Database Systems
Dr. Don Goelman
Some History
Early Systems
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1960’s: ad-hoc programs give way to
DBMSs (IDS – C.W. Bachman)
1970’s: two big developments
 Systematization of the network model
(CODASYL/DBTG)
 Introduction of relational model (E.F. Codd,
CACM)
Three classical “Record Based”
Models
Hierarchical
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IMS
S2K
Network
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IDS
IDMS
Total
Adabas
DMS2
Relational
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System R
Ingres
QBE
Oracle
Access
Sybase
Foxpro
DB2
Informix
MySQL
SQL Server
Two Modern Models
Object
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ObjectStore
Objectivity
O2
Versant
Orion
Object-Relational
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UniSQL
Oracle8
Informix Univ. Server
 Illustra
 PostGRES
Current Areas of Exploration
ODBs and Object/Relational DBs
Distributed Databases
Client Server Architecture
GUIs
Data Warehouses
Data Mining
DB over the Web
XML
Big Data and NoSQL
Data Science
Literature
ACM TODS
ACM SIGMOD Record
IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and
Data Engineering
Data and Knowledge Engineering
DB Systems: Early History
Pre 1960’s
Event
1945: Magnetic tapes
developed (the first medium to
allow searching)
Consequence
Replaced punch cards and paper
tape.
1957: First Commercial
Computer Installed
1959: McGee proposed notion
of generalized access to
electronically stored data
1959: IBM Introduced the
Ramac System
Read data in nonsequential
manner and access to files
became feasible.
The 1960’s
Event
1961: The first generalized
DBMS- GE’s Integrated
Datasource (IDS) – designed by
Bachman popularized data
structure diagrams.
Consequences
Formed the basis for Network
Data Model developed by
Conference on Data Systems
Languages Database Task Group
(CODASYL DBTG)
1960’s continued
Event
Consequence
1965–70:
Generalized file management
systems developed by numerous
vendors
Information Management
System (IMS) developed by IBM
IMS DB/DC (database/data
communication) System was the
first large-scale DB/DC system
SABRE, developed by IBM and
American Airlines
Provided two-level
conceptual/user view
organization of data
Formed the basis for
Hierarchical Data Model
Supported network views on
top of the heirarchies
Allowed multi-user access to
data involving a communication
network
The 1970’s
Event
Database technology
experienced rapid growth
Consequences
Commercial systems followed
CODASYL DBTG propoal, but
none fully implemented it. IDMS
system by B.F. Goodrich,
Honeywell’s IDS II, UNIVAC’s
DMS 1100, Burroughs’s DMS-II,
CDC’s DMS 170, Phillip’s PHOLAS
and Digital’s DBMS 11.
Several integrated DB/ DC
Systems: Cincom’s TOTAL plus
ENVIRON/1. DBMS developed as
an academic discipline and
research area.
1970’s continued
Event
1970: The relational model is
developed by Ted Codd, an IBM
research fellow
Consequence
Laid foundation for database
theory
1971: CODASYL Database Task
Group Report
1975: ACM Special Interest
Group on Management of Data
organized first SIGMOD
international conference
Provided a forum for
dissemination of database
research
More 1970’s
Event
1975: Very Large Data Base
Foundation organized first VLDB
conference
1976: Entity-relationship (ER)
model introduced by Chen.
Research projects: System R
(IBM), INGRES (U.C. Berkeley),
System 2000 (U of Texas Austin), Socrate Project (U of
Grenoble, France), ADABAS
(Technical U of Darmstadt, W.
Germany).
Query Languages developed:
SQUARE, SQL, QBE, QUEL
Consequence
Provided forum for for
dissemination of database
research
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Database Systems - Villanova University