distortion
Less Likely to occur in “autonomous”
 More likely to occur in “heteronomous”
 Less distortion if subordinate and
superior depend on each other
 To decrease, use increased trust and
Why and how information gets
To please the superior
 To tell the superior what they want them
to know
 Tell the superior what they think they
want to hear
 Tell the superior information that reflects
favorably on themselves
Next Time…
Projects DUE.
Do not email me Sunday
and expect an answer back
before class.